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tv   100 Women Interviews  BBC News  November 20, 2018 12:30am-1:01am GMT

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is under arrest in japan. the chairman of the japanese car giant, as well as mistubishi and renault, is being investigated over claims he under—reported his own earnings. unconfirmed reports say he failed to declare $41; million over five years — half his actual earnings. fighting has broken out once more in yemen, striking a blow to efforts to end 3.5 years of devastating conflict. saudi—led coalition warplanes have bombed houthi rebel in the port of hodeidah. and this video is trending on bbc.com... it shows huge waves crashing into an apartment block on the seafront in the canary island of tenerife. much of the island has been affected by severe flooding. stay with bbc world news. now on bb news yalda hakim talks to the former australian prime minister, julia gillard, for the 100 women interviews. julia gillard made history when she became australia's first female prime minister in 2010.
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but her three years in office were overshadowed by misogynistic attacks from her opponents and dysfunction within her party. since leaving politics, she has used her experience to help advance women and girls around the world through the promotion of education and leadership. in this special 100 women interview, i ask her to draw on her personal experiences and what advice would she give women who are struggling to break through their own glass ceilings. let's start right from the beginning. you were born into a working—class family from wales. yourfamily emigrated working—class family from wales. your family emigrated to australia when you work for. your father had to leave school as a teenager to get work and then he climbed the professional ladder in australia but what he instilled in you and your sister was this understanding of the
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value of education. is that what has driven you professionally? yes, in many ways it has. we would thought every day of school was a privilege and both my parents left school early to different reasons. dad for poverty and mum because she was very unwell. there was no system that to support her. it was this love of education that led me to take the first politically active steps, which were a long time ago now. an undergraduate at adelaide university, in my second year. there we re university, in my second year. there were some big education funding cutbacks from a conservative government and i thought that was really wrong so i got involved in a protest campaign so if it had not been that, who knows whether i would have got to the technique involved at the level that i ultimately did. you trade as a lawyer in quite a
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fierce environment. did that prepare you for your political career?” fierce environment. did that prepare you for your political career? i was 01’ was you for your political career? i was or was involved in putting arguments. i was a high school debate, a nerdy kid. i liked student politics, the cut and thrust of it. you would have little elections and you would have to put forward your case and tried to persuade people of it and of course the law gives you the opportunity to sharpen your skills. those things came together to help. by that time i was standing up to help. by that time i was standing up in the house of representatives was tried to put a case before the government. you are seen as a trailblazer, history maker. australia's first female prime minister. since leaving office, you have said the women wanting to go into politics, go for it but that the reason these other bit, the misogyny, the sex bit, don't pretend
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that it does not exist. we are prepared for the attacks? no, i was not. i sort of entered into parliament not having really felt in a personal way sexism or misogyny. of course, i knew it existed. i was an active feminist at university. i thought the rate of change was pretty fast and if you would have asked me if this was to be fixed by the time i was 40, would have said yes but i did go into a law firm that was overwhelmingly male and even then i did not feel the sexism. by even then i did not feel the sexism. by that time i was prime minister and the gendered abuse was flying, it did take me back that it did and could get as bad as that and that there was sexism underlying the surface of our society and other
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places in the world. when it came to a woman leader in broke through. australia is quite a patriarchal society, as advanced as it is.” have to go all the fence in my country at this point. i think australia is very similar to many countries at a similar stage of development and democracy is which is that we still do not have anywhere near 50% of women in parliament. women are not well represented on corporate boards, increasingly well represented in the law are not in the news media. not represented equally in technology. we share those desert with the world. it is a blokey culture and many of our turns of phrase, maehl mateship, masculine terms of phrase —— mail. mateship, masculine terms of phrase -- mail. i mateship, masculine terms of phrase —— mail. i neverfelt alien aided by that do not feel alienated now but i
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was surprised by something more pointed and sharper. what was that? the go to gendered insole, signed outside parliament house referring to me asa outside parliament house referring to me as a bitch, the pornographic cartoons, incredibly file things said on social media and the imagery woven around me in the parliament and media was, when you look at it, gendered at its centre and all of that was more than i was expecting. when i came into the prime ministership, i sort of thought the maximum reaction to be being the first woman would manifest in the early days and everybody would kind of get over it and it would converge into the bomb — that is a pretty hard—hitting norm, we play politics pretty hard... for the information
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of the house i have determined that there will be a ballot for the leadership and deputy leadership of the party in the meantime take your best shot. actually the gendered stuff grew over time. has that been addressed? some things have changed for the positive and one of the things that i think has changed is, when i was prime minister, most received wisdom in the media was that agenda did not in any way explain anything about my prime ministership. it was wholly irrelevant. and that got written very expressively in the press. particularly after i spoke about misogyny in the press. writers saying this is nothing to do with gender. now, amongst the very same journalists in the press gallery, the recent lively discussion about
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sexism and politics and i think that is progress. that people are actually looking at something on the political stage and asking themselves the question, is gender playing a role here. i hope the leader of the position has a piece of paper and is writing out his resignation because if he wants to know what misogyny looks like in modern australia, he does not need a motion in the house of representatives, he needs a mirror. julie bishop, spoke out recently about the culture in canberra and like you she was trained in law. what she witnessed, the appalling behaviour, she would not have tolerated 20 years ago as a lawyer so even tolerated 20 years ago as a lawyer so even though we talk about these movements and waves of change and journalists talking more about issues around gender, it does not feel like much has changed. well, i think the reason some good news though. if i look at my political
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party, the labour party, which people would say was the most male and blokey, full of mateship because of its connection with the trade union movement, when i look back at my journey union movement, when i look back at myjourney in the labour party, in the mid—1990s, we fought for an affirmative action target to get more women into parliament and, way back then, we were neck and neck with the liberal party as to where we we re with the liberal party as to where we were in terms of figures abashed about 30%. we adopted a target and all these years later, we have been as high as 4080% and at the next election, we may hit 50% of —— 48% you said you went into politics to make a difference in education. it was the big golden thread for me. the thing that got it motivated to raise my voice politically. it was
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important to me that i was involved in discussions about the politics of opportunity. it has always sat very heavily with me that we migrated to adelaide, we did not know anything about the city, but not know any relatives, it was condition that we had a housing deposit. they peaked at house that happen to be and fortu nately at house that happen to be and fortunately fahmy the government schools that we were in the side districts for were great government schools. if they went to another suburb, everything could have been different and that lottery of postcode and opportunity has always offended me and it was something that i was very determined through politics to make a difference for. you talked about the importance of women to be empowered and the only way is for girls to get an education. should we be focusing on boys and their education to change society? absolutely. if we look at
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oui’ society? absolutely. if we look at our societies and journeys of change, and it is a continuing training, —— journey, greater educational achievements like women have had outcomes. my mother did not finish secondary school, i finished university with two degrees. a lot of that comes back to opportunity in education but to achieve true equality is not just education but to achieve true equality is notjust going to be a journey all women saying we want, we need, we required change, it is a journey that men need to be on and be partners in thejourney journey that men need to be on and be partners in the journey and the world would be a better place. when you look at places like nigeria, and afghanistan, a lot of achievements almost rolling backwards, even pakistan with malala yousafzai, is
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change really happening? yes, it is. there are plenty of places in the world where you can point to things going in the wrong direction. i am not naive or trying to be of a painting by rose coloured picture for you, that would not be responsible or right but it also would not be to avoid our rise from the real progress being made. huge progress was made under the millennium period. we are continuing to make progress and then to add on secondary school, gp can point to countries we work with and rolling and graduating literally millions more children, including millions more children, including millions more girls. this is a problem at scale and it is to be sold at scale. of the journey is to resolve the fa ct of the journey is to resolve the fact that the row kids to go 60
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million kids who are not in school. hundreds of millions more getting a low education. —— 260 million. hundreds of millions more getting a low education. -- 260 million. its politics making the world a more dangerous place for women and girls, especially when it comes to education? i do not think you just say politics. there are some places in the world, bacteria, boko haram, the shooting of malala yousafzai, where community attitudes and potentially politics, using the broader label, is making it more difficult for girls but there are plenty more places in the world where governments are working strongly for developed it and change, including girls education andi change, including girls education and i have had the privilege of travelling in some of those places. rwanda, senegal, cambodia and many
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other examples where you can literally see the change in front of your eyes. it is notjust in the developing world, is it was make advanced societies, the developed world, we are seeing the shift to the right which is pulling a lot of focus on maternal rights, reproductive rights, and this wave of populism — date you think that is impacting women as well? yes, i do. we just impacting women as well? yes, i do. wejust had to impacting women as well? yes, i do. we just had to be very clear about what problem it is we are trying to solve. developing countries, i do think, it starts with educating a girl. the journey of change starts with educating a girl. in our societies, like australia, when you look at statistics, often in university courses and not university courses and not university courses, more women are taking them and getting their qualifications than men. the further disadvantage and political debates,
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the gendered part is no longer a function of no access to education but about other things. there is the other movement for parts of the political right to view arguments about gender inequality as sort of political correctness, irritating, gone too far, but for all of that, there is also a huge wave of activism and energy for change. just finally on the issue of populism, donald trump comes to mind, what do you think about this attitude to women? clearly in, this fears about gender equality, this views about women and family planning, we do not have anything in common. “— planning, we do not have anything in common. —— this views. i also think, we are analysing the politics of this moment, donald trump in many ways is a symptom of the politics of
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this moment, not the cause. there is around the world a lot of indeed anger about globalisation, at the impacts of the great recession, the globalfinancial impacts of the great recession, the global financial crisis, austerity policies, communities feeling left behind, like they are losing their identity, and democratic politics not responding well enough to those agendas so that when the anger comes up, it comes up and it gives you donald trump and it gives you brexit and it gives you votes for the parties at the hard right in europe, so it is that sense of being left behind that we have got to be thinking about and analysing and working to overcome. yap talked about the metoo movement, time's up and that they really are a response to the kinds of things that you are talking about now, but for those people who are sceptical about these movements and sort of say well, womenjust need to movements and sort of say well, women just need to toughen up and they criticise these types of movements asjust hash they criticise these types of movements as just hash tag is, what you think about that?|j movements as just hash tag is, what you think about that? i don't think
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you think about that? i don't think you solve problems unless you are talking about them. if they are behind closed doors, in secret, then they never get resolved and so the good thing about the metoo movement is it is an incredible global sense bringing to the forefront of stories and women's real—life experiences in and women's real—life experiences in a way which means it is harder to ignore them, the way they have been ignored in the past. so off we are going to solve big problems, let's get it out there and talking about them, andi get it out there and talking about them, and i do think the sexual harassment, sexual assault, because there has been so much secrecy in shame, the more women to come out and said need to, it is never going to be easy but it is more likely that the next woman will come out and say in this happened to me and it needs to be resolved. —— me too. and i think that culture is what is going to get us to a new and better place stop right yap talked about the changes in feminism and gender equality, you have actually said it is in reverse and women should be prepared for a backlash. -- you have
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talked about. what did you mean by that? look, i think talked about. what did you mean by that? look, ithink we talked about. what did you mean by that? look, i think we are seeing that? look, i think we are seeing that this is the complexity of the political moment and really it is something we learn from history too. every single societal way that makes change ends up getting some forces in reaction and i think we are seeing that they are now on we will probably see it pay out a little bit more in the future, but ultimately, the wave of change becomes irresistible. and so if you look at the earlier demands of the women's movement, the earlier waves of them in is in, demands for equal pay for equal work was apparently going to bankrupt businesses and end economies. now, of course, we look back at that and say how could any rational person ever argued against that? -- rational person ever argued against that? —— play out. the demands to change that said if you got married you had to design newjob. people said no, if we do not have women resigning when they married, men and boys are not going to getjobs, it looks ridiculous to us now. and many of the things that are being set in
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this moment about the contemporary claims of women of wanting equal access to positions of power, the gender pay gap closed, a safe work places, and being treated always with respect, i think in ten, 15, 20 yea rs, with respect, i think in ten, 15, 20 yea rs , we with respect, i think in ten, 15, 20 yea rs, we are with respect, i think in ten, 15, 20 years, we are going to look back on this moment and say how could anybody have ever argued against any of that? are just going to read out some statistics to you. globally women make up 23% of parliament variance, 26% of news media leaders, 1596 variance, 26% of news media leaders, 15% of corporate board leaders, 9% of it professionals around world. these numbers are pretty grim. they are these numbers are pretty grim. they a re pretty these numbers are pretty grim. they are pretty grim and the rate of change is not what one would like to see either, in some areas, women in politics's progress has stalled, rates of change in the numbers of women senior managers, we have seen a1% women senior managers, we have seen a 1% increase in a decade. so there isa
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a 1% increase in a decade. so there is a lot to do, i think you look at all those statistics, we are actually at the stage where we need some new tools to make a difference. in many cases, people have done some of the obvious things to and encourage more women into these occupations, into politics, and now we need to get to the deeper causes that are locking women out and particularly locking them from coming up to the most senior levels, andi coming up to the most senior levels, and i am very pleased to be spending some of my time and that. you have spoken about social media being used asa spoken about social media being used as a tool to bring down women in leadership roles, is that something that you experience? yes, i mean the evidence he was very clear that women and publicly exposed occupations, whether it is politics, journalist, the nature of their social media feeds, the abuse is much heavier and much harder. do you still there that? yes, from. 0bviously still there that? yes, from. obviously i am less exposed than i used to be. —— from time to time. i
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think we have got to be very thoughtful about how we as women personally respond to this, it worries me that women engage with social media in such a deep way that it ends up dissuading them from being in the public square, that actually takes them out of the public square because it is so vile. ido public square because it is so vile. i do think you can limit how much you look at and you probably should limit how much you look at so that it is not car—fitting you off—track, but it does say something about the sexes and misogyny that lies under the surface that people with the benefit of anonymity will put such disgusting things and often violent things to you and social media. buffeting. that is that something thatis buffeting. that is that something that is out of our control now? is something that we have to live within our daily lives and in leadership roles, so that is something that women have two deal with? i think frankly for a period of time, women in leadership roles,
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in publicly exposed roles, will be in that situation. —— have to. there is no thing that we can just a click, let's do. i do think there are some things for the major technology companies to think about, about what is allowed to be posted and left there. and over time, i think as we try and push forward and gender equality, the nature of the social media feed will almost be like a temperature take about how much of a difference have we made? how many hearts and minds have really been changed around gender equality issues? perhaps the most famous moment in politics was when you stood up against your opponent tony abbott and called him out for the misogyny and sexism you had faced in parliament daily, it has had 3 million views on youtube or something like that, it has gone viral. i will not be lectured by sexism and misogyny by this man, i will not. —— about. and the government will not be lectured
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about sexism and misogyny by this man... just once, do you wish you we re man... just once, do you wish you were a for doing something else? yes, andi were a for doing something else? yes, and i used to, particularly as i travel, you would get women who would rush over to talk to you about that speech and that still happens to me. -- do you wish you were remembered for doing something else? i was remembered for doing something else? iwas in remembered for doing something else? i was in the parliament for 15 yea rs, i was in the parliament for 15 years, i was deputy prime minister for three years, i was prime minister for three years. we did some incredibly big things, nation changing things, and apparently it all comes down to one speech. but i am at peace with it now in the sense that i know that that speech has come to mean a lot to many women, and of the women who will dive the traffic to talk to me when i'm overseas, often it is the only thing they know about australian politics, sometimes it is one of the few things they know about australia apart from kangaroos and all the rest of it, and so, you have got to end up being quite proud of that.”
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have to ask, is there something about yourjob have to ask, is there something about your job that you mist? have to ask, is there something about yourjob that you mist? yeah, there are things that i mist. there is no greater capacity to put your values into action than politics and thatis values into action than politics and that is one of the reasons that i do talk it up to young women and girls, to think about as a career. —— i miss. you get to change things you ca re miss. you get to change things you care about and so yeah, i miss that. i miss the sense of common cause with the best of my colleagues, it isa with the best of my colleagues, it is a bonding experience with the people around you, you make great in politics, and so i miss the intensity in some ways that environment. but i do not miss the sheer relentlessness of it and with all due respect, i do not miss the media intrusion, and i do feel like iam media intrusion, and i do feel like i am getting on with some big challenges, global partnership education, educating girls, the global institute for women's leadership at kings college, because
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we can educate girls, i want to see them come through to the top in all levels of life and of course back home in australia, i'm very pleased to be making contribution on the and discussion about service innovation we need around mental health to chairing beyond blue. prime minister gillard, thank you for your time. thank you very much. hello there. if you thought it was cold yesterday, today is going to feel even colder. all the mild air that we had over the weekend has been pushed away by these easterly winds, and with stronger winds, it will feel colder today, and we're also drawing in colder and colder air as the day goes on. probably be not a great deal of frost to start the day,
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too much wind for that, maybe some early sunshine. i think fairly quickly the cloud will build an all these showers in the east, we will get some that bit further westwards, some of them heavy and maybe a touch wintry over the higher ground as well. a close look at the showers in the afternoon, frequent showers coming through the english channel and into the south—east of england. we've got the winds on there. those are the mean winds but around the coast of england, they could be gusting 40 miles an hour or more. some frequent showers, longer spells of rain coming into northern england, perhaps some wintriness over the high ground. most showers in the east. north—west scotland seeing some sunshine and fewer showers, and that is a similar story really across northern ireland as well. let's focus on those temperatures though. disappointing reading, and if you add on the strength of the winds, because the wind is strong, it will feel colder, there will be a significant windchill, especially for the eastern side of england. there will be some more wet weather around during the evening and perhaps a little bit more sleet and snow over the higher ground overnight,
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especially across wales, northern england, and later into scotland. as the cloud begins to break later and the winds drop further south across the midlands and southern england, even here there is the risk of some icy patches, the temperature not far from freezing. on wednesday, more of a south—westerly breeze will tend to push the weather further north into northern ireland, scotland, again a wintriness over higher ground. a few showers coming into the south—west and on the whole, england and wales will be dry. a good deal of sunshine this time. it is still cold, temperature numbers not changing. it probably won't feel as cold because it will not be as windy, there should be some sunshine around too. we've still got low pressure to the south—west of the uk, high pressure to the north. the breeze is continuing to ease down, but we are going to drag in what looks like being much more cloud on thursday. still some showers, likely to be rain. it should be a dry day for scotland and northern ireland and western areas beginning to see some sunshine.
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temperatures beginning to creep up as well, eight or nine, maybe double figures in the west. it is the right way forward, if you like, those south—easterly winds coming in towards the end of the week. it shouldn't feel quite as cold. i'm rico hizon in singapore. the headlines: one of the world's most prominent business leaders, nissan's carlos ghosn, is arrested injapan over claims of financial misconduct. hopes fade in yemen that the warring sides were nearing a truce as the saudis renew attacks on the port city of hodeida. it is often called the forgotten war but everyone i have spoken to here is crying for help, pleading with the world to finally take notice. i'm babita sharma in london. also in the programme: building closer ties between the leaders of china and the philippines. president duterte prepares to welcome xijinping for his first state visit. and in our ‘100 women' season, we hear from australia's first female prime ministerjulia gillard
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on the pressures of being a woman at the top.
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