welcome to bbc news, broadcasting to viewers in north america and around the globe. my name is martin stanford. our top stories: urgently searching for trapped survivors of the indonesian tsunami, at least 280 people are now known to have died. these cars i am told were parked on the other side of the road and they had been pushed into each other, on top of what was a holiday villa. pushed before hejumped — president trump forces out his defence chief two months ahead of his expected departure. meanwhile, president macron of france says he deeply regrets president trump's decision to pull american troops out of syria. and we have a special report from uzbekistan indonesia's disaster agency now say at least 281 were killed
with a further 57 missing following the tsunami that swept through indonesia's sunda strait on saturday. thousands of people who live on the islands of java and sumatra have been forced to evacuate to higher ground as the tsunami hit coastal areas. in the last few hours, there have been further eruptions from the anak krakatau volcano, fuelling fears of further tsunami. our indonesia correspondent rebecca henschke reports. a popular local tourist destination, now a disaster zone. the only road in, cleared to allow aid supplies to get through. people here now trying to piece together their lives. a work party to celebrate the end of the year. onstage, the stars of the night, a local rock group in full swing. the next second, a wave engulfed the stage. the only road in, cleared to allow aid supplies to get through. people here now trying to piece together their lives. a work party to celebrate the end of the year.
onstage, the stars of the night, a local rock group in full swing. the next second, a wave engulfed the stage. the lead singer confirmed that four bandmembers had died and that his wife is still missing. this coastline where the band were playing is now littered with trouble. rani says she doesn't know how they will rebuild. translation: we were all set up for christmas and new year holiday period. but it's been destroyed by the waves and the rest has been stolen. what am i going to do? families here say they had no warning and there was confusing information coming out from the government. translation: what was the government doing?
at first they said there hadn't been a tsunami last night. they took ages to act. these waves were devastating. it was clearly a tsunami. over here, an image that gives you a sense of the power of the waves. these cars i'm told were parked on the other side of the road, and they've been pushed into each other on top of what was holiday villa, full at this time of year. here at this local clinic, desperate families are looking for their relatives. the injured are still arriving. and the death toll is still rising. translation: the victims were local people who owned shops and stalls here. but there were many visitors, too. we're trying to open the access road. last night a lot of debris had been dragged in and had clogged the road. officials believe underwater landslides caused by eruptions
at the nearby anak krakatau volcano may have triggered the huge waves. it's still active. authorities are warning that there could be another tsunami, and telling people to stay away from the beaches. and a little earlier rebecca gave us the latest on the rescue and relief effort in the area worst—affected by the tsunami. with the government warning that there could be another tsunami, people here are going to bed with a sense of unease. those that can are leaving the area. tourists that flocked here to spend their holiday time on these beautiful beaches are now rushing to leave.
others have gone to higher ground, and are sleeping in mosques or at relatives‘ homes. along this road here, we've watching ambulances come in to help the injured and also to retrieve the dead. this area, these sleepy beached villages, are not prepared for the scale of a disaster like this. but the access to this area is much better than in previous disasters, such as the tsunami that hit sulawesi a few months ago. so, with relative speed, authorities have been able to bring in health workers, emergency equipment, in order to help people here, with yet another disaster in indonesia. mika mckinnon is a field geophysicist and disaster researcher. we hear a loss about this lack of warning. just explain, in your
understanding, why you think the existing warning systems didn't work in this instance? our existing warning systems are very good understanding earthquake triggered tsunami. unfortunately, tsunami can be triggered by landslides, volcanic eruptions, calving glaciers, even something like a meteorite impact. in all of those instances they don't trigger the warning system in the same way and it creates a tsunami thatis same way and it creates a tsunami that is much more difficult to identify, and a lot more difficult for us to send the warnings out. so it is that so much the warning system failed as the warning system isn't designed to deal with this type of tsunami. it deals with about 80% of tsunami or earthquake triggers, but the other 20%, like this volcano triggered tsunami, fell through the gaps. is there any system that would not allow this kind of warning to fall through the gap, that would accurately record these events? unfortunately not really. if we wanted to spend a lot
of money and have a whole bunch of tsunami boys everywhere, maybe we could get to enough density to do it. -- could get to enough density to do it. —— buoys. but right now about 80% of tsunami are generated by earthquakes. so if a size monitor records and earthquake we say, hey, there might be a tsunami and we send out a precautionary warning to everywhere coastal nearby. then we start looking for that tsunami to actually show up on the deep sea buoys. but if it is a local syn army, even if we had an immediate notification that there was a landslide of kra katoa, notification that there was a landslide of krakatoa, into the water, at absolute most if we had a little drone hovering over the island watching the volcano to differ a la sedate, at absolute most we would have 30 minutes warning that there was a landslide, during which we would have the bigger out if it triggered a tsunami and then figure out how big that tsunami was, and then issue a warning, and then people would have the respond to the warning. it isjust people would have the respond to the warning. it is just too fast. even
the best possible circumstances, you are not going to be able to do anything without warning. if you look around yourself right now, could you get to high ground? could you get ten or 30 metres above sea level in the next ten? and some of your research, i think, points to the fact that even the warning systems which are in place get vandalised or don't get maintained properly? why would that be? yeah, so, the indian ocean syn army buoy warning system is fairly new. —— tsunami. it was only installed after the 2001: to. tsunami. it was only installed after the 2004 to. it is an incomplete system. a lot of those buoys have been poorly maintained and be system has not been fully placed out stop some of the buoys which are close to the shore end up getting vandalised or used by fishermen who hook on to be buoys when they are working and end up accidentally damaging them. it isa end up accidentally damaging them. it is a very different system to the
pacific tsunami warning system. that has a longer heritage and has been and has much more training going with it so people know what to do with it so people know what to do with the warnings. this is a newer and younger system. it is better than nothing but not fully built out yet. let's get some of the day's other news. the us treasury secretary, steven mnuchin, has been in contact with the chief executives of the nation's six largest banks. last week us stocks had one of their worst falls since the financial crisis of 2008. mr mnuchin‘s talks are part of efforts to calm businesses and investors before trading starts again on monday. legislators in cuba have approved a new draft constitution, to replace a version dating back to the cold war. the draft will now go to a popular referendum in february next year. the document is yet to be made public, but according to state—run media, the communist party will remain the country's key form of governance.
the international charity save the children has warned that migrant youths are facing increasing violence at european borders. the charity's partner organisation in serbia has collected more than a thousand testimonies of children being forced back across borders this year. some say they were beaten, assaulted with pepper spray, or had their mobile phones or money stolen. president trump has promoted the deputy us defence secretary patrick shanahan to replace his boss james mattis on an acting basis. general mattis announced his resignation last week after the president's decision to withdraw american forces from syria. he had said he would stay in his post until the end of february but mr trump's announced that mr shanahan would take the job from the new year. president macron of france has condemned mr trump's decision to pull out us troops, saying that an ally should be dependable.
he's reported to have called mr trump last week warning him against the syria decision. with more on that and the mobilisation of turkish forces towards the syrian border, here's david campa nale. tanks, machine—guns, and buses carrying commandos to reinforce its border posts. other vehicles have been seen crossing into serious. these are the american allies controlling a third of syria that tu rkey‘s controlling a third of syria that turkey's president, recep tayyip erdogan, has promised to annihilate. an alliance of curves, syrian christians and local arab tribesmen known as the stf, who have been at the frontline of a war against islamic state. the kurdish element of the syrian democratic forces, the ypg, are seen as terrorists by president erdogan. several days ago, he announced the postponement of a turkish attack
on them — for the moment. the focus of a fresh phone conversation, according to president trump, with his turkish counterpart has been on how the continued campaign against is is to be co—ordinated. and a tweet made clear american forces are only going to be slowly sent home. but the political and diplomatic fallout of the surprise announcement about the us withdrawal and general mattis's resignation is continuing. speaking on a visit to french troops in chad, france's president said an ally should be trustworthy. he deeply regretted president trump's decision. translation: we must not forget that since the beginning of our involvement in the levant, the international coalition — including the us, who is the main force — carried out operations in syria with one supporter, the sdf. in washington, president trump announced that the us deputy secretary of defence, patrick shanahan, will replace his former boss general mattis on the january the ist, not the secretary of defence's
preferred departure date, february 28. insiders say that president trump was angry at mattis's resignation letter and his rebuke of his foreign policy. but that will remain centrestage. the president's preferred pick for the defence role will hang on the approval of the us senate, and senators are already indicating that, without clarity on how american interests in the middle east will be protected, that process will not be straightforward. david campanale, bbc news. one group directly affected by the decision to withdraw us troops are the kurds, who have been fighting so—called islamic state on the frontline. salih muslim is from the kurdish democratic union party in northern syria. he described how us support has worked so far. well, they were consulting your people, and training, as advisers on the battlefield.
so they were not fighting directly, especially they were in the back lines. so this is what they were doing until now and maybe you can recognise that — there is no casualties at all, i mean at the battles. of course we have given thousands of martyrs but no casualties from the international coalition at all. we were in the front lines. isis is not finished. we are talking about maybe four 5000 skilled daesh fighters in that area. isis is not finished yet. so what we are afraid
of, is that they will find the opportunity to reorganise themselves and bea opportunity to reorganise themselves and be a threat to everybody again. especially the timing, which now turkey is threatening by the invasion. so this isjust making us worry about that. the timing of the invasion of the turkish side and from the other side. stay with us on bbc news. still to come, christmas is nearly here — but the celebrations have already started in some places. we have a round up of some of the silliest. the world of music has been paying tribute to george michael, who's died from suspected heart failure at the age of 53. he sold well over 100 million albums over a career spanning over three decades.
the united states troops have been trying to overthrow the dictatorship of general manuel noriega. the pentagon said that it's failed in its principle objective to capture noriega and take him to the united states to face drugs charges. the hammer and sickle was hastily taken away. in its place, the russian flag was hoisted over what is now no longer the soviet union, but the commonwealth of independent states. day broke slowly over lockerbie, over the cockpit of pan am's maid of the seas nose down in the soft earth. you could see what happens when a plane eight storeys high, a football pitch wide, falls from 30,000 feet. christmas has returned to albania after a communist ban lasting more than 20 years. thousands went to midnight mass in the town of shkoder where there were anti—communist riots ten days ago. this is bbc news, our main headlines: rescue workers in indonesia are continuing to search for people trapped by a tsunami which is now
known to have killed more than 280 people. president trump has announced that his new secretary of defence, british police investigating the rogue drone flights which closed the uk's second biggest airport, gatwick, are examining a damaged drone found near the perimeter fence. they've also released, without charge, two people who were arrested on friday. whilst those two people have been in custody. we have been dealing with the investigation with an open mind. we have been continuing with our house to house enquiries with regards to the sightings of the drone activity. also i have announced earlier that we have recovered, yesterday morning, a damaged drone. as a result of information from a member of the public. that is being forensically and digitally examined and in order to pursue the perpetrator or perpetrators
involved in this. if that drone itself has been involved. i can't say to you now that it has but obviously we are pursuing it as a significant line of enquiry. through the process we will also be keeping an open mind as to whether other drones were involved that we will be seeking too. more on our main story and the volcano thought to have caused the tsunami has seen increased activity for the last few months but it is not known as yet exactly how it caused the massive wave. our correspondent richard galpin has been exploring the possibilities. last night, after months of activity, came this particularly large eruption from the volcano known as the ‘child of krakatoa.‘ and, just 20 or 30 minutes later, the tsunami hit nearby coastal areas in the sunda strait. it is this violent volcanic activity, not an earthquake, according to experts, which is believed to have triggered the deadly tsunami. it is quite rare, but can happen in several ways. either an underwater part
of the volcano breaks away, displacing enough water to create a huge wave, or a section of the upper half shears off, plunging into the sea and having the same effect. the seismometers, either locally or round the world, have not recorded a large earthquake associated with this event. and that's why the eruption of the volcano, and perhaps the movement of — the failure of the flanks of the volcano and the movement of material off the flanks of the volcano seems to be the most likely explanation. the fact hundreds were killed and injured may be down to there being no tremors, which would have alerted people to the danger of being close to the shore before the wave hit them. sitting on the pacific ring of fire, indonesia has a long history of volcanic activity. this volcano emerged less than 100 years ago from what was left of the original krakatoa, which blew itself up in one of the biggest
eruptions are recorded. and now, the child of krakatoa has been showing its potency. there is no sign so far of the eruptions dying down. richard galpin, bbc news. queen elizabeth will urge people to treat each other with respect in her annual christmas message to be broadcast on tuesday. buckingham palace has released some excerpts. the queen talks about the teachings of christ and says: i believe his message of peace on earth and goodwill to all is never out of date. it can be heeded by everyone; it's needed as much as ever. she goes on to say: even with the most deeply—held differences, treating the other person with respect and as a fellow human being is always a good first step towards greater understanding. billionaire elon musk‘s space—x company has launched
a falcon 9 rocket into orbit. the craft took up a new ultra—precise navigation satellite for the us air force which could eventually improve domestically—used gps systems too. the global positioning system iii — nicknamed vespucci — lifted off from cape canaveral in florida. the christmas carol silent night is celebrating its 200th birthday. the carol was first performed in austria in the village of oberndorf near salzburg on christmas eve 1818, after a priestjoseph mohr, asked a school teacher and organist, franz gruber to set his words to music. bethany bell reports from salzburg. sings silent night in german. i think it is the best christmas song ever. it is familiar to win let
it when we were children. everyone sings it. the carol is 200 years old this christmas. it comes from austria. this is where silent night was first sung, on christmas eve 1818 in the village of oberndorf near salzburg. the original church doesn't exist any more. it was badly damaged by floods at the end of the 19th—century and had to be demolished. this little chapel was built in place. a priest called joseph mohr wrote the words. he asked franz gruber at a school teacher and organist, to compose the melody. according to legend, the church organ had broken down, damaged by mice chewing at the bellows. so they had to sing it with this guitar. this historians believe that the mice and the broken organ are probablyjust that the mice and the broken organ are probably just a that the mice and the broken organ are probablyjust a myth. it was
more people friendly and with an instrument, it was very common outside of course in the church. you can take the qatar wherever you go and therefore also the song itself. —— the guitar. and therefore also the song itself. -- the guitar. silent night quickly spread across europe and into the united states and it was sung across the tension —— trenches during the world war. for many people, it is simply the carol that means christmas. the countdown to christmas is almost over and all around the world people are preparing for the big day. there's sure to be plenty of last minute shopping. many will be on the move, hoping to spend time with loved ones, and quite a bit of food and drink is likely to be consumed. the bbc‘s tim allman has more. christmas can be celebrated in so many different ways. at this at first glance doesn't look
particularly festive. in parts of bavaria, they have been doing this for thousands of years. it's called perchten — people dressing up as monsters to try and scare away the winter. these moves could be described as pretty frightening as well. we are dancing to ward off the evil winter ghosts, said this monster. now this is more like it. dozens upon dozens of father christmases. in fact, around 2,000 of them, taking part in a charity raised in moscow. they were raising money from local hospices. it seems the conditions weren't as difficult as some had feared. translation: awesome, the weather is beautiful. i actually thought it would be much worse. they said the temperature would be minus 30. when you run, you feel hot and very happy, super. when you think of christmas, you may well think of lights. lots and lots of lights.
this park in croatia certainly won't disappoint. there's 4 million of them. the childhood dream of a local man who grew up in poverty and couldn't afford christmas decorations. well, he has more than made up for it now. singing. and if you happen to be waiting for a train at prague's main station, this may have helped wile away the hours. an annual christmas mass that takes place in the main hall each year. the orchestra and choir, amateurs and professionals, celebrating this special time. and, not a monster in sight. tim allman, bbc news. well, you have a great christmas, whenever it arrives. thank you for
watching bbc news. good morning. as we head properly into christmas week, there may be no snow in the christmas week forecast, but at least there's no real severe weather to trouble us. winds will be light, most places will be dry. could be some festive frost by night. but the big worry, i suppose, for those travelling, especially england and wales later on, could be some lingering dense fog patches. we'll have some fog tonight under a blossoming area of high pressure, across the uk and into the morning. there is a weather front towards the south—west continuing to bring outbreaks of rain on christmas eve. notice on our temperature profile the green colours here — a mild start, with temperatures 10—12. further north and east, a chilly one, widespread frost. temperatures lowest in scotland. could some ice around where ground is damp. still some fog in the morning, around glasgow, northern ireland, north—west england, north—east wales and the west midlands. that could cause travel issues through the morning rush. elsewhere, though, most will have sunshine to start the day. always a bit more cloud across the south, and patchy rain and drizzle becoming lighter
towards the far south—west. still mild here but a cooler day for many. a bit of lingering fog into the afternoon, eastern parts of wales and the west midlands. but the best of sunshine the further north you go, even if temperatures are on the struggle. into the evening, as soon as the sun sets, eastern england, driving home for christmas maybe, here is where we could see dense fog to take us into the latter stage of christmas eve and the start of christmas day. blue colours on the temperature chart show lots of frost for scotland and england, but it does ease away in the west as milder air pushes up from the south throughout. that could come with a bit of drizzle across western areas for christmas day. but the christmas day forecast itself is a largely dry one. a bit of frost around in the morning, especially across scotland and eastern england, and there will be some fog patches, central, eastern england. could linger for some all day long. elsewhere, sunshine will break through what cloud we have. in the west, cloud thickest. could produce some drizzle but even the odd bright spell possible here too. temperatures in the west
around christmas day, around 11 or 12. single figures across much of eastern scotland and eastern england in particular. mild air in the west will push eastward as we go into boxing day as a high pressure drifts southwards. notice the weather fronts clipping across the northern half of scotland will produce rain or drizzle for boxing day. the odd heavy burst in the highlands and hebrides. most, though, stay dry. there will be some lingering fog across parts of the midlands and eastern england. clearer skies in towards the south later on, and temperatures for all up a little bit relative to christmas day, and the dry weather continues into thursday. that's how it's looking, see you again soon. this is bbc news. the headlines: people living in the sunda strait region of indonesia have been warned to keep away from beaches amid fears the anak krakatoa volcano could trigger another tsunami. over 280 people are now known to have died after the waves struck late on saturday. and over 1,000 have been injured. president trump has announced that his current secretary
of defence, jim mattis, will leave office two months earlier than originally announced. general mattis resigned last week over mr trump's plans to withdraw us troops from syria. he will be replaced by his deputy, patrick shanahan, on january first. billionaire elon musk‘s space—x company has launched a falcon 9 rocket into orbit. the craft took up a new ultra—precise navigation satellite for the us air force, which could eventually improve domestic gps systems, too. now on bbc news, it's time for dateline london, where our panel take a look back at the big global stories