tv Balfour Seeds Of Discord Al Jazeera August 27, 2019 3:00pm-4:00pm +03
hello again everyone finnegan here in doha the top stories in al-jazeera turkey's president but it was in russia where he's meeting with president vladimir putin they're expected to discuss the war in syria moscow and ankara back opposing sides in the conflict. and reports now from ski near the russian capital moscow. i don't usually found you here for this fiery high level meeting between president are one and president putin 40 kilometers outside of moscow at a very spectacular air show president putin seems to be in a selling mood he has shown the turkish president his latest technology fighter jets airplanes amidst is also very spectacular show but it's not clear if the one
is in any mood to buy because he has been traveling to moscow hastily after a phone call last friday with president putin amidst the ask elating situation and he described the situation as a humanitarian disaster and even a threat to national security in turkey he wants president putin to rein in the syrian forces but president putin's spokesman has said that he does understand the concerns of for one but he can't let these rebels which he describes as terrorist just do whatever they want he wants to also control these rebel forces so it's not very sure how much compromise president putin will want to bring to the table today because even after this deal a year ago in sochi where militarized zone was agreed he feels that the turkish side doesn't really fulfill their promises of this arming the rebel forces
and make sure that this the men militarized zone is being contained we will hear more in the next few hours about the outcome of this meeting which has been urgently arranged between the 2 leaders iran's president says his country will not hold talks with the u.s. unless all sanctions are lifted and some romney's comments come a day after president ronald tromso that he was open to meeting with her. house by doing goddamn would bother doing it the 1st step is to remove sanctions without that this lock won't be open. to the iranian nation must be lifted all. legitimate and cruel if you lift the sanctions and apologize to iran then you would be a difference to ration this government is moving forward in line with this national interest we have been open to negotiation and the word agrees with this fact. china insists there was no recent contact between washington and beijing to discuss the trade war the comments came after the u.s.
president said there had been a phone call between the 2 sides hong kong's leader carolan is rejecting calls for her to step down police used water cannon and fired a live warning round over the weekend some protesters barricaded streets it's the 12th week of demonstrations activists are calling for a controversial extradition bill to be not just suspended but scraps and for alarm to resign and. the question of resignation there's also been arms that i think a responsible chief executive at this point in time should continue to hold the fort and do her utmost to restore law and order in hong kong some people have said that since there are continued violence we should stop communicating i said in my introductory remarks that that that was also another to extreme view that we should prepare for reconciliation in society by communicating with different people so i'm saying that yes we have to say no to violence we want to put out the end to the
chaotic situation in hong kong through law enforcement and so on but the same time we will not give up on building a platform for dialogue britain's main opposition leader jeremy corbyn said that he'll do everything he can to prevent the u.k. leaving the e.u. without a deal that includes calling a no confidence vote and britain's prime minister boris johnson's government coburn is leading cross party talks on how to avoid a no deal breaks its johnson's critics remain split over the best way to prevent briggs's. those are the headlines the news continues here on al-jazeera after balfour's seeds of discord next.
i. the voice to david ben-gurion declaring the establishment of the state of israel in maine 1948. the balfour declaration was a letter sent by british foreign secretary arthur balfour to a member of the british house of lords child on the 2nd of november 1917. this letter sent to a leading figure in the british jewish community 100 years ago had repercussions which even its authors cannot have imagined. whatever its real intentions it went on to have
a profound impact on the middle east and its people. and its effects still resonates across the region today. in 1914 these soldiers were fighting on the battlefields of europe in the 1st world war the allies britain france and russia fought the central powers of germany austria-hungary and the ottoman empire for 4 years but the land and sea war was not the only battleground. muscle was also being flexed behind closed doors as allies conspired how to redraw maps to their own advantage when the conflict eventually ceased. sir mark sykes for the
british and french. for the french plotted how to divide the arab lands of the ottoman empire assuming it would finally fall. the psychs pekoe agreement plan secretly to divide it into french and british fears of influence france taking most of the levant southern anatolia and the mosul area while the british extended their control over the southern levant expanding eastwards to baghdad and basra and all the nand between the arabian gulf and the french territory. historic palestine then still part of the ottoman empire was a bone of contention and would be put under international administration. in force. but. that falls under.
the ice. just raise. the men. or do. it for you. was of that all of them. with your to have for of can be are. russia i think the british felt that there had not been enough government involvement in concluding the states because agreement with the french and the process they had not really protected their interests well enough for a post world war era in which the british empire would continue to seek to be a dominant force in european affairs and so really officials across whitehall
including mark sykes and self felt it was a bad deal. have ilja go. at it in the future america havok so you need you on the free market does that mean and you hold your own. reference the one your home your new shoot fearful of seen walking people of well an article in the have been many who are living. and i many and i mean i look at that before and it's a huge significance that when they're making these discussions jews and scientists are not discussed jews were not to feature in the new at the middle east which was to be based on the idea of the arab nation. zionism was the movement supporting the reestablishment of a jewish homeland in the area defined as the historic land of israel. the movement was active in early 20th century london especially because of the
persecution of jews in russia and eastern europe. theodore heard so had found a design a movement in the late 1900 century but jewish people in western europe had not rushed to support it because they were integrating quite successfully into society zionists believed that all jews should someday returned to. that country one of the problems was that palestine belong to the ottoman empire and the ottoman empire was not clear that it wanted massive jewish immigration into palestine and the british government offered to let jews move unimpeded in great numbers into uganda if they wished. but in any event it really didn't happen and it didn't happen because a majority of scientists felt that hurtful was selling them out and that the only
place for jews to move back to were at least conscious zionist jews to move back to was palestine in this i think britain began to look at the zionist movement as a possible partner in justifying a reed to go she a sions of their agreement with the french you see for britain simply to claim territory against what they'd already concluded in the green that with france could create diplomatic problems for the british but if they were to make a claim to palestine not out of self interest but in order to advance a great historic ideal of the restoration of the jewish people to the legal homeland that this could justify an adjustment of the terms of the sites because. in a way that the french would accept the british wanted some have and more and more increasingly they felt that the jews held the key to winning the war. and so they had to figure out how to bribe the jews to support them.
sir mark sykes had succeeded in drawing the line he wanted from acre in the west to kirkuk in the east but for some in government this was not enough. the british were using the jewish national movement to secure palestine for themselves is this is what high vitamin is really good. defiant to open ears of 10 downing street in the foreign office in the colonial office and it's paving the way towards that critical decision in november of 1917 and so i think you can direct you can draw a direct connection between britain's sudden ignore legitimate of zionism an idea at ideal. and what they were dissatisfied with in the term the psychs because. i am fights was a chemistry lecturer in manchester who had become
a prominent member of the british zionist movement he was politically well connected and rubbed shoulders with senior figures in government so high in vitamin was russian by birth he was a chemist. and then he joined the zionist movement. he climbed in the zionist movement he moved to great britain before the war well before the war maybe 10 years before the war began he was not before the war very well known in the english zionist movement he was pretty well known in the world zionist federation but he was by no means the most visible zionist when world war one began in great britain. invites mainly to roots in his memoirs about having been introduced to a british government minister herbert samuel. samuel was jewish but
vitamine was apparently concerned that he might be anti zionist. however herbert samual turned out to be extremely receptive to vitamin and went on to write an official memo in 1950 setting out a number of different possibilities for palestine and the jewish people. and was. so. health minister. for the work and mandela. b.c.'s it was who were caught up with the car and for us the and. the last time have been. who where or when we are who would be. any markers. little bit on the cut up with africa. sure but there's still a philosophy in badminton tell how to help them
a lot and then let them a lot and hope fear only hoodie i would see the. year for last year. but then he suddenly had the leader who the commonwealth yannick am but he didn't find willing ears in whitehall or the colonial office for schemes that involved the establishment of a jewish state in palestine britain was really concerned with 2 things by the time that the 1st world war had broken out they wanted to win the war 1st and foremost this was an imperative for the survival of britain and its empire and secondly they wanted to ensure that coming out of the war victorious that their empire would benefit from the victory so at this stage i invites men and herbert samuels ideas about the rights of the jews to resettle in palestine. did not find much sympathy in the corridors of power in london. at this appointed fights monroe to
a friend asking whether there wasn't at least a discussion to be had about what he called the chance for the jewish people. i realize of course he went on we cannot claim anything we are much too atomized for it's. what the debate did do however was to throw together fights man the russian jewish immigrants searching for a homeland and refuge from persecution with herbert samuel and lord rothschild for members of the british jewish elite established in society and part of the political and capitalist class. so it isn't for the most part of course all of the community was actually in the minority but certainly most of all within the jewish elite because it threatened the notion of them as 100
percent committed members of british society and this was complete and that for somebody like edwin montague to become secretary of state for india for him zionism is his worst nightmare the idea that jews are not satisfied simply with being citizens of britain or other countries around the world they're always longing to go back to the land of israel for him he wanted to demonstrate that the jews of britain were 1st of foremost british it's important to remember that for people like rothschild zionism it actually been a threat you see the elite in british jewellery had fought for generations to gain acceptance in british society it was only with the arrival of disraeli that i can century that jews entered parliament and could rise to become prime minister and for people of. so high finance or banking interests the
real elite of the jewish community in britain their struggle to demonstrate their place in british society then design is with its claims that jews were a people apart and should be a nationalist movement in their own right or another with their early they embury army. and even a corrupt becky how to get. hold. of the when he had the arm movement go through it i wouldn't really be you know the feel of but i would be everyman german general up there and i do have the sheer will and no i must lean a bit of time even for my head a bandit a beer and sammy of blush who live in a south. the and if mark you have to say x. vitamin vien show him much of the love in your mind of the mental ability. keep
the interest ability to your. vitamin. the fim. vitamin that makes the difference and i think he was probably unique in his ability to persuade the leading british figures that the jews were in fact a vast sub to raney and influence which they were not. that all jews were zionists which was far from the truth and that therefore the big key to winning jewish support was to offer them palestine vitamin talked up the degree to which the jewish community supported zionism in order to get his message across to the government. but for the british it seemed to be about self interest about winning the war recognizing zionism would be closely linked to gaining global juice the
poor it objective and which should start its future resting so the british motives for supporting zionism will be we can boil it down to 2 elements of british self interest at that time not an emotional interest in scientists or a love of jews and the jewish plight in their desire for the return of the jews to the holy land no for very specific self interests matters of policy they were 1st of all all of the british government agreed that they wanted to mobilize behind britain and the allies this idea of jewish power in the world. they were all of the different policy elites in the war believe this in the notion that jews were tremendous influence in the corridors of power around the globe if the british government appeared to support zionism they would win over world jewry to their
side in order that entailed the british were convinced that zionism was really at the center of the jewish home. in may 916 sir mark sykes had agreed his tikrit deal with the french psychs picone would form the basis of the future carve up of the old ottoman empire. so he immediately turned his attention to palestine still part of the ottoman empire and how to use dynasty ambitions to outmaneuver the french. formal contact between the british government and the zionists followed he immediately phoned herbert samuel and told him about the plan and herbert samuel then phoned him vitamin and vitamin brought with him in a home sokolow this meeting took place on the 11th of april $916.00 it took place
at moses castors house in maida vale. and gaster wrote in his diary afterwards how proud he was that this meeting which he thought was the most important meeting that had ever taken place in the history of zionism had taken place at his house. mark sykes. ahead of our once she doesn't know my gust of law nowhere can and will must send the jelly hadia bus back then. rise one who only in the north who were in the fight and. the most disgusting very quickly understands that sykes is looking to gain support from suppose it jewish power in the world and gets to works with this idea and manipulates this to consolidate sykes's interest in science and we see actually the british government becomes very close already nazi 16 of issuing a public declaration in support for zionism and there in the end this doesn't
happen that year the planned sikes got herbert samuels to pass on to the zionist leaders involved british french administration of palestine and a charter guaranteeing british support for the line isn't. but his idea was rejected. they didn't want an anglo-french condominium in palestine they wanted the british to protect them not the french and that's because they thought that the french always sort of converted their colonized people into becoming frenchmen and what they wanted was to remain as self conscious jews and they thought that the british would leave them alone and let them do that and mushy help to live been begun by big circle of
a hurry to share a blue team. the world via him going in the basement not to meet committee got armor you did doesn't go to more to edit them it would get them back to hollywood the who you deem know you to name him remember bomber matter. robert. you know them. is. bolstered by their newfound credibility the british finest thought about making specific demands after the sykes meeting but events soon overtook them. on the 6th of december 1916 british prime minister asquith resigned. in the change of government arthur balfour became foreign secretary under prime minister david lloyd george. lloyd george.
as the half awake i walked away from us back recently was iraq. december. and i'll. be here with that you know see a year. to year one or. the. future completely if you could and which will be your own to the people saying oh for all woes busy of rather philosophical bent. and i think he wanted to think in theological terms he wanted to think in historical terms. and it was with that frame of mind i think that he approached the whole question seriously at the fall of. saruman. how are the.
moderates. very serious there was a lot of comic lloyd george. attire. while before those of us towards them. i mean because among men and the. david lloyd george. balfour and all of those who supported the battle declaration within the british government we can absolutely categorize as being riven with anti semitic thinking and not only that but the thinking behind the balfour declaration that drove them to the balfour declaration was from this anti semitic thought the idea of jewish power of jewish he said this and of a unified jewish attachment to zionism above all else.
whatever its basis the relationship between the british dynasty and the government would continue to grow throughout the 1917. leading to the declaration that would change the face of the middle east and ultimately determine the destinies of 2 different peoples. fly cats are airways and experience economy class like never before qatar airways
going places together. violence and discrimination are all too familiar to many women in india a reality too often reinforced by bollywood. but its leading star is throwing his weight behind the cause. of allegiance to the k.g.b. and using his celebrity to advocate for gender equality. the snake charmers on a con witness. on alleges eda. the ultranationalist marks connected with one of the world's worst humanitarian crises we doe as illegally maigret joining with the military to impose a deadly political agenda we have to flow to our nation what has happened to the engine that's one of the biggest stains on the country as a whole. is another religion this is the politics me and mark an unholy alliance on
al-jazeera. i'll again avery and filling in here in doha the top stories on al-jazeera turkey's president but i want as in russia where he's meeting with president vladimir putin are expected to discuss the war in syria moscow and ankara back opposing sides in the conflict. iran's president says his country will not hold talks with the u.s. unless all sanctions are lifted son rouhani is comments come a day after president trump said that he was open to meeting with him pass out but being god damn good bad or good the 1st step is to remove sanctions without that this lock won't be open all sanctions against the iranian nation must be lifted they are all illegitimate and cruel if you lift the sanctions and apologize to iran
then you would be a difference in this government is moving forward in line with its national interest we have been open to negotiation and the word agrees with this fact china insists there was no recent contact between washington and beijing to talk about the trade war the comments came after the u.s. president said there had been a telephone call between the 2 sides. hong kong's leader caroline is rejecting calls for her to step down police used water cannon and fired a live warning shot over the weekend that some protesters barricaded streets it's the 12th week of demonstrations activists are calling for a controversial extradition bill to be not just suspended but scrapped and for lam to resign thousands of people in sudan have been forced to abandon their homes to 2 heavy flooding at least $62.00 people have been killed and 100 injured the health ministry says the roads are blocked and many buildings have collapsed a lot of farmland is underwater the military has been deployed to help the floods
follow 2 months of heavy rain. british opposition leader jeremy colvin says he'll do everything he can to prevent the u.k. from leaving the e.u. without a deal that includes calling a no confidence vote in britain's prime minister boris johnson colvin is leading cross party talks on how to avoid on the deal briggs's hundreds of venezuela's a protested in colombia at the border demanding to be allowed into ecuador they were blocked off the new visa controls went into effect on monday ecuador has joined peru and chile in trying to curb the number of venezuelans fleeing economic and political turmoil. i have a little over 25 but it's about as get you back to balfour seeds of discord. the 1st world war pitted britain france and russia against germany austria hungary and the ottoman empire the british in the shape of the diplomats or mark sykes were
determined to divide autumn in territory in a way that best suited them once the war was over for their own strategic interests . by 917 the war was shifting in the allies favor and in the middle east the british were moving through sinai towards the borders of historic palestine. further north the russian revolution in february 1917 cast doubt on russia's continued involvement in the war. as britain and france tried to outmaneuver one another the british zionist movement took on increasing political importance. sikes wants to get back in touch with scientists and think about how to incorporate
so it is an impetus planning for palestine. and at this moment we see a hugely important meeting taking place in the home of moses gaston made a vow in february of 1917 and this is the point in which sykes meets for the 1st time haim fight sman in the home circle of. another zionists in which it's discussed what the zionists are looking for and the british interest in zionism so he had to bring the zionists along without divulging what were the secret agreements that britain and france had come to with regard to palestine which was that they would jointly administer parts of palestine at this meeting for the british government was sykes and herbert samuel he was there on the other side there were. vitamin and sokolow and there was moses gaster and he brought
a couple of his allies because he realised that vitamin was beginning to push him out of the way the other very important figure was james rothschild who attended this meeting. at the meeting it became clear to sykes that vitamin not gaster was the most important zionist. this is also the moment where most of the cast is dislodged. sykes's part on the french side pico hadn't liked best guessed it been insistent that there should be a jewish state and nothing less coming into being after the war and peace. clearly wanted scientists who were much more willing to compromise with the interests of the great powers and the bison was certainly happy to fit that bill. the meetings between the zionists and the government seemed to give momentum to the
idea of british support for a jewish homeland in palestine and their potential role in its administration. but the secret agreements between britain and france which formed the basis of the future division of the ottoman empire planned to put palestine under international administration any change would have to be negotiated with france. niamh so-called of emerged as the man to talk to the french and horse look at where the. b. thought we are a. bit with should he give. me a circle of became the acknowledged lead diplomat for zionism and all the accounts say that he had an extremely sort of elegant bearing and wore very fine clothing and that his manners were polished and polite and
smooth silky smooth so that he could talk. on an equal basis with the representatives of the german kaiser or the british government or whatever so the day after the meeting. between sykes and the zionist leaders sykes brought sokol to meet the french diplomat pekoe what sikes wanted was for suckle. to a persuade pekoe that zionism must be taken seriously that zionism really was the key to winning the war. and that the zionists would only help the allies win the war if
britain was the main power in palestine not france for 2 adults because they didn't particulate q. or may. so called off without false. won't quite. put out for the core i've. received. and also mossad. there's not a good office a course a record of that they are home but not on their degree other might tell you the 3 of them and then psych snuff saw in a circle of you know what a w and a no our friends are or your mother had this year can last for say my more or less and british cabinet or that often or at the station of friends so we were at before i left cabin at the english 0 or look in already different so we into a lot of cities it's hard to know how much influence sykes ultimately had over
british policy making he was given more prominence in british policy making around the middle east during the war years than he ever deserved he was a relatively ill educated inexperienced man whose only connection to the art of the world had been as a tourist. so for this man to be playing such a role in the holes of power over deciding british policy towards the near east seems to us today to be anomalous indeed ridiculous. regardless of psych's role things continue to progress for the zionists and in june 1917 british foreign secretary arthur balfour asked high in vitamin to present his demands as a declaration and promise to try and persuade his government to adopt its. the leading zionist form the political committee and drafted their demands and then submitted them to the british government. this original document was one of the
1st drafts written at the imperial hotel in london on the 17th of july 1917. it also introduced a new term and concept the national home of the jewish people. so in the initial side this drafting of the declaration. there were protests most saw as leaders to no one cycle of that there's no mention of the terminology of a jewish state that is said that talking about a national home as this is a trial of what the size trying to achieve and so close response was that we mustn't go too far we have to take small steps we have to go with what is acceptable to the british government at this time and then slowly slowly we can advance our course once we have this in hand.
if you look at what i learned the only knowledge that had been could be a. certain element help that i understood. from sorts. of things. on the 18th of september 1917 there was a meeting of the british war cabinet the foreign secretary arthur balfour was absent. the secretary of state for india edwin montague who was jewish strongly disagreed with the declaration. he was opposed to zionism and said i deny that palestine is today associated with the jews or properly be regarded as a fit place for them to live montague thought a french to clear ration for courting zionism in june 1917 was anti semitic and
negotiated changes to the british version as it went through several drafts. so you got a battle. there are that the world at. war are the last. allisat adam assessment of corker c s c. yes good thing. we. are both there on the whole. she will look forward to. what people gonna. be. the world. a few days later secretary of state for war vi counts milner and the jewish
politician philip magnus sent a modified version to the cabinet it incorporated some of montague's changes. including the caviar quote nothing shall be done that might prejudice the rights and political status enjoyed by such jews who are fully contented with their existing nationality and citizenship. drafting especially by a board millner the appeared by september was closer to the language that would eventually be adopted in november of 1917 namely speaking not about power stein as a whole. but. i sort of presence in palestine on behalf of the jews which is quite different
cannot call can we be liable for it how money for. nothing. international. a literary if. there and look at all in national. but no not the national home and i would not the national yanni what i'm calling leo would be fearful of the and. the committed zionists want to ensure the declaration was clear that the whole of historic palestine would be a national homeland exclusively for the jewish people. the latest draft was sent to high invites men who in turn center to the zionist movement in the united states for their feedback. there was some consultation you know during the summer of 1917 with the united states and in
the early drafts there. the imprint of the zionist elements in britain would have referred to palestine in its entirety as being for some sort of jewish had to be and those elements were modified before the drafting was finalized another key part of the terminology that emerged out of the drafting was in some british redrafting where sort of for the jewish people it was written the jewish race eventually this was taken out but i think it's very revealing that british officials wanted to use this kind of terminology because after all this was how they understood the jews of the world as being a racial group when that world it tremendous power and also could be inspired all
together as one unit behind the cause of scientism supported by britain and the allies it's striking that the existing arab people in the region were not named at all they're simply called the quote existing non jewish communities in palestine the 3 point but. so yeah we have a little idea but that usually the men tell the secret is a hot sauce for the good middle to the community no one's really the owner sheepmen but you know there's obviously the north meets you don't could it was she we just if you you know bother the party keek. or council operated. by october 19th 17 the final draft of the balfour declaration was ready and waiting only british government final approval. there was a rumor that germany was about to issue a similar declaration supporting the rights of the jews in palestine when bell for
he rushed to get his final draft discussed at the cabinet meeting on the 31st of october 1919. so when we think about the centenary of the balfour declaration everyone considers 2nd of november 19th 17 as the moment of the day creation itself but it was actually agreed to by the british cabinet on the 31st of october and this was a hugely significant meeting and in the minutes of that meeting balfour ri it's rates the principle reasons for supporting saw it isn't and highlights it's expected propaganda effects amongst jews around the world particularly in the united states and in russia the argument was was put forward most strongly by lord balfour at the meeting of october 31st and what he argued was that
issuing this declaration would be extremely helpful for the british in solidifying the support of the united states and also in countering propaganda from germany the critical thing to remember about british diplomatic pronouncements is that what one individual says does not represent the views of the government as a whole and you will find many different points of view among british officials in the years 1701800 and right into the early years of the mandate but the british were very clear that they had not promised statehood to the zionist movement they had no interest in doing so the british did not support jewish nationalism they did not support arab nationalism they supported british imperialism but this is also the meeting where lord curzon. there's a member of the walk up in it disquiet about the possible effects of supporting side ism on the palestinian arab population and the palestinian opposition is
completely disregarded lord curzon wrote a paper to the cabinet asking what was quote to become of the people of this country. there were over half a 1000000 syrian arabs a mixed community with arab hebrew canaanite greek egyptian and possibly crusaders blood they and their forefathers of occupied the country for the best part of 1500 years they own the soil they profess the mohammedan faith they will not be content either to be explode jewish immigrants or to act merely is he was of wood and drawers of water to the latter. but his prescient remarks fell on deaf ears it's like who tells highlights that at the end of the war cabinet meeting dr it's a boy as though they've witnessed the birth of the agreement to create jewish national home as a baby in the middle east. the final
draft of the balfour declaration was 67 words long. his majesty's government view with favor the establishments in palestine of a national home for the jewish people and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object it being clearly understood nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non jewish communities in palestine all the rights and political status enjoyed by jews in any other country. i should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the zionist federation you all sincerely are for james balfour. in terms of international law it really has very little standing in international
law you know treaties between nations have significance. but governments after an issue policy statements statements of intention about what they plan to do and those who really don't have any standing. as a matter of of law for britain this was. suppose you would say a statement of its intention as to what it would do if it were to take over belostoma which of course it had not yet done as of november of 1917 it's going to go to whether you like that. she. will come i'm sure of britannia if. it be so though because you're my own. show yeah for royalty only 2 years after the declaration
a church leader in jerusalem wrote to british prime minister lloyd george about jews in palestine trying to control holy sites. to jews russia and eastern europe. this exchange suggested that britain felt it had not promised a jewish state but simply a place for them to live alongside the arabs. when the league of nations set out the british mandate in palestine in 1923 it made britain responsible for implementing the balfour declaration. as a result jewish immigration to palestine in. priest as did arab opposition to it expressed in a series of palestinian protests against britain in the 1920 s. they understood the people of palestine to be muslims and christians but did not imagine that they would constitute a national community that would seek national independence and after the war very
quickly when it becomes clear that palestinian arab nationalists immobilizing against zionism. the british government a quick to see a major problem the balfour declaration had put in train a series of events that began to signal its deep flaws arab descent built to the 3 year revolt between 193619398 was a nationalist uprising against the british administration demanding arab independence and the end of jewish immigration it was on the pill commission of 1937 that the british 1st recognized that instead of balancing communities they had set in motion a rivalry between incompatible national movements jewish and palestinian arab. and it was at that point that they try to solve the problem by dividing palestine into 2 states arab and jewish through a partition plan and i think there you have the 1st recognition or admission from
british officials of the failure of the balfour declaration. in maine 1939 the british government published a policy document on palestine called a white paper it abandoned the partitioning of palestine into 2 states and called instead for an independent palestine in which arabs and jews would share government . it limited jewish immigration to $75000.00 for 5 years and said that the arab majority should determine future immigration levels. it's also said that balfour had not meant to create a jewish state at the expense of the arabs any more than the mcmahon his team correspondent 24 years before had promised an arab state to shareef hossain of mecca but the white paper met opposition and was dropped. the british government a quick to see a major problem but there's no way that they can back away from support for zionism
because this becomes the basis for their justification for being in the holy land their commitment to supporting the movement in the balfour declaration which becomes in shrines in international law in the terms of the mandate for palestine so the british stuck with zionism they didn't believe that scientists wanted independent jewish state hood and after the war became very clear that actually the vast majority of scientists didn't only want statehood they expected. i think if we're trying to assess whether or not britain's policy towards zionism in the 1st world war served british interests or not the 1st thing we have to appreciate is the key reason they supported it was based on an incorrect idea they believed that they could mobilize something that they saw as jewish power around the world behind their light course so 1st of all that was entirely wrong and didn't happen because the jewish power is fake is false.
in september 1939 german expansionism led to the 2nd world war over 60000000 people died including between 5 and 6000000 jews the majority in nazi concentration camps. the british mandate ended at midnight on the 14th of may 1948 and immediately the formation of the state of israel was announced justified by the terms of the balfour declaration issued 31 years before. while israelis celebrated the birth of their nation 700000 palestinians were forced into camps and exile a family done a lot of ground when you're not destroyed and because with your needs are and are going to be done you know you know they're coming. for palestinians the balfour declaration represents the moment an imperial power
hello there if you've got a shot in sections of south america and i've got the dry conditions for the dry season across much of central and southern brazil some tampa. bay and we will actually have another front pushing in from the south towards but as we go into wednesday woman air ahead of that 24 degrees and staying very well missiles going for the next few days which is well above the average for this time of year then it to central america and the caribbean they want to be ready we are focusing on is this it is tropical storm dorian making its way across the barbados staying as a tropical storm right now we have winds at about 85 kilometers an hour gusting just over $100.00 and it is expected to continue to strengthen to go through tuesday into wednesday it is bringing some very heavy amounts of rain it's a small storm so the spread is not as large as it could be so that is some good news however by wednesday we do expect this to become a minimum strength the overseas strong winds but it will continue to produce some
very heavy amounts of rain and it is particularly close to pressure rico we don't think it's going to make landfall here but even so it's close enough to produce. and we could well see mudslides or landslides and then after that it's just a case of really keeping a close eye on the forecast track and of see the strength we'll keep you updated. the weather sponsored by catalona. al-jazeera explores prominent figures of the 20th century and how libel reigns influenced the course of history was the cuban revolution communist away feel castro is a feudal eastern not a communist or just for want of his country che wanted international revolution there came a point when the relationship came to an end the icons of revolution who changed the course of latin american politics. and fidel castro face to face on al-jazeera .
this is al-jazeera. hello i'm adrian for getting this is that it was live from doha coming up for the next 60 minutes a syrian government forces backed by moscow battled to retake the last rebel stronghold in the province turkey's president is in russia for talks on the fighting that. iran's president says the united states must 1st lift all sanctions before any talks can happen. china says it has no record of a phone call between beijing and washington about resuming trade talks plus. i'm done live like.