tv Review 2018 BBC News December 20, 2018 8:30pm-9:00pm GMT
we have seen widespread showers today. though showers will be replaced by general brain. you can see the look of cloud that's racing gci’oss see the look of cloud that's racing across the atlantic. this is going to bring a change to wetter weather and overnight. given that the weather has been very wet. this could bring some low clouds, and moving into northern england and northern ireland as well. there'll be some clue spells and some patch of frost on the countryside to wake up of frost on the countryside to wake up with on friday. friday, this area will clear out very quickly, bright quys will clear out very quickly, bright guys follow what southern wales. there'll be lots of cloud hanging around northern england and northern ireland, perhaps northern scotland bringing in some showers. top temperatures up to 14 degrees, to which is close to normal across the north in the uk. that is your weather. hello, this is bbc news.
the headlines: authorities say the drone flights which have shut the airport down have been "highly targeted to bring maximum disruption in the run—up to christmas." almost 600 homeless people died in england and wales last year — a rise of over a quarter over the last five years. children as young as 14 are making thousands of pounds a week, as part of a global hacking network built around the popular video game fortnite. now on bbc news, it's been a year in which climate scientists warned it's now or never to save the planet and a paralysed man took his first steps. pallab ghosh presents review 2018: the year in science. ..two, one, zero.
liftoff. this is a year that nasa sent a probe to touch the sun, and a japanese aircraft landed on an asteroid. on earth, climate scientists warned it is now or never to save the planet. in 2018, a crisis with plastic waste. in indonesia, the army was called in to deal with the problem. machines became better than doctors at diagnosing diseases. and a paralysed man took his first steps. what a year in science it's been.
it was yet another incredible year for space exploration. astronomers here at the royal observatory in greenwich have been gazing at stars for centuries. but in april, nasa launched a probe to listen to what they sound like. these are the vibrations of nearby stars similarto oursun, converted into sound. and this is another, much bigger and older star. each one we see has its own unique sound. this will be the first mission to scan nearly the entire sky, sector by sector. the sound a star makes will tell scientists how big and how hot it is. many of them will have planets in orbit around them. some will be too close. those that are the right distance away will be the ones most capable of supporting life — in what scientists call
the goldilocks zone, where the temperature is just right. and there was one star that nasa was particularly interested in. ..two, one, zero. liftoff! into the night and on a mission to touch the sun. a daring mission to shed light on the mysteries of our closest star, the sun. nasa's parker solar probe is now in orbit and has come closer than any other spacecraft. it will touch the sun, dipping into its scorching atmosphere. it will be heated to 1300 celsius — enough to turn the probe into liquid, were it not for its heat shield. the probe will spend the next few years studying the sun's atmosphere, which can be seen from earth during a total eclipse. shimmering and beautiful from so far away, violent and raging close up. touchdown confirmed!
now, a landing on mars. as well as the cheers, there was an extra celebration. i am over the moon. it's, like, incredible! this is my first mission. imean, ifeel like... i still feel nervous. like, i don't know. the adrenaline is still going through me. but we're on mars. marco worked. insight worked. it's been... it was a soft landing. everything was perfect, which is so rare. and now, ijust want more data. i want to see what's happening on mars! just a few moments earlier, nasa's insight lander plunged through the thin martian atmosphere and landed safely. its job is to investigate mars‘s interior and attempt to detect tremors — or marsquakes. liftoff at 7:51am, eastern... 50 years ago, america sent astronauts to the moon
on its mighty saturn v rocket. since those heady days, there hasn't been a us rocket capable of leaving the earth's orbit. five, four, three, two, one! until now. those glory days may soon be back, with a successful testing of elon musk‘s falcon heavy rocket, blasting all 27 of its engines, soaring high above the atlantic ocean. and then, on a carefully choreographed dance, its boosters returned back to earth. this year saw the publication of the most worrying report we've ever had on the impact of climate change. scientists warned that it was now or never to save the planet, and they called for drastic action to keep global temperature rises to within 1.5 celsius. any more, and we risk irreversible
environmental damage to our world. the ipcc has warned of two possible futures for our planet. in the 2 degree world, there's severe drought. in the northern hemisphere, there's more flooding. people are poorer and have less food. and all the coral in our seas has gone. as things stand, that's the world we are heading towards. if action is not taken, it will take the planet into an unprecedented climate future, if we compare it to what has happened during all of human evolutionary history. to avoid damaging global warming, the scientists call for much more renewable energy, the development of planes that use less fuel and new ways to take carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere. all that is happening, but according to sir david attenborough at a recent un meeting, not at the speed it needs to. if we don't take action, the collapse of our civilizations
and the extinction of much of the natural world is on the horizon. scientists have not been able to link specific weather events — such as the summer's heatwave — to climate change. this year, that began to change. it's becoming much clearer that we can, with quite a lot of confidence, say that something like an extreme weather event is linked to climate change, or at least it would be very unlikely to happen without climate change. the heatwave this year brought back memories of the long, hot summer of 1976. there were droughts, thousands had their water cut off, and people had to collect it in buckets from stand pipes. this was the temperature map at the time, the heatwave in red localised to the uk. now look at it this year. it's all across the northern hemisphere. this is how averagejune afternoon
temperatures have been rising in britain since 1900. and that trend is likely to continue. so we'll have to make fundamental changes to our own lives. for example, scientists say we can't continue eating as much beef and lamb as we do currently. and the burning of fuel by passenger jets contributes a great deal to global warming. but electric planes such as this one can't carry enough passengers far enough. schemes to capture carbon emissions from factories and bury them are still in their infancy. and at a time when we're losing the world's forests, scientists say we urgently need to find new and better ways of sucking out the excess carbon dioxide that's already in the atmosphere. but scientists are going full steam ahead in other areas. currently, trains give off
emissions that are not good for our health or the environment. but this train in germany runs on hydrogen. and as my colleague roger harrabin shows, it's an ultraclean fuel. this is the emission from the exhaust. you can't smell it. i'm told you can't taste it. that's because it's water. pure water. battery—powered trains have been trialed in britain, but they don't go very far on a single charge — around 30 miles. but one 15—minute fill—up with hydrogen drives this train for 600 miles. hydrogen trains made in germany are likely to be used in the uk by the early 20205. single—use plastics came to the forefront as the new environmental menace. the problem is, when we throw away our bottles and bags, they last for hundreds of years.
it's thought that last year, 8 million tonnes found its way into the sea, killing tens of thousands of birds, fish and other marine life. a crisis of plastic waste in indonesia. it's become so acute that the army has been called in to help. my colleague david shukman was there. this river has a reputation for being the most polluted anywhere in the world. and you can see why. there's plastic everywhere. and add to that a very high level of industrial chemicals as well. so clearing up is a huge challenge, but the president of indonesia wants this water to be drinkable in seven years‘ time. rivers and canals are clogged with dense masses of bottles, bags and other plastic packaging. officials say they're engaged in a constant battle against waste. it accumulates just as quickly as they clear it. the commander of a military unit in the city of bandung described it
as our biggest enemy. but there was some good news on plastic. this is a 600—metre—long tube that's been made for a project in san francisco called 0cean cleanup. it floats across the sea and scoops up millions of pieces of plastic that would otherwise have harmed sea life. and there was another type of pollution that's also affecting undersea creatures. a new study suggests that the long—term viability of more than half the different killer whales around the globe is now in question because of the dumping of chemicals called pcbs. some populations, such as those around the uk, the strait of gibraltar, off brazil, japan and california, are almost certainly doomed. there were some remarkable developments in medicine. we saw ai systems that can diagnose scans for heart disease
and lung cancer much better than the best doctors. scientists in london have grown a bioengineered oesophagus. now look closely, and you can see it contracting like a real muscle. the research could eventually be used to treat children born with damaged digestive systems. a british company has unveiled a new robotic surgery system which is expected to operate on patients for the first time next year. but this man's story was the most dramatic development of the year. david mzee‘s doctor said he'd never walk again. now he's able to travel more than half a mile. it's because of an implant that amplifies electrical signals from his brain to his legs. this is david training with his implant year ago. "stim on" means it's turned on. when it's turned off, he can't move. back on, and he continues to walk. to me, it means a lot.
i think you got to try to do the impossible, to make the possible possible. i'm surprised over and over again when we really get there. it's a lot of fun, and it feels very good. david had his implant surgically inserted by oneness with him and's david had his implant surgically inserted by one of switzerland's leading neurosurgeons. he was paralysed for seven years, a chronic case. i've been working in neuroscience now for a long time, and i know that when you have a spinal cord injury, after a while, if there is no progress, it will remain like this. so what i noticed him a for the first time, is a change, even in a chronic state. and that's, for me, something completely new. 2018 was also a great year for discoveries in the pure sciences. and one of the most intriguing mysteries was the abolition of the kilogram — at least as we know it. this is a copy of a platinum iridium
alloy stored in paris. it's the standard by which all other kilograms in the world are measured. but there's a problem. over the years, its weight has changed. the vote was unanimous. yes. there were cheers to greet the demise of the block of metal that has been the kilogram. currently, it's described by the weight of a platinum—based ingot locked away in a safe in paris. from may, it'll be defined by a system that involves measuring an electric current. it'll be more accurate and never need changing again. but some will miss that little piece of precious metal that's defined our system of measurements for 130 years. i'm a little bit sad that the kilogram is being redefined, but it's important, and it's going to work a lot better after. but changing it to the new system, it's a really, really exciting time. it was another great year for the science nobel prizes. for medicine, the award was for a new way to fight cancer. the chemistry prize
was for the development of better drugs that mimic the body's own immune system to combat diseases. one of the winners was britain's professor gregory winter. the physics award was for advancements in laser physics which has benefited eye surgery. the winners were donna strickland from canada and arthur ashkin from the us. dr strickland is only the third woman to win the nobel prize for physics. well, that is surprising, isn't it? i think that's the story that people want to talk about that, why should it take 60 years? there's so many women out there doing fantastic research, so why does it take so long to get recognised? at cern, the difficulties women face in reaching senior positions was highlighted just a day before she received the award. professor alessandro strumia was suspended from the research centre after bbc news reported that he told young women there that they weren't as good at the subject as men. drjessica wade was among those
at the meeting who were angry and upset by his comments. i think it's damaging because it tells a whole generation of young scientists who are working in string theory, high energy physics and physics more broadly, that senior people in authority think that women are inferior and shouldn't be trying out for these positions and shouldn't be doing it, and have been there due to tokenism. in march, we said farewell to the world's best—known and most—loved scientist. we shall give thanks for stephen hawking's remarkable gifts. we have entrusted our brother, stephen, to god's mercy. professor hawking was laid to rest in westminster abbey alongside another giant of science, sir isaac newton. a message from stephen hawking — with a specially written composition by vangelis — was beamed, fittingly, across the universe — towards the nearest black hole.
i am very aware of the preciousness of time. seize the moment. act now. i have spent my life travelling across the universe inside my mind. we are all time travellers, journeying together into the future. but let's work together to make that future a place we want to visit. be brave, be determined, overcome the odds. it can be done. in 2018, there was a big shift in ideas about the emergence of our species. this human jawbone has rewritten the story of how
we spread across the globe. it was found alongside stone tools in northern israel and was part of a community. scientists were shocked when they discovered it was more than 100,000 years older than when they thought humans left africa in large numbers. theories about how modern humans first evolved and spread may now have to be changed. the previous view was that our species began to leave africa 100,000 years ago. but the new discovery in israel suggests it was actually much earlier, possibly 250,000 years ago. that means our species may have lived alongside other kinds of more primitive humans, who lived outside of africa at the time. and that contact may have helped to shape our culture and the way we look. and there was a new way of conserving trees. species of plants are preserved in seed banks like this one. but it hasn't been possible to do that with trees until now. here, they found a way to isolate, then freeze,
an embryonic part of it. my colleague helen briggs discovered that when it's hot out, it can grow into a new tree. this baby oak tree has come out of the deep freeze and is starting to grow. trees in a test tube could be the answer to protecting our forests in the long—term. there was good news for many animals this year, including penguins. such as the ones here at london zoo. 0ne species was thought to be in decline, until scientists discovered one and a half million of them crammed on a rock at the northernmost point of the antarctic peninsula. researchers first noticed the penguins when large patches of their poo showed up in satellite images. the animals are crammed onto a rocky archipelago called the danger islands. as the name implies, the islands are notoriously difficult to reach. even in antarctica's summer, the ocean surrounding
the archipelago is filled with a kind of thick sea ice that ships try to avoid. and another animal took my colleague victoria gill by surprise when she was on the isle of mull. this is a special protected site for golden eagles, and there are four nesting pairs, which is why david's brought us here. we have the scope, the binoculars. we have the long lens. so, we'll just keep our fingers crossed, because it is a big country. there's a golden eagle up here now! oh, my word! going along the ridge. oh, wow! the majestic king of birds is under threat in some areas, but there's hope that this species can be protected now that their genetic code has been unlocked. by knowing their dna, conservationists can learn more about their health, ecology and how to select the best birds to move around. and here's another animal that scientists gave a helping hand to. five southern koalas have been flown halfway around the world as part of plans to create a back—up
population of the species away from their native australia. although not an endangered species, they're considered to be vulnerable. scientists in the uk will be looking for ways to help them thrive, away from the threats of disease such as chlamydia. they're now settling in to their new home at longleat safari park in wiltshire. here, at another wildlife reserve in merseyside, researchers are testing a new conservation system that films the animals from the air. although they could see the animals from their heat signatures, they couldn't always tell what they were. the drone could spot far more animals from the air, but the problem was that the researchers couldn't tell what they were, especially if they are far away. what they needed was a system that could identify them from the heat they gave off. astronomers use software that automatically searches for galaxies that are millions of billions of miles away, and identify their age and size from their colour.
by adapting the technology to sift through the data gathered from the drone, it can be used to identify different kinds of animals. compare this elephant‘s hotspots with that of a rhino's. conservationists will, for the first time, have an accurate way of counting animals under the tree tops. this will help them assess how various conservation efforts are working. so, a great year for science in 2018. but also dire warnings about the future of our planet. there were, however, encouraging signs that science can help us beat such overwhelming odds. next year looks as if it'll be just as exciting for science. it'll see the climax of a bold japanese mission to an asteroid. it's less than a kilometre across
and relatively close to earth. the spacecraft has been circling it since the summer and has recently dropped a lander and two box—shaped rovers onto it. in january, it will touch the surface, fire a pellet to dislodge rocks and then hoover them up. and later in the year, it'll fire a missile at it, which will make a large crater and reveal what lies underneath. two, one! launch! the research vessel named after sir david attenborough will begin work in the arctic next spring. its hull has been specially designed to break through the thick sea ice, enabling it to explore parts of the polar environment that are hard to reach. the spacecraft that discovered pluto has a heart—shaped mark on its surface will make a return visit later in january. we'll see the first ever picture of a giant black hole, the centre of a galaxy far, far away.
spacex and boeing will both send spacecrafts to dock with the international space station and test to see if they can be used to send astronauts to the orbiting laboratory. and the highlight could be the celebration of arguably humanity's greatest achievement. that's one small step for man. 0ne giant leap for mankind. that looks beautiful from here, neil. it'll be 50 years since neil armstrong and buzz aldrin set foot on the moon. because of what you have done, the heavens have become a part of man's world. and as you talk to us from the sea of tranquility, it inspires us to redouble our efforts to bring peace and tranquility to earth. what a year in science it's going to be.
hello again. the showers have been really widespread over the past few hours. many areas will have seen at least one 01’ many areas will have seen at least one or two. i will show you the satellite picture. we have got thickening cloud working across wales and southwest england. this is rain bearing cloud. the weather is going to turn increasingly wet here. given how went the weather has been so given how went the weather has been so far this month, we could see some localised surface water flooding. that rain will continue to push northwards, reaching across wales into northern england, northern ireland by the end of the night. it
will be quite a mild night for most of us. chilly in the far north of scotla nd of us. chilly in the far north of scotland with some patchy frost. tomorrow's forecast. the rains will be with us in the morning declaring pretty quickly across southern england. some sunshine breaking out here stop it will be quite a brisk wind that's blowing through the day. northern ireland, it states quite cloudy with some passing showers. in the south, a really mild date for the south, a really mild date for the time of year. should be about 9 degrees but will be up to 1a degrees through friday afternoon. temperatures closer to normal across the northern half of the uk. 0nto the northern half of the uk. 0nto the week and come up with that this ridge of high pressure building in for the start of the weekend. sunday, a different kettle of fish. the pressure going to be different. saturday the better day of the weekend. there will be showers across northwestern areas. the showers across northwestern scotland
frequents. temperaturesjust showers across northwestern scotland frequents. temperatures just eating a little bit. for sunday, wet and fairly windy weather for england and wales. some uncertainty as to how far north this band is going to get. the north of the country giving the driest of the weather on sunday. this band of wet weather could return monday, which is christmas eve to the south, before tending to clear out of the way. for christmas day itself, it looks like we will see some patches of frost and maybe a bit of fog around. should be largely dry, though. some sunshine. always more the way of cloud in the west and i could not completely rule out a little bit of rain getting to the far west of the uk. but that's still open to a little uncertainty. that's all for now. hello, i'm karin giannone, this is 0utside source. massive disruption at one
of europe's busiest airports after drones are deliberately flown over gatwick. tens of thousands of passengers are stranded — all flights are suspended. you would think what the airport at this size would have some sort of contingency plan to cope with a drone. contingency plan to cope with a drone. president trump defends his decision to withdraw us troops from syria saying america has lost precious lives and spent trillions of dollars. critics say it's a victory for russia and iran. and long—awaited elections in the democratic republic of congo scheduled for this weekend have been delayed.