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tv   Witness  BBC News  July 29, 2017 1:30pm-2:01pm BST

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there's a baby in the house. this whole episode of casualty was filmed all in one go, so that's one continuous shot with one handheld camera for a full 48 minutes. filming a storyline with real—time action throws up all manner of challenges. so why did they do it? well, it's the closest the show can get to reflect the nhs front—line in its unedited, rawest form. you take it easy. you look like you've been through the wars yourself. has anyone said anything about the baby? it took two weeks of rehearsals for the cast and crew, and then eight full—length takes were filmed, and it's the last one of those which will make it to air tonight. casualty is on bbc one at 9:05pm tonight. was let's catch up with the weather for the weekend. good weather to be indoors, not
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looking great for many us, rain on the way, a bit sunshine earlier, but now the weather is rapidly going downhill across the south, really soggy. downhill across the south, really soggy. this is the sunshine we had earlier, lovely weather in places, but now it is coming in from the atlantic, the south—west, engulfing the uk with cloud, and this rain has already reached cornwall, devon, central and southern england, rain and strong winds for a time. it is not going to be a wall of water into it right across the country, the rain will wax and wane, it may stop and then come back again, but suffice to say it is a soggy one and not perfect if you have got plans for the garden or anything like that. tomorrow, wherever you are, a story of sunny spells and showers, lots of showers across the uk. the extreme south—east, maybe kent, will
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get away with it, but for the rest of us, downpours galore. hello, this is bbc news, the headlines at 1:30. angry clashes in east london during a protest over the death of a man who was restrained by police last week. president trump describes his new chief of staff, retired military generaljohn kelly, as a true star. he takes up the position after reince priebus stood down from the post. north korea tests an intercontinental ballistic missile it says is capable of striking the entire united states. president trump describes the action as reckless and dangerous and carries out its own missile exercises with south korea. it's emerged that uk universities‘ pension fund has a deficit that has grown to more than £17 billion. pensions experts say universities may have to reduce benefits for members or increase tuition fees for students to fill the black hole. now on bbc news, witness.
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hello, i'm lucy hockings. welcome to witness, here at the british library in london. this month, we have anotherfive people have witnessed extraordinary moments of history first hand. we'll be talking about the legalisation of homosexuality in britain 50 years ago. a breakthrough for women in the men's world of racing, and, in a moment, the russian ballet star rudolf nureyev defected to the west. but first, we go back to a turning point for china. china was wracked with a civil war between communists and the nationalists.
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translation: i never even thought about joining the communists. i followed the nationalist party all the way. i'm 99 years old, and i still haven't changed my mind about that. for most people, life was wretched. someone had to rescue china from these miserable conditions. there were two men willing to try. one was chiang kai—shek, who was leader of the nationalist troops. the other was mao zedong, who wanted to turn china into a communist state. the two men were to become bitter rivals. translation: chiang kai—shek was a patriot. we worshipped him back then. we were probably influenced by germany's worshipping of hitler. we worshipped our leader too. i was a head of a battalion in nationalist army
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and fought against the chinese communists in the civil war. chinese people fighting each other, it was a complex situation. it was all about which path china should take for the future. we thought they were the chinese traitors. in the civil war, chiang kai—shek made many mistakes. mao zedong also made mistakes, but chiang kai—shek made more than mao did. i was involved in one of the last big battles. we suffered 200,000 artillery shells, but i survived all of that. the nationalists had the military advantage, but our soldiers were too spread out. mao zedong won, and chiang kai—shek lost.
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but mao didn't win completely, and chiang didn't lose completely. by the autumn of 1949, the communists had driven the nationalists out of all the major cities. they fled to the island of taiwan. translation: you could say leaving mainland china was the lowest moment in his life, but he never accepted defeat. i worked with chiang kai—shek very closely for five years. i really respected him. he was very strict, but he was always very good to me. chiang kai—shek‘s life was very orderly. he would get up at 6am every day. he didn't smoke or drink. he was very disciplined. he issued a lot of orders. to be honest, so many that it was hard to keep track of them!
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some people say chiang kai—shek was a dictator. but this is unfair, and it's slander. but because we were still against the communists in mainland china, he did impose martial law. obviously, that is antidemocratic, but it was to protect taiwan. his goal wasn'tjust to make taiwan independent. he wanted to achieve freedom and democracy for the whole of china. he never gave up. he told us, "don't ever think we've lost the mainland." "marxism will eventually fail." history proved him right. chiang kai—shek died in taiwan ini975. general hau pei—tsun went on to become the head of the army and eventually became
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the country's premier. next, injuly, 1961, rudolf nureyev, one of the world's greatest ballet dancers, defected to the west while on tour in europe. i remember him as a great dancer — as a great personality in many ways. he had enormous technical prowess and enormous charisma. this kind of stylistic dancing, with unique movements and stage presence, is something we have not seen before and very rarely since. it shows you the choreography and the genius of la boheme. the genius of rudi.
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i travelled to russia a lot in those days. when i went to leningrad, when i went to the performances at the kirov theatre, he was there, of course. he was recognised in russia, the ussr, as one of the great dancers. no question about that. when i went to london and i started to negotiate with the russians, and they agreed to send this company to england for a season. this is an original poster for the first appearance of the kirov ballet, or the mariinsky ballet. among the stars you can see nureyev. no, he never turned up this one. they went to paris and, of course, from paris, they were coming through to london, and we didn't expect anything, we just went to the airport. on 16th june 1961, rudolf nureyev
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set off for the airport to fly to london with the rest of the company on the next leg of their tour. he didn't know that soviet authorities had decided he was a security risk and were planning to send him back to russia instead. at the last minute, rather than board the plane to russia, nureyev broke away from his minders and asked the airport authorities for asylum in france. he jumped over the barrier and decided to defect. nureyev‘s defection caused a worldwide sensation. he became known as the man who had pierced the iron curtain. i think a simple question of being by nature, by temperament, wild, and being provoked into going back to moscow when he was looking forward to going to london. he was totally disinterested in politics. he was interested in art and his own glory. but the idea of communism is... it was not a factor for him. at the tender age of 23,
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rudolf nureyev found himself of the centre of the media spotlight, which would not dim for years to come. actually, i am a romantic dancer, but i would like to try modern things — every different way. he was able to mesmerise the world of ballet. he transformed the whole aspect, the whole scene of ballet. it's impossible to overestimate the influence — it was unique, certainly, to this very day. rudolf nureyev died
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of complications from aids in 1993. victor hochhauser is still working as a ballet promoter. now, in july 1990, indigenous canadians spent months in a stand—off with the country's security forces over plans to build a golf course complex on top of a burial ground. mohawk activist ellen katsi'tsa kwas gabriel was there. to see the tanks coming in... we even had the fighter jets flying over us. the mood was very tense. this is all for a golf course. this was all for some group of rich people, the elite, and their playground. like many other indigenous peoples, we call the earth our mother. the place where our ancestors rest is extremely important. they wanted to extend
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their nine—hole golf course into an 18—hole course. but at the same time, they also wanted to dig up our burial ground to extend their parking lot. we set up a blockade on a secondary dirt road. at that time, the majority of people at the barricades were women. we are matrilineal, our lineage comes from our mothers, and we are the ones who are supposed to protect the land. it is the duty of the men to protect the people. we said we would go to the front, and the men said they would watch us and protect us if anything happened. on the morning ofjuly11th, we were interrupted at 5:15 in the morning by a swat team, and so we went towards the front of the barricade — towards the highway — with our hands in the air to make sure that they saw
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we had no weapons. but they still matters with a lot of aggression and a lot of force. what i said to them was that this is our land and we have every right to be here. they were not too happy with that — that is why they wanted to talk to a man, because i guess the women were being very unreasonable to them. originally, people said they would be no weapons, but there were individuals who carried their weapons. we couldn't do anything about it. we said it was a peaceful barricade. around 8:30, the police started firing tear gas and concussion grenades at us. concussion grenades — for those who do not know — sound like gunshots. they're quite a loud noise. i had to tell some of the people i was with to run, you know, "let's run for cover." it was scary because we didn't know if anyone was killed — on both sides. the police force continued to block the roads of people coming in or out. they prevented food, medicine.
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they were quite aggressive and always provoking. it was a siege, a 78—days siege. well, we did decide to end it. we just had enough and we said, "we're going back to our homes." september 26th was when it supposedly finished. a big melee happened. some of the soldiers had their bayonets on, because they were totally afraid of the people who were coming out. there were a lot of arrests on that day. this ain't a surrender either! we're still not surrendering, because the land dispute is still in full force, it's not been settled. i mean, the golf course sparked a discussion about the real issues that indigenous people have been fighting for for centuries, which is land dispossession, protection of our languages and culture, our way of life.
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so it woke up people. i would say it woke up people. ellen is still campaigning for indigenous rights. remember, you can watch witness every month on the bbc news channel, or catch up on over 1,000 radio programmes on our online archive. next, we're going back tojuly 1967, when the british parliament passed a bill to decriminalise homosexuality. before then, being gay in this country was notjust illegal — it was widely seen as a disease. witness has been to liverpool to meet the radio presenter pete price, who was sent for aversion therapy to try to cure him of his homosexuality. it was very difficult growing up in the ‘60s as a gay man, because to touch another man, to hold, to feel, to have emotions, you could go to prison. archive: for many of us, this is revolting —
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men dancing with men. homosexuals in this country today break the law. it was very dangerous at that time as well, because queer bashers were out and people were getting blackmailed and people committed suicide. it was a very sad time. i was 18, going on 19, when my motherfound out that i was a homosexual, and she took it badly, then went to the doctors. and the doctors told us, "there is a cure." i've now since found out it was called aversion therapy. didn't know anything about it, so mum said, "will you do it?" i said, "yeah, for you, i'll do it." they put me in a mental institute. in those days, they were called a loony bin. they weren't psychiatric wards. this had bars on the window. i was very, very frightened. so i went in to see the psychiatrist, and he had an old—fashioned tape recorder, reel to reel, and he described all the sexual acts
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that gay people did, using graphic language, graphic language, to make you feel disgusting. then they put me in a room. i still didn't know what was going to happen to me, i really didn't know, except they asked me what i drank, and in those days i drank stout, guinness. i had a male nurse in there, there was no windows, and they had a stack of what they called "dirty books". they were men in bathing costumes. there was nothing erotic about it in any shape orform. so i'm supposed to look at the books, listen to the tape, which the nurse was operating, with his vile conversation that i had with the psychiatrist, and he was giving me guinness. halfway through the hour he injected me, which made me violently ill. so i asked, "could i use the bathroom?" he said, "no, just use the bed." i was violently sick and defecated in the bed, and i'm lying in own faeces, my own vomit,
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feeling incredibly ill. i was a frightened young man, 18 going on 19. i was very, very scared. i wasn't thinking of a cure, ijust thought i was going to die cos this was torture. at the end of 72 hours, i had nothing left. i just wanted out, and i decided i'd had enough. "i volunteered to come in, i'm volunteering to leave." i rang a pal of mine to get me out, and i stank, i stank of filth. i got a bath, and i must have got eight hours of trying to scrub the filth off me. after the treatment, i decided enough was enough, and i woke up one day and said, "i am what i am, i've got to be who i am and accept who i am." i channelled the way i was through my entertainment. all the big stars i've worked with.
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and i learnt to be who i was, and i became outrageous, and that was the way i got acceptance. you're lovely. 0h, got a brother? i think i've been happy with myself as a homosexual, but i actually don't believe that i belong anywhere. i can never forgive what they did to me, ever. pete price still presents a popular evening radio show in liverpool. finally this month, in 1977, racing car driver janet guthrie became the first woman to compete in the prestigious indianapolis 500 motor race. she spoke to witness about competing as a driver in a male—dominated sport. archive: race drivers are a special breed of american folk hero. they have always been men — until janet guthrie. i had no house, no husband, no jewellery, no insurance.
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i had one used—up race car. i was playing in a millionaire‘s sport from the very beginning, and not having been born with a trust fund, i learned how to build my own engines and do my own bodywork. i thought there was a reasonably good chance that i would be successful at it, because i wanted it a lot, i loved the sport. it was the passion of my life, really. part of the fun is to accept the risk and deal with it gracefully and well. you have to have an interest in what it's like out there at the limits of human capability. i was saying to myself, you know, "you really must come to your senses and make some provision for your old age." and that was the point at which the phone rang and a voice completely unknown to me said, "how would you like to take a shot
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at the indianapolis 500?" it was sometimes said that the indianapolis 500 wasn't the most important race — it was the only race. that's how most of the united states feels about it. over 400,000 people showed up. you can't imagine how many people that is until you see them in person. when i got my big chance at the top levels of the sport, it made a huge commotion. they simply hadn't had the experience of running against a woman, and they were sure i was going to kill them all. all i had to do at the beginning was open up a newspaper, and there was some other driver saying that his blood was going to be on the official‘s hands. seriously, when i say commotion, it was big. oh, i was so happy.
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i was happy that i had put a car in the field for the indianapolis 500. i think a lot of drivers would tell you the first time you make the field at indianapolis is a moment you will never forget. of course, then you figure out what you really want to do is win the thing. you're thinking, who's behind you, what are their driving habits, who's ahead of you, what mistakes are they likely to make? on the first lap, you just really want to keep yourself out of any trouble. in that race, i had a mechanicalfailure. when we finally decided the car was not going to be fixable, i left the pits and headed back to the garage. there was a lot of enthusiasm in the stands at that point. janet is not a newcomer to car racing. my best finish at indianapolis
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was ninth in 1978, with a team i formed and managed myself. my best finish in indycar racing was fifth at milwaukee. i wasn't racing to prove anything about women, because the fact that i was a woman, in my opinion, had nothing to do with it. a racing driver was what i was, right through to my bone marrow. in 2006, janet guthrie was inducted into the international motor sports hall of fame. that's all from us this month. i hope you'lljoin me next month, back here at the british library. we'll have five extraordinary accounts of history through the eyes of the people who were there. for now, from witness, goodbye. some of us today were teased with a
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little bit of sunshine, but now things have changed, the clouds thickening, and we have got somewhat weather on the way. but love at this lovely picture from lowestoft in east anglia, it is in force rain, but not until later on. mostly southern areas today, or least during the afternoon that will get the rain, but this evening areas further north will get the weather later. here is the sunshine on the weather picture, clear skies here, but this cloud is rain bearing, so it has been raining in cornwall, devon, right across the south of
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england, just about nudging into the south midlands, and this is the scene at around four o'clock, some heavy rain there as well. i do not think it will be happy all the time, it will even ease at times and back again. to the north, a different story, the midlands, northern england, northern ireland and scotland, sunshine and showers, you cannot rely on dry weather at all. as far as the cricket is concerned, at the oval, there is rain on the way, so that is that. rain moving into south—western parts of england, a heavier pulse through wales in the midlands, birmingham, yorkshire, and by the time of the early hours, you can see the rain from hull to newcastle, whereas in the south and will be drying out by this stage. in the north—west here, all the while it will be sunshine and showers, well, not sunshine at night, obviously, but you know what i mean! low pressure obviously, but you know what i mean!
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low pressure across obviously, but you know what i mean! low pressure across the uk on sunday, a couple of them, we are stuck between these weather fronts, all sorts happening, there will be showers hit and miss, sunny spells in between, showers across the west, and during the afternoon though showers will progress further eastwards as well. because the wind is blowing like soap from the south—west, the showers will be drawn in that direction, which means that the extreme south—east may escape the showers, you may end up having a glorious day. but he will probably have at least one to light showers. into monday, low pressure still in charge, most of next week is looking and settled, and as far as the eye can see does not look like the weather is going to be settling down any time soon, we will have to wait for quite some time before that happens. so yeah, rain today, and showers tomorrow. bye— bye. this is bbc news. the headlines at 2pm. violence breaks out in east london as protesters throw fireworks and bottles, angry at the death
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of a 20—year—old man restrained by police last week. more turmoil at the white house, donald trump names generaljohn kelly as his next chief of staff after days of public infighting. north korea boasts that its latest missile test proves the whole of the us mainland is within range of its weapons. uk universities' pension fund deficit doubles to more than £17 billion in the last year. a pensions' expert says universities may have to reduce benefits for its members, or increase tuition fees
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