and says it will monitor what happens in a few weeks' time. some in the industry say worker contributions may have to rise even further if they want a decent retirement income. rob young, bbc news. time for a look at the weather with matt taylor. hello, the rain clouds you seen this morning across some western areas clearing to sunshine into the afternoon but we will see showers spread across scotland and into other parts of northern, central parts of england this afternoon. bits of cloud spreading towards east anglia and the south—east by the end of the day. we could see some rain or drizzle in that. but as i said, north and west, lots more sunshine around to this afternoon. a stiffening southerly breeze which tonight will touch galeforce across the north west but it is still a southerly one so even though temperatures not quite as high as they were a few days ago, 12 to 15 degrees, still well above where they should be for the time of year. now, into tonight, we will start to see more showers return across scotland and northern ireland and later western parts of england and wales.
many eastern areas will be dry. temperatures down into low single figures for one or two but generally clear of frost into your monday morning. so here is how monday shapes up. lots of showers in western scotland and northern ireland and northern ireland, a few showers and parts of western england and wales and towards east anglia and the south—east will see cloud increase, some outbreaks of rain developing parts of western england and wales and towards east anglia and the south—east will see cloud increase, some outbreaks of rain developing here, but in—between all those a bit of monday sunshine too. hello, this is bbc news with ben brown. the headlines. the family of runaway schoolgirl shamima begum who fled the uk to live with so—called islamic state believe she has given birth. president trump warns the us will have to release hundreds of islamic state fighters unless the uk and other allies can take reponsibility for those jihadists who came from europe. hundreds of passengers are left with plane tickets they can't use and hundreds ofjobs are at risk as flybmi collapses.
theresa may writes to every conservative mp urging them to put aside their personal differences over brexit — and come together in the national interest. now it's time for click. this week: sign, listen, spray and jump. 13 million text messages, 4 million youtube videos, 4 million google searches, 97,000 hours of netflix videos — that is the kind of data that flowed across the internet in 2018... sorry, in every single minute of 2018. there are currently more than 2.5 exabytes of data created every day and every new message, photo, video and transaction,
well, it has to be stored somewhere and that's why data centres crammed with hard drives and processors, are starting to take a serious chunk out of the world's electricity consumption. there is another problem with the way that we store things in the long—term. see, i've got a couple of my favourite songs and videos from the ‘80s stored on these. the problem is, i don't have anything to play them on any more. yep, formats come and formats go. none of the data stored on these things can be easily read these days, well, not unless you too have an enormous archiving facility like the one at the bbc. so who is to say that our current crop of storage devices will be compatible with tomorrow's technology? after all, even the conventional usb sockets are vanishing from our laptops. but scientists believe there is at least one format
which solves both problems. it can store data on a ridiculously tiny scale, and we will always have the ability to read it. i give you our dna. it is a single molecule that stores all of the information needed to make us. the theory is that its structure of two different base—pairs could encode the zeros and ones that make up all of the data that we want to store. but can it be done and what are the possibilities? dan simmons has been finding out. massive attack's teardrop plays it is pretty far out there but it really suits the music and what they're about, i think. in his birmingham studio, artist harley davies is painting a unique work that is much,
much more than meets the eye. it's mind blowing to think that, when you consider how much data there must be out there. it's interesting for the future, i'd say. the artwork is the album cover of the hugely popular and influential mezzanine album by massive attack. and to celebrate its 20th anniversary, the band agreed to have this music encoded in dna, and then added to several spray paint cans. it means harley's painting will hold thousands of copies of the album, and to find out how, i have come here to a lab in zurich, to meet one of the pioneers of using genetic codes to store data. and so here's the freezer where we keep the dna. right, ok, this is where the magic happens. exactly.
so in here, it comes in an enormous box, all really cold. and you buy in dna. we buy in the dna. dr grass has encoded the music already to be sequenced into the dna. that work is done by one of several companies now offering genetic code to order. so they make the dna in the sequence that encodes for the album. so we have the sequence of a, c, t and g and so they take a and then they add a c and they add a t so that will encode for, i don't know, 0010 or something like that. and then you have to make — because the album is much more than just a few zeros and ones — you have to make a lot of those dna sequences. what does it look like when you buy it? i'll show you. itjust looks like water, a few drops of liquid with water inside. but we know there is dna in there and every tube there is about a megabyte
of information in there. so the whole album is distributed over the tubes so there is no particular order. it starts at the beginning and at the end and so every tube contains a million different short dna sequences and every sequence has a number stored in it to tell us where it sits in the overall picture of the album. we have error correction implemented into it. so if we miss a sequence in reading or in writing, the data is stored somewhere else so you have some redundancy in the information. so inside this tube is effectively about the equivalent of one of the tracks on the album. and how much does this cost? 50 megabytes, $1,000 per megabyte, that's about $15,000 to store the album. it is a lot but you only have to do that once and then you can make enormous amounts of copies of it, because one key advantage of dna, i think, over all storage technologies
we have, that essentially for free — nearly for free — you can make billions of copies, because there's an enzyme we have in our body, we know from biology, thatjust copies dna and so we feed this tube to it and itjust makes enormous amounts of copies of the dna we have in that tube. dna in water, it degrades in about a year, not really useful, so you spend all your money to buy the cd and dna and itjust disappears in a year. right. so we had to find a solution to that. i don't know if you see it, it's a very small blob. oh, wow, ok, so that... there's an opaque section at the end of this tube. in there, there's billions of very, very small glass particles and in the glass particles we have encapsulated the dna. so we have directed glass to grow around the dna to make that white, opaque powder.
so now it looks different because you have grown glass to cover the dna? exactly, that is exactly what we do and it protects the dna. very similar to what you know from amber. right, and the amber is protecting it from decaying for potentially millions of years. exactly. here, for millions of years, our dna in the glass, for probably 1,000 years, it protects the album from decaying. so you can still hopefully play it in 1,000 years. as long as you can read the dna? exactly, that is an other advantage of using dna. because our storage formant is dna so we will probably always be able or have an interest in reading our own dna, so if we can read our own dna we can use exactly the same technology to read this dna. this is the plate, if you like, that the powder is put on and that then goes into the microscope and when we zoom in, about 100,000 times, we can see each one of these sort of balls is a particle containing about 1,000 strands of dna.
we can zoom out from there and just see what is on the plate because each one of these specs, these white specks, is a particle with 1,000 strands of dna. how many copies of the album are inside here then — just the one? no, so we put a million copies inside. even if you don't spray with the whole can, you certainly have a copy of the album in there. so harley's picture paints much more than a thousand words. it is not only the first album cover artwork to actually include the album, a painting this size could store enough data to hold every album, picture, photo, book and recording, audio and film ever created in the history of mankind. so how can we read the information? that is one fly in the amber at the moment. this machine takes 17 hours to do it. it has come down from about a week
but still, imagine pressing play and waiting that long. so we may be several years away from dna being practicalfor storage but at least it will hang around for thousands of years and, in a format we will always recognise when we see it. 0r hear it. hello and welcome to the week in tech. this week, instagram confirmed a glitch was causing some users follower accounts to change dramatically. russia considered temporarily unplugging itself from the global internet to test its cyber defences. and apple's self—driving car tech placed last in a report from california's department of motor vehicles. the report found apple's test drivers disengaged the self—driving mode almost once per mile. drivers for waymo,
the top performer, only disengaged once every 11,000 miles. drone manufacturer dji said it will expand go fencing capabilities to create no—go zones around runways and other sensitive sights. and other sensitive sites. the changes come after major disruptions at london's gatwick airport in december. the airport's runway was closed after drones were spotted flying nearby. an inquiry into addictive technology was launched by lawmakers in the uk. it will hear evidence on the effects social media, virtual reality and excessive smart phone use have on children and society in general. premier league football teams arsenal, liverpool and man city working with intel have created an immersive 360 degree video experience forfans. you'll be able to relive matches from any point on the pitch and through any player's perspective. finally, in an idea so crazy that itjust might work, ford is using lane assist technology for cars to keep couples happy in bed. the prototype bed moves your partner
back into position if they encroach on your territory. it features a built—in conveyor belt and sensors to mimic the alert given when you drift across lanes on a highway. drifting you smoothly back to sleep instead. a few weeks ago, we visited the amazon spheres, part of the tech giant's headquarters in seattle. we met the people behind its voice recognition tool, alexa, and saw what else we'll be talking to soon. as the tech gets better, it could one day become the way that we interact with our devices. now, that prompted this question from a viewer: thanks, simon, that's a really good point and,
yeah, apple homepod gives some control to deaf users through the use of a touchpad but nowhere near enough to really use it. google‘s assistant can control a smart device by typing requests on a smart phone and the captions feature is available on the versions of alexa with a screen — news, weather and climate can be activated with a tap. all of this is quite basic. so abhishek singh has decided to show them how it could be done. he's created a simple algorithm to do this... the camera sees what he signs and turns it into text that alexa can understand and respond to. it only does a few words but the point is to inspire the big companies into action. last month, google released a couple of new accessibility apps for deaf users who use its android devices, and laura and click trainee maddie have been putting them to the test. i lost my hearing when i was seven and about a year after that
i got a cochlea implant which has helped me a lot, but even now in certain situations i find it really hard to hear. so when i'm in noisy cafes, or at a dinner party, my hearing is not the best. we have deliberately come to a coffee shop where there's real everyday noise all around us to demonstrate these. maddie here has been testing them in various different environments. we are going to start off with google live transcribe. and it does what it says instantly and simply creating a script of your conversation. it can do so in 70 languages and dialects, with quite impressive accuracy. yeah, it seems to do really, really well with people talking. with one or two people talking, it works really well. the further away you get from it the worse it gets and the closer you get the more accurate it becomes. the underlying technology is automatic speech recognition
technology and what that is is that's a way of us taking all sorts of known speech from recordings and basically training algorithms on top of it so that it learns all the nuances, all of the contexts that we understand as people. it is not going to be perfect. no machine is ever going to be as good as people at doing this. so in terms of, like, really unique vernacular, or slang, or accents, it may struggle with that. we also have here google‘s sound amplifier app. you need to attach a pair of headphones to the device and from there it can turn up the volume on different elements of what you are listening to. it may be the quieter background noise you want to make louder, while keeping the main sounds you are listening to at the time, which could be some music, at the same volume.
now, how useful did you find this was, maddie? i thought it was quite cool that you could play music and still hear stuff from the outside world at the same time. the phone's microphone picks up the ambient sound and, from there, the machine learning and artificial intelligence from there, machine learning and artificial intelligence isolate the elements. that could make it possible to, say, make speech louder and the sound of an air conditioning unit quieter. people with worse hearing, it would be much more useful. because it just boosts that noise around you. so when you're less comfortable with your hearing it gives you that little bit of security that you could have that little bit of extra volume. it took me a good half—an—hourjust focusing on the app, playing with all the toggles, because it builds into the settings on your phone, so it took me a while to find the right settings for me. these are what i would call accessibility first applications, in that we're not taking an existing product and making it more accessible, we're making, in both cases, the real world more
accessible using these technologies that exist on a smartphone and in the cloud today. of course, there are other apps developed for the deaf and hard of hearing, too. ava 24/7 was released in 2016. it's a voice recognition and transcription app for group conversations, say around the dinner table. everyone downloads it, speaks into their phone, and will have their words transcribed and nametagged. compared to the live transcriber app, it's not as fast and it's not as accurate. and if you want to read it, you would have to have it in front of your face as well. yeah.
but it does correct itself a lot in the time. the big gamechanger was, back in 2014, when the first hearing aids had the ability to communicate with and iphone came out. that then opened up a lot of possibilities. because you've not just got the processing power of the hearing aid, you've got the processing power of the smart phone as well. apple added similar functionality to their airpods last year, with live listen allowing you to place your phone or ipad near the sound you want amplified. and now starkey, one of the leading hearing aid brands, will be adding full detection and a virtual assistant to their device that already
features live translation and activity tracking. a live translation feature is promised, along with activity tracking, and an app to host a whole lot of data. it looks at your constant communication with other people and therefore it's measuring how much social interaction you're having. and there are also sensors inside the hearing aid, so motion sensors inside the hearing aid, which are looking at how much motion you've got. there has been found to be a relationship between cognitive decline and hearing health. but when it comes to google‘s latest releases, even if they're not proving quite perfect yet, they do harness the power of the fiercest weapon most of us have on us all the time. now, we're on the countdown to the oscars at the moment and what better way to stop ourselves from going crazy with anticipation than to continue our series looking at the nominees in the best visual effects category? not you, this year, i'm afraid, doris. you're after something. this week it's the turn of our favourite half—witted scruffy—looking nerf herder in solo: a star wars story. i'm a driver and i am a flyer. i've waited a long time for a shot like this. what do you think? chewbacca growls well, what do you know? we always strive with star wars to do things for real wherever possible. well, i mean, there's certain things that you just can't do. we can't build flying x—wings,
we can't build flying tie fighters. and the as way you can't make real droids, you can make droid costumes for people. so in the case of solo, l3 is a practical costume that was worn by phoebe waller—bridge. but part of that was phoebe wearing a green body stocking inside and then the inside, you know, the working parts of l3 were replaced with cg. and i think that's the ultimate goal — to try to always retain an element of reality, do something practically, but then use cg to fill in the bits that you can't do for real. even before the principal photography had started we were already doing previews for the train sequence, which is where you can mock the animation sequence up in a computer and work out what all the shots are going to be. that then informed a helicopter and ground—based shoot out in the dolomites in italy. was shot something like 80,000 images. all those images were effectively thrown into a piece of software, the software works out the positions of all those images,
where the cameras were, and then builds what's called a point cloud from those images which gave us effectively a 3—d representation of the entire mountain range. from that we process that into a renderable geometry mesh and then projected all of the images back onto that and that allowed us to recreate this mountain range in 3—d. what we wanted to be able to do was take shots we had shot using the helicopter and cameras, but then effectively move the camera much closer to the mountain face. that's where the 3—d mountain range really came into play. but also gave us the ability to cook a shot from scratch in post—production, change the cameras, changed the design on the shots, giving us the freedom to do whatever we wanted to do in post—production and react to notes and comments from the director. part of the problem with explosions and things like that is if you shoot a miniature explosion, the scale of the gravity gives itself away. we're trying to do an explosion
that's the size of a mountain. and rob had the idea that we can't go big, how about we do absolutely tiny? he was a big fan of the slow mo guys on youtube. you've seen these guys smashing things up, shooting it with ultra slow motion cameras. and they did a thing where they were doing underwater explosions, like firing off tiny little firecrackers in fish tanks and shooting that something like 120,000 frames per second. so we decided to have a go at doing something like that. and, ultimately, that's what we did. so at pinewood, we set up a large fish tank and we took a 3—d print of the mountain that we were going to blow up, we shot it at 130,000 frames a second, and we filmed multiple versions of setting off a firecracker charges, various different colours of firecrackers, various different densities. we shot about, i think, 64 different versions of this explosion. using the 3—d print of the mountain, the explosion — the bubble — wrapped itself around the contours of the mountain perfectly.
it's quite funny, when you look at the shot, most people would think that the mountain range is real and the explosion is cg, but it's actually completely the other way around. the explosion elements are absolutely real and the mountains are all cg. you know, it's no secret there was a change in directors halfway through the shoot of the movie and ron howard came on board. he is a fabulous director and he tried to have as little an impact on the production as possible. he wanted to pick up the reins and run with it. and he did a greatjob with that. but inevitably there were certain amounts of the movie that he wanted to re—sculpt in his own vision. so that meant that the shoot extended. the shoot extended by about two months. but the release date didn't change, so that meant our post—production schedule was somewhat compressed. and it made things, you know, a little bit of a scramble in the final stages. but, having said that, it was, and it is a testimony
to all the team at ilm, and production, and the way they organised the schedule, we still managed it. here in london, i think we delivered couple of days early. i got a really good feeling about this. since when do you know how to fly? chewbacca growls 190 years old?! chewbacca growls you look great! push it! wow. i just love looking at the work that goes into making those movies. don't forget — next week is oscars weekend, and we'll be running the final in our series of best visual effects nominees. that's it for this week, though. thank you very much for watching. don't forget, we're all over social media, including facebook, youtube, instagram, and twitter. see you soon. hello.
much more sunshine across western areas this afternoon after what's been a damp start to sunday for some of you. but we'll still see some chance of rain pushing its way eastwards through the day, but all of us seeing at least a little bit of sunday sunshine. wet weather comes courtesy of this cold front pushing off the atlantic, working its way eastwards, so through this afternoon you will see across parts of scotland, down into western areas of england and wales to begin with, a few showers here and there. hit and miss, though, because because those those showers over the uk, the weather front is weakening as it pushes this zone of cloud towards the south and the east, hence much more sunshine developing to the west. so this is how it looks towards the middle part of the afternoon. much more cloud into the channel islands, spreading into central and southern england, the south midlands, may be parts of the south—east through east yorkshire and lincolnshire. it's through this zone we could see
some light rain and drizzle. but towards north and western england and wales, northern ireland, plenty of sunshine, may be a few showers western northern ireland. mainland scotland as well seeing much more sunshine around this afternoon too. but through lewis into caithness and 0rkney, still see some outbreaks of rain and that will spread its way towards shetland later. the wind strengthening across the north—west of scotland tonight with gale force gusts expected. showers frequent here. also pushing back into parts of northern ireland and parts of north—west england, western wales in the south—west. many parts of central and eastern england, down into eastern scotland, staying dry through the night. should be just about frost free. a cool start to monday and quite a blustery one. but we will see one of those days where you might need to grab the umbrella, especially across western scotland and northern ireland, showers most likely here. there will be a few showers coming and going through western england and wales, drifting to the midlands in the afternoon but some good spells of sunshine in between. east anglia and the south—east, however, lots more in the way of cloud and it's the remnants of today's weather front that just sits there and starts to reinvigorate, so you may start to dry but likely some of you will see some rain to end the day. temperatures down on recent days
but still above where they should be for this time of year, leading to a cooler start to tuesday, a few showers in the west and lots of sunshine to begin with, but then cloud increases, sunshine turns hazy, turning wetter for northern ireland, north—west wales, western scotland, before the day is out. temperatures by this stage, 9—12 celsius, much like monday's values. but as the rain spreads northward through tuesday night into wednesday we draw in southerly winds once again. the yellow colours on the chart, indication of milder air coming back with temperatures by the end of the week into the upper teens. good afternoon. the family of shamima begum — one of three british school girls who left britain to join so—called islamic state — say they've been told that she's given birth. it comes as president trump has called for the uk and other european countries to take back hundreds of members of is, captured in syria and iraq, and to put them on trial. jane frances kelly reports. the teenager, shamima begum, who