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tv   Victoria Derbyshire  BBC News  April 25, 2019 10:00am-11:01am BST

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hello. it's thursday, it's 10 o'clock, i'm victoria derbyshire. our exclusive story today: a third of gang members aged between 10—15 are girls, according to new figures seen by this programme. this girl was in a gang at the age of 12, and she carried knives. i'd carry a knife but there'd be guns and, you know... mostly kitchen knives. how big were they? like around this big. and you'd carry them for gang members? for gang members and for my own protection. the children's commissioner has told us exclusively that girls like samira are less likely to receive support than boys,
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and are being failed by the authorities. should four year—olds be tested as soon as they start school? this mother of four year—old isla is going to downing street today to protest against plans to bring in new assessments next year which will ask four year—olds simple questions like, "how many teddies are in the box?" here's why she's worried. if you ask isla today, "how many teddies are in the box?" she might say four. tomorrow she might say seven, because she'll double count them, or she might feel like saying something silly because she's having a bad morning. and, "i am not a cheat" — that's what this foreign student says, even though the home office cancelled his visa after accusing him of cheating in an english language test. it came after this bbc panorama investigation five years ago which revealed some students were encouraged to cheat. i'll be going on quickly, i won't be stopping. so, if, in case, you miss one, carry on, we'll come back to it later. so, one, cat. two, cat. three, alpha. four, cat. unbelievably, the invigilator
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is simply reading out the answers. welcome to the programme. we're live until 11 this morning. unicef today report that half a million children have missee thier measles jab. —— a million children have misses their measles jab. and the boss of the nhs says people rejecting vaccines is a ‘growing public health time bomb‘. so is it time for drastic measures? should there be any sanction for parents who don't? first, anita has the news. more than half a million children in
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the uk have not been vaccinated against measles according to new analysis by unicef. the charity warns that being left on protect against measles could lead to disability and death. it says misinformation and a lack of access to jabs has led to inadequate vaccination rates globally. girls involved in gang crime are being overlooked and failed by the authorities, the children's commissionerfor authorities, the children's commissioner for england has said. and longfield told this programme that half of children involved in gangs are girls and are used to ask to be carrying knives and drugs because they are less likely to be stopped by the police. the house of lords committee has called for free bus passes and tv licences for pensioners to be scrapped. the pier also believe that the triple lock, a formula guaranteeing rises in pension payments, should be abandoned. the committee on intergenerational fairness says that many pensioners are on average better off than some working
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households and that benefits must be rebalanced towards young people. sainsbury‘s and asda have been blocked from completing their planned merger and the competition regulator said it thought the deal could lead to higher prices for customers and worse quality in stores. both supermarkets have now agreed to pull out of the deal. the boss of sainsbury‘s accuse the regulators are taking £1 billion of savings out of customers pockets. vladimir putin and the leader of north korea kim jong—un vladimir putin and the leader of north korea kimjong—un have held their first ever summit. the north korea kimjong—un have held theirfirst ever summit. the meeting in russia is being seen as an opportunity for president putin to show russia is an important player on the korean peninsula. the two men referred to their two countries long history of ties and mr putin said he wa nted history of ties and mr putin said he wanted to help calm korean tensions and welcomed mr kim's efforts to normalise relations with the us. knife crime across england and wales has risen to record levels stop last year nearly 41,000 offences were recorded by the police and that is a
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6% increase on 2017. the figures published by the office for national statistics showed more than 730 cases of murder and manslaughter including terror attacks, the highest number since 2008. the four—time 0lympic highest number since 2008. the four—time olympic champion sir mo farah has become involved in a dispute with an ethiopian athletics star. highly gather selassie over and an alleged robbery in the ethiopian capital addis ababa. mo farah said he had money, watch and two phones taken from his room and that the owner of the hotel did not help him. the owner said he was considering taking legal action against sir mo farah. thousands of emperor penguin chicks in the world second largest colony have been wiped out because the sea ice where they are raised is not strong enough to support them. researchers at the british antarctic survey made the discovery after studying satellite images of the region. we have more
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details on the findings. and that is a summary of the main stories. back to you, victoria. how many girls are in gangs? according to figures seen exclusively by this programme from the children's comissioner for england, a third of gang members aged between 10 and 15 are girls — and they're sometimes carrying weapons for their boyfriends. but we've also found that far fewer girls than boys are receiving support from youth offending teams than boys. just 8% of the young people being supported in this way are girls. the children's commissioner is now writing to the government to call for a review of youth services. 0ur reporter noel philips has been speaking to a teenage girl whojoined a south london gang at the age of 12 but recently escaped. she says she used to carry knives and earned hundreds of pounds a day dealing drugs on the streets. a man and a woman remain critically ill in hospital after what police believe to be a random but linked
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series of stabbings. two men have been charged with murder after a fatal stabbing near regent's park. a man's been stabbed to death outside clapham common... with knife crime at a record high, there are concerns that gangs and serious organised crime groups are fuelling much of the violence on the streets. quite a lot of these squats and corners are going to be shrines and places of remembrance for many young people or young adults within the community. there were 132 fatal stabbings in london in the last year. the overwhelming majority of those were boys believed to be linked to gangs. but whilst most gangs are male dominated, the membership and the roles of female gang members are increasing. i don't believe that teenagers wake up with the intention to take a life. i don't think that's the case. i just think that they get into situations that get a bit out of hand, altercations they can't handle, and before they know it, they've harmed someone. there's a stereotype that gets
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stopped and searched. it's always young black boys in hoodies. there are girls out there, there are girls that are willing to do things. figures exclusively seen by this programme show two thirds of those involved in gangs aged 10 to 15 in england are boys and one third are girls. yet, only a small number of girls are known to children's services, meaning the vast majority are under the radar. i think it's been massively underestimated how many girls are involved in gangs, and overlooked. nequela whittaker knows all too well how some girls end up in gangs. she carried a knife to and from school at the age of 14. by the time she was 17, she was jailed for trafficking large amounts of drugs from london to scotland in what's known as county lines. i'm working with young girls that are in years seven and eight, so that'll be your 11 and 12—year—olds, 13 and 14, and these young girls are admitting and then letting us know that they carry weapons, that they are willing to carry weapons for boyfriends,
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other counterparts and gang members. further data we analysed from the office of the children's commissioner in england showed that 92% of boys and 8% of girls in gangs are being supported by council—run youth offending teams. this suggests girls are most at risk of being recruited by gangs. hello? i need your help. are you 0k? what's up? no, i'm... tracey miller is taking a call from a teenage gang member. at age 15, tracey, too, was in a gang. she carried knives, sold drugs, and even owned a gun for protection. i'm not far, i'm going to head over now, yeah? until recently, this 18—year—old — who we're calling samira — was a member of a south london gang. she's now six months‘ pregnant, but says she was groomed into carrying knives at the age of 12 because there was little chance of her being stopped by the police. i'd carry a knife but there'd be guns and, you know... mostly kitchen knives. how big were they? like around this big.
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and you'd carry them for gang members? for gang members and for my own protection. did you ever think about the implications of carrying a weapon like that and perhaps had you used it, you could have killed somebody or... ..seriously injured someone? when you're in that situation, all you think about‘s yourself, so you don't really care about what happens to the other person or what's going to happen to you later on. how does someone at the age of 12 end up in a gang? if your home life is unstable, then where else can you go? did you see violent things? yeah, definitely. i saw people getting stabbed, getting shot. people getting beaten up, getting robbed. samira, who grew up in a traditional muslim household, says she was never sexually exploited, but she saw other girls being used by senior gang members.
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the national crime agency says gangs are increasingly exploiting children, both boys and girls. were you ever sexually exploited? no, but the girls around me, i've seen them, um, them getting raped. um... i can see how visibly upset you are. you're crying as you talk about the things that you saw. it'sjust, like, seeing someone go through that and then you're just sat there doing nothing. imagine if that was your sister or that was your friend going through that. these young women all linked to violent gangs were convicted in the last ten years after being charged with the murders of young boys and men. experts say girls in organised crime gangs are often referred to as the "invisible ones" as they are rarely
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stopped by the police. we're carrying out what we call a weapons sweep today, because of the increase that there's been in knife crime. what do you think about the whole concept of people saying, you know, girls should also be equally stopped and searched, the same as boys? stop and search should always be used where there's grounds and where you're able to do that, and you shouldn't really take into consideration whether it's a male or female. we should be using that tool where we need to. the met police's gangs matrix database, which keeps tabs on thousands of individuals linked to gang violence in the capital, currently has 18 females on it. the youngest is just 14 years old. of the 3,000 people, most of whom are black men on the database, women only represent 0.5%. but the deputy mayor in charge of policing in the capital is concerned that female involvement in gangs is going unnoticed. the gangs matrix actually tracks those who are actively involved in the violence of gangs. it really worries me.
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i have a daughter who's 20 and it breaks my heart when i listen to younger girls talking about how they have been groomed, how they've been abused. it's a little bit like an iceberg. what we are dealing with, there is a lot under the radar. we are doing our best to engage with those that we know about and to make sure that we are actively reaching out to communities to ensure we are working with young women and girls who are being exploited. we haven't forgotten them. for these 14—year—old boys, growing up in one of london's most deprived areas, knives and girls being used by gangs is an everyday reality. well, girls, they're just used and that. they're just used to carry stuff around, cos see the feds, yeah, they're not really on the girls, they're on the men. so, you see, if the girls carry more stuff, it puts the men at ease. if the feds don't find anything on the men... they're not really going to search the girls. they don't think, like, that the girls will carry stuff. they're not going to think like that. cos the girls are a bit discreet. so that's why the girls are used
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to carry stuff around, like knives. so why are so many girls in gangs slipping through the net of services? well, the local government association which represents 370 councils across england has told us... if you look at the london gang matrix, you see just a few girls on there. if you look at the children that the councils are identifying in gangs and at risk, two thirds of those are boys. if you look at the number of children that are being supported by youth offenders' teams, they're nearly all boys in gangs, but actually, from our own analysis, we can see that half of all gang members are girls. we showed a children's commissioner for england, who is charged with protecting vulnerable young people, ourfindings. she says the failure by local authorities and the government to recognise girls in gangs
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is a major concern in itself. i'm going to be raising these issues. i'll be writing to ministers to talk about the numbers of girls that are in gangs and the increased support and identification they need. samira is soon to become a mum at the age of 18, which she says was her way of escaping gang life. but now i can actually focus on my future, i'll get into a college, focus on my baby. so, i'm happy that i'm out of that life. let's speak now to claudia webbe, who is a former chair of operation trident, which focused on gun murders in london communities. janette collins, a youth worker and co—founder of the crib, a north—london youth project, which works with young boys and girls and we also have jennifer blake, who was in a gang at the age of 13.
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she now helps young people associated with gangs in south london and is also a former home office advisor on gang crime. thank you very much for coming on the programme. jennifer, you believe some girls are attracted to gangs because of the perceived glamour, as you put it. what do you mean by that? when we look at the life of a gangster, the portrait of what we see in america, we look at the bling, the money the reputation that goes with it. so if you are not connected to an individual in that way, which sounds pathetic in a way for us to understand, but they feel that that is the kind of individual that that is the kind of individual that they need to be associated with in order to be seen, been known, being understood and for me, knowing that there are other individuals that there are other individuals that are attracted to somebody who
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is going to work, university and so forth, these young girls, they don't see it that way any more. they want to be in that glamorous kind of lifestyle relationship. from your experience, having been in a gang for a number of years, was it glamorous to carry a weapon either for yourself or on behalf of your boyfriend, or hide a weapon for them under your bed? none of it was glamorous. well, you know, the hidden abuse that goes on when a girl is involved in gangster lifestyle, it is unspeakable. girl is involved in gangster lifestyle, it is unspeakablelj girl is involved in gangster lifestyle, it is unspeakable. i am going to ask you to speak about it. what hidden abuse are you talking about? my abuse, iwas what hidden abuse are you talking about? my abuse, i was kidnapped, tortured, raped, and it is hidden abuse because nobody talks about it. i ended up in care and social services did not look at it to say that these abuses are going on and they are looking at the criminal aspect of the behaviour of the
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individual rather than the abuse. which is an interesting point to bring you in, claudia, because you don't think it is accurate to describe girls as gang members. the victimisation, abuse and exploitation of young women and girls has been something which has been quite historic when it comes to criminal activity. there isn't any more, but what there was was the protective factors that enabled young people to see those girls protected. what we are dealing with now is the scale of abuse, victimisation, lack of protection, which is unprecedented and that is because of the lack of resources there has been to protect girls and young women over time. so when you look at crime, particularly london crime, and you look at the use and abuse of women and girls that has
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been historic over time, the reality that we are faced with now is the fa ct we that we are faced with now is the fact we have young girls that have ina sense fact we have young girls that have in a sense been exploited, in a sense captured by criminal activity and by men. are you saying that all girls who are in gangs are victims. .iam girls who are in gangs are victims. . i am saying there is a pattern and there is a level of under ability where there were protective factors to protect people but now you have a scale of exploitation and abuse where, as before, more people were protected on the vulnerability would have been recognised and there would have been recognised and there would have been recognised and there would have been a protective factor but it isn't there anymore. let me bring intranet at this point. i'm not sure people would categorise all boys in gangs as victims, would they jeanette? boys in gangs are victims as well. i would definitely say
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that. i think we need to look at the young boys as well, from the age of ten and 11 that are groomed and coerced into carrying knives and hiding weapons for older boys. because the police don't search them. no, and that came out in the film. what kind of things, from your experience, do girls end up doing in order to be accepted into gangs or be given protection? they will do sexual favours to be part of the group, because they think that is the norm. a lot of young girls have said to me that they think they give sexual favours to young boys, oral sexual favours to young boys, oral sexual favours, not to be part of a group, but it's trying to teach them by doing stuff like that you are not pa rt of by doing stuff like that you are not part of a group, by doing stuff like that you are not part ofa group, you by doing stuff like that you are not part of a group, you are being exploited. the person doesn't like you or love you and if they give you weapons, they don't care about you. i don't see them as gang members, i
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see them as groups of young women that want to feel like they belong toa group. that want to feel like they belong to a group. they may feel like they are gang members but theyjust want to belong. this term gangs is a flawed term in the first place. we are dealing with a term that has been created that doesn't really get to the root cause of what is actually going on. what would you say is the root cause? the root cause is a lack of resources and support at community level. when young people wake up and find their youth clubs are shot and 145 million that were used to having youth offending services is slashed in half and schools have no resources to even support young people and send them to people offending units, thatis send them to people offending units, that is a failure to young people and a failure to children and and the lack of support and government led austerity since 2010 that has
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basically halved the resources we would have in work in terms of policing and work at community level is is absolutely dramatic and devastating for tackling the issue. just let me read this and i will come back to you jeanette. the government say intervening early in the lives of vulnerable children and young people is that central part of the approach to tackling serious buyers and they talk about the £200 million youth endowment fund and £1 billion is coming for the police in the coming year. 600 youth clubs have shut since 2010 slashed 11. where is the support and investment question but there's been a lack of investment. let me bring in jennifer again. you have given us a bit of an insight into what it was like for you in the gang. how did you get out in the end? for me it was religion.
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i became a christian in 2004 and that was my way out. before that, with regards to support, the support was not there. the criminaljustice system did not know how to operate. and you had two different lots of girls, the ones that are not in gangs and are being exploited, but then you have another cohort of girls that are like men and they do carry, stab, they do all of that. so there are two different types of girls we are talking about. the goals we are talking about today are those who are being exploited. —— the girls. the criminaljustice system has not got a clue what to do with them. we keep on throwing money at it. let me bring intranet on this point. 0ne at it. let me bring intranet on this point. one of the reasons why the youth offending teams are helping fewer girls than boys, jeanette is that you have to have committed an offence before the intervention happens. what do you think of that? you have to offend before you get help. i don't think that is right
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because the work that we do with our young people, we have four young women who have turned their lives around. what the young lady said now about becoming a christian, i find young women when they get to a certain age they kind of let go of all of the gang mentality and if they have the support, you have the support of show than there are better things out there rather than the stuff they are doing and the girls we were dealing with they had been part of the criminaljustice syste m been part of the criminaljustice system and that is when they got the support from us afterwards. i think it should go on in schools and they should open up the schools in summer holidays so they can do work with young people. schools are empty for six weeks. why have buildings empty over six weeks and hearn have young people roaming up and down the streets. -- and then have. thank you, all of you, thank you for coming on the programme. thank you
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very much. should four year olds be tested when they start school? a group of parents and teachers, who are protesting against plans to introduce new assessments for reception age children in england, are delivering a petition to downing street today. last year the government announced plans to assess every child for around 20 minutes when they start in reception class at primary school. it will look at communication, language, literacy and maths skills. the assessments are supposed to track the progress of a class through school, and they are designed so the child taking part doesn't have to prepare. but campaigners say they will put unnecessary pressure on children. i've been speaking to a mum and a teacher who are going on today's protest, along with a headteacher and who are in favour of the new tests. i have got a couple of examples of the kind of things that might be asked in these assessments. the kind
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of thing i like might be asked going into the reception in september if your primary school decides to take pa rt your primary school decides to take part in the pilot —— isla. i want you to tell me what you think of these questions. teachers will have a large drawing of a park with things going on, for example, children playing. the teacher will ask the child questions such as, point to something that is green. 0r, point to something that is green. or, how many children are there on the roundabout? what do you think of those kind of questions?” the roundabout? what do you think of those kind of questions? i think they seem innocuous and if you are reading a book with a child and you we re reading a book with a child and you were discussing the picture and you asked them to point at something you we re asked them to point at something you were green and they might point to a tree or a yellow ball because at four years old, they are still learning the skills and when you are discussing it in an informal example isa discussing it in an informal example is a learning example, as opposed to a testing example, there is nothing wrong with that. how would isla know it was a test? i don't know, to be
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honest. she might not know it's a test. if you are in a classroom setting and you work in a group with children and there is a discussion about something and all of the children are involved it is a learning opportunity. if a teacher came and took isla to one side and showed her a picture and asked those questions, i don't think she would identify it as a test but she would understand that she was being asked questions that she was supposed to provide an answer to as opposed to a learning experience. isla, hello. hello. what do you like doing at school? colouring. what else do you like doing? going outside. well, that's enough, isn't it. you like
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playing in the home corner. and dressing up. yeah. definitely dressing up. yeah. definitely dressing up. yeah. definitely dressing up. you are a nursery reception class teacher, so what do you think of the ideas of these assessments? i think they are absolutely unhelpful, unreliable and unnecessary. as absolutely unhelpful, unreliable and unnecessary. as a absolutely unhelpful, unreliable and unnecessary. as a primary school teacher and an early years teacher in nursery at the moment we assess children all the time anyway. there is no need to spend £10 million of taxpayers money on bringing in baseline assessment when it was already disproven last time around. we've already been through this once before. i get the best out of my children by building up a relationship with them and by working with them in areas in the classroom, such as the home corner that isla likes to play in. i get much more out of that and if i was to ta ke much more out of that and if i was to take one of the children over to one side, which puts them in a false environment. they know that is not
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the norm. do you have to take them to one side? could you not do it in the home corner? another example of the home corner? another example of the questions. there would be a small box of teddy bears, like you mightfind in small box of teddy bears, like you might find in the home corner and the teacher will ask the child, can you give me four teddies? 0r the teacher will ask the child, can you give me four teddies? or can you put half the teddies here and have the teddies over there. that is the sort of thing we do all the time anyway. so why is this different? because it's a high—stakes pressure testing environment which then adds to the process that this gold —— school is doing all. you are pro these baseline assessments. why? why are they necessary? i think it's worth starting by thinking about what the purpose of the tests is and it's about how the government can judge how well different schools are doing, so we recognise that it is important as parents that we know how well our children are doing, for example, so one of the main reasons we do that is to look at the
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progress they enable children to make when they start and finish school, and the moment, kind of oddly, the start of the progress assessment is done almost half way through primary school undone at the end of key stage one when children are seven. schools are assessed on how, the distance children travel from seven until the age of 11. we don't think everything is perfect about these tests and no assessment is perfect. what this does enable the government to do is look at how well schools are doing from much nearer the beginning. we know those first three years of primary school are crucial and where an enormous amount of learning goes on and what this does is help give a better picture of schools right from the very early days in terms of how well they are helping children. school to do that for parents anyway, the classroom teacher will give a report to the teacher at the end of term, at the end of the school year, about how the child is doing. all schools
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will do some kind of baseline assessment. it enables the work that schools are already doing to recognise informally about the education they provide to children. let me bring in the head teacher of hartford manor primary in cheshire, what about the pressure this might put on four—year—old, you feel comfortable? i don't believe it will do. this is not a test, it is an assessment, the examples you have given, they are what would be normally done in the classroom, a schoolteacher may or may not make this feel like a test, this will be an assessment. we heard it said that an assessment. we heard it said that a child will be taken to one side, it will feel different. we do that a nyway it will feel different. we do that anyway with children, working one—to—one with teaching assistants, with a teacher, to make sure, as
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pa rt with a teacher, to make sure, as part as of the normal day. let me read the statement to you from the department for education:" the baseline assessment is not a test, it does not have a pass mark, there is no reason for parents or teachers to prepare pupils ahead of the assessment which is carefully designed with children in mind carried out in the right way, children would not even be aware that an assessment is being taken place, it will just that an assessment is being taken place, it willjust measure how well primary schools are doing to make sure all children reach their potential. you, there is no pass mark, you will never know if your daughter answered the questions or some of them, there will be an average, that is how the progress will move up the school, to be assessed. the test is not only imperfect, it is critically flawed. it is not a test. sorry, the assessment, yes... ifeel it is not a test. sorry, the assessment, yes... i feel like
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it is not a test. sorry, the assessment, yes... ifeel like it is assessment, yes... ifeel like it is a test, and ifeel assessment, yes... ifeel like it is a test, and i feel if you are trying to gather data, which is effectively what is happening here, it is going to be unreliable, if you ask are today how many teddy bears are in the box, she might say four tomorrow, she might say seven, she might feel like saying something silly because she is having a bad morning. a really good point, isn't it, at age four, at age five, kids are unpredictable, they say random things. good point, no test is 10096 accurate, however it is not a test of individual children, it is an assessment of the cohort, next year, 55 children coming into my school andl 55 children coming into my school and i want to know whether they are coming in broadly average, below average or above average, then i can prove how well the school is doing by the time they leave in year six. thank you very much. you are off to downing street, have a lovely afternoon. thank you for coming on the programme. stuart says, "good on those parents, schools are too worried about league
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ta bles schools are too worried about league tables and teaching the pupil." when my daughter moved in with me, the school was more worried with attendance, the issue she was dealing with at the time feels all wrong." "this baseline assessment is essential to measure the progress of the child and the quality of teaching, parents who say there is too much teacher pressure are precisely those that put pressure on their kids, children left to themselves would be oblivious." lorraine says, "it is called baseline assessment and has been carried out since the stone age, it is not a test, the teacher has to know the starting point in order to plan the child's targets and learning goals. i don't like sacks, but baseline is essentially a teaching tool. " —— sats. if asda or sainsburys is where you do your weekly shop, you've been protected this morning from higher prices and worse product ranges — so says the competition regulator which has blocked a massive merger between the two. our business correspondent
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victoria fritz is here. they have said no to sasda, as i am calling it, £7 billion deal to try to merge the number two and number three retailers in the uk, they say that could create a monopoly, and under a monopoly, you might see higher prices, not just. .. under a monopoly, you might see higher prices, notjust... less choice, for what you put in your grocery basket but also, petrol as well, they say they could reduce quality and the range. these are the key reasons why they have turned it down. that should be good news for consumers, sainsbury‘s have come back, the boss has come back and said, you have taken £1 billion out of consumer pockets, the reason he is saying that is back in february, they promised to reduce prices by about 1%, on most of the goods that you would get in your food shopping, and so they are saying they will not get that and consumers will not benefit from that. the competition
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and markets authority were telling me, actually, we don't know how true that was going to be, so not only do consumers win out here, you also have workers. —— lose out. there has been a year of uncertainty, not knowing if jobs are been a year of uncertainty, not knowing ifjobs are safe in stores and depots, and all the small suppliers and farmers as well, i am sure they are breathing a collective sigh of relief. no one knew what the tm cs were sigh of relief. no one knew what the tmcs were going to look like when you are up against a goliath of the retail industry. —— t&cs. you are up against a goliath of the retail industry. -- t&cs. so everything looks the same? for the moment! thank you very much. the number of people in the uk who aren't vaccinated against measles is being called a "growing public—health time bomb". the nhs says the number of cases of measles, in england, almost quadrupled last year. while the children's charity unicef says more than half a million children in england haven't had the mmr jab. a few weeks ago we took a couple called victoria and mark who are expecting a new child
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and considering not having the baby vaccinated to meet medical experts to talk about why they should. why do you think it is acceptable to inject aluminium into a baby when it is banned in things like aerosols. it is an important part, alums, because it helps the bacterial viral ingredients to help well in the body. you make it sound as if we are giving a massive shot of aluminium to the body, that is not at all the case. the concentration of aluminium, it is 1000th of the stuff that you find in the natural environment and what we already have. it is actually ingested by the body, even in the water and in cups of tea, and excreted normally. inserts for vaccines are not always offered prior to injection for pa rents to read, offered prior to injection for parents to read, they should not be
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administered if you are allergic to the ingredients, we have read, how do you know if the baby is allergic? the most important ingredient in thatis the most important ingredient in that is usually egg, some vaccines, the mmr vaccine, has traces of that, by the time the baby gets that particular vaccine, we will know whether they are allergic to egg or not, because they will have had it in all sorts of products. what about younger babies? what is important also, on the inserts, they have to list notjust also, on the inserts, they have to list not just what also, on the inserts, they have to list notjust what is in the vaccine now but also what was part of the vaccine when it was manufactured. it is not necessarily differentiated in the insert, you get a whole bunch of stuff that is mentioned, but hardly any of it will be in the final product. let's talk to alastair harper a spokesman for unicef. half a million children have missed
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the mmr, how do you react to that? —— the measles jab. the mmr, how do you react to that? -- the measles jab. vaccines are how you protect children from getting terrible diseases like measles, we see globally, 1.5 million children are dying unnecessarily because they have not been vaccinated, it is of great concern to us. a measles jab... it stops a child from getting measles and potentially losing their life. absolutely, the only way to stop measles is to get the vaccine, to get two doses of it and that teaches your body exactly how to defeat measles and save you from infection, it also saves other people as well, because you need 95% immunisation in a community to make sure there is not a measles outbreak and we have been saying rich and middle income countries increasingly having measles outbreaks, brazil, the ukraine, really it should be a problem of the past, it is a problem right now, it is a bigger problem. we reported on this three weeks ago, we revealed exclusive figures, about the dramatic increase in the
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searching for terms like anti—vaccine and would you... do you say, in part, it is to do with inaccurate information on social media that is potentially leaving some parents —— leading some parents do not getting vaccination? one of the major barriers to vaccination is information in a high and middle income country, we live in a world where there is a lot of information out there, a lot of different information, we have the digital world we have, but for organisations like unicef, we exist for the right of every child to have a healthy childhood, to be safe and grow strong. for others, it is imperative that we get the information out there, the right information is that vaccines save lives. i was asking viewers and people on twitter whether, because of this warning from the boss of the nhs, the growing public health time bomb, whether people should consider drastic measures like sanctions for
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pa rents drastic measures like sanctions for parents who don't get their kids vaccinated. 0ne text, i wonder if kidd should have the measles vaccination at school so all children would be covered. sometimes pa rents children would be covered. sometimes parents will miss vaccination, etc etc. with that potentially be a solution? one of the main things governments all around the world can do is make sure vaccines are there, we see globally, the government has great support, and the generosity of the british public, to make sure that organisations like unicef can get vaccines to children around the world. this is not about accusation, it is about information, making sure pa rents it is about information, making sure parents have it is about information, making sure pa rents have access it is about information, making sure parents have access to the correct information, that we counter fake news and that parents and carers understand that vaccines will help kids, they are the solution, not the problem. a number of parents say, any parent not vaccinating should be fined, there is absolutely not any reason to enable the spread of disease and threaten others, there is no valid argument against the
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vaccination of children. it is selfish not to do it. on twitter, "no vaccination, no school: why should someone with no mental reason for not being vaccinated be allowed forward ? for not being vaccinated be allowed forward? herd immunity is important." forward? herd immunity is important. " "a child forward? herd immunity is important." "a child not vaccinated will not be admitted, that should be the case, you cannot have your dog or cat looked after without proof of vaccination, apply the same rules in nurseries." we want to make sure that every child can access educationjust as much that every child can access education just as much as every child should have the right to health, and it was quite welcome what the health secretary matt hancock has been saying in terms of recognising we need to get the information out there, more than anything we need to make sure that people making an important choice, that they are able to counter lies with facts and people know they have a role in their society, their community, to make sure children are vaccinated. thank you very much for joining us.
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the us military spent millions of dollars trying to wipe out the heroin industry in afghanistan. around 95% percent of the heroin that ends up on uk streets comes from afghan poppy fields. but the bbc has been given exclusive access to research suggesting that 21st century fighter jets were often being used to bomb mud huts, not heroin factories. justin rowlatt takes a look for us — starting in the skies above afghanistan. an f—16 fighter refusals over nangarhar province in afghanistan. america deploys some of the most high—tech weapons ever developed in what has become its longest war. two years ago, they were given a new target... heroin laboratories. i'm going to talk about the strikes we've done in the last 24 hours. we're hitting the taliban where it hurts, which is theirfinances. american forces released videos
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of many of the strikes. there were to be 200 in total, costing tens of millions of dollars. american forces said it was worth it. the taliban, they said, lost $50 million, drug trafficking networks, another 160 million. but thousands of miles away in the uk, a team of researchers claims that the high—tech bombs were hitting empty buildings. so can you see the top two pairs of buildings? these kind of parallel buildings? 0k. those are shops. they analysed the strike videos and identified many sites. satellite footage helped show what was happening beforehand. we look at each of the compound locations and we look at what the signs of activity and processing activity in each might be. and are there any signs here? in those images, none. this rare footage shows workers boiling down opium into a paste — the first stage in the process of producing heroin. it leaves distinctive patterns on the ground. this site was hit by
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the afghan air force. satellite images show the site being built, and then in september 2017, being used as a lab. so here, we can see that there's an area where they've been processing opium in barrels and the water run—off from that activity. but production has stopped before the strike happened. the researchers looked at 43 sites in total. just one, this one, was clearly producing. the video and satellite analysis was backed up by dozens of interviews in the communities affected by the campaign. the conclusions were damning. david mansfield is the lead researcher. very few of these buildings were struck whilst they were actively producing drugs. most of them would probably have
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been labs at some point, but were dormant at the time that they were destroyed. so what does that tell us about how effective this campaign was in terms of denying the taliban revenue, which was the primary purpose? it tells us it wasn't effective. it tells us that the fact that there were no drugs present, what is the loss? what is the loss to a drug trafficking organisation when you essentially hit a building, a mud compound? we asked the american military for their response. eight civilians were killed in this bombing raid on the first night of the campaign. did this prompt a decision to target empty sites to avoid casualties, i wanted to know? i got this terse reply... a spokesman for the us command in afghanistan said, "all their efforts are focused on getting the taliban to the negotiating table". "the grand majority of our strikes," she told me, are "lethal strikes aimed at the taliban or isis". afghanistan's heroin economy drives corruption and funds the taliban, as well as terrorist groups
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like al-qaeda and isis, and says the man charged with overseeing america's effort to reconstruct afghanistan, it is therefore a major threat to peace. over 30% of our gross domestic product is narcotics trafficking. and their major cash crop is heroin. over 600,000 afghans, or their equivalent, are employed in the heroin industry. the bombing campaign against the heroin laboratories is the latest chapter in a story of failure in the battle the bombing campaign against the heroin laboratories is the latest chapter in a story of failure in the battle against afghan opium. the us has spent an average of $1.5 million a day on counter—narcotics since the invasion in 2001.
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yet, opium cultivation has increased more than fourfold. that affects all of us, because more opium in afghanistan means cheaper heroin coming to a street near you. next, students coming to the uk to study from abroad have to take an english language test to get a visa. but some students have told this programme that they have had their visas cancelled or curtailed after being wrongly accused of cheating in the tests. the government overhauled the test system five years ago when a bbc panorama investigation uncovered systemic fraud at some test centres. they filmed undercover at one test centre. this is multiple choice with a difference. unbelievably, the invigilator
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is simply reading out the answers. all our undercover needed to know was that alpha meant, "tick box a", beta meant box b, and so on. 38, beta. 39, alpha. 40, alpha. is everyone following me? all: yeah. having been given the answers to all 200 questions, it took the two dozen or so candidates just seven minutes to complete the two—hour exam. after that bbc investigation, a criminal investigation was launched, and the home office cancelled around 36,000 student visas. labour mps now claim the cancellation or curtailing of many of those visas has "blighted the lives of thousands and thousands who did not actually cheat". let's speak now to fatema, she came to the uk from bangladesh in 2010, finished her law degree in 2014 at the university of london and was detained after she was accused
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of cheating in the english test which she denies. wahid, also from bangladesh, was shocked when he was accused of cheating in the same test because he can speak english and had already passed a similar test; and we also have stephen timms, the labour mp for east ham. did you cheat? no, i did not. no, obviously not. were you ever in an exam room like that? no, there is no evidence. was there any evidence? no, iwas evidence. was there any evidence? no, i was never in a room like that. there is not good evidence even to the home office. you got a letter from the home office, saying? yes, they said that i cheated and they curtailed my visa. how did you react? my life was shattered, 0k, and all my dreams, my hopes, they are gone, i was totally broken.|j
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was desperate to talk with someone from the home office from the court ofjustice, so that i can prove myself my innocence. but, yet, last for yea rs myself my innocence. but, yet, last for years i have been trying, heart and soul, but there is no hope at all. you are in limbo? yes, yeah. can you work? can you use the nhs? no, no, because! can you work? can you use the nhs? no, no, because i don't have a visa. during my delivery last year, they charged me £14,000 just to have a baby. sorry, this is a personal question, who is helping you with the money? my husband is helping, but obviously... that is not the point. 0k. what evidence did they give you? to say that you cheated?” had been asking for my evidence for so had been asking for my evidence for so long. how many years? four, four and a half years. a few months ago they sent you, what? for years i have been trying to get my evidence from the home office. and now, i
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have been kicked from pillar to post. home office says, this says, that says. the people behind the test. and then a few months ago, i'm sorry to interrupt, a few months ago, they sent you this voice recording... apparently... according to the home office, they say it is mine, it is clearly not mine. before we play it, and we canjudge for ourselves whether it sounds like you, i will give the audience the kind of things that are asked. you would hear this question, "where is the meeting room ? " would hear this question, "where is the meeting room?" and you would hear: to meet the new director... is the first room on the right... yes, at two o'clock. obviously, the a nswer at two o'clock. obviously, the answer is the second one, b, and this is... so obviously... this is the written test, we are going to play... i'm just giving you some exa m ples of play... i'm just giving you some examples of questions. how
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"how well does thomas play the violin?" ' "how well does thomas play the violin?" : i really like it... he's a professional... iwill turn violin?" : i really like it... he's a professional... i will turn down the volume. it is completely obvious what the answers are. let's see if we can listen to what the home office says is your voice, it proves that you are cheating, we will see if it sounds like you. i would like to welcome all of you to the gallery, we are currently showing the works of german photographer bruno keller, whose photography has never before been shown in north america. you will see photos from the trip to chile, argentina and brazil. please follow me to the exhibit. that is supposed to be you. according to the home office, clearly, it is not my voice. so, thatis clearly, it is not my voice. so, that is enough, isn't it, to show they have made a mistake?m that is enough, isn't it, to show they have made a mistake? it is a mistake made by the home office, the
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problem is they are in denial. the response from the home office was some sort of picture of denial. obfuscation and delay. it was not helpful. the american company that administered the test told the home office they had conducted a voice analysis of recordings, a bit like that one, of all 58,000 tests taken in the uk taken between 2011 and 2014 and concluded 33,000 people had cheated. what do you think of that analysis? i think that analysis is pretty worthless, i think the treatment of the students has been a disgrace, they trusted britain to provide them with a decent education, instead they have been falsely accused of cheating, they have been given no chance to appeal, their visas have been cancelled, they have been left in limbo for years. i think what should happen now is that the home office should allow the students to take a reliable english test, if they fail,
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fine, if they pass, then they should be givena fine, if they pass, then they should be given a visa back in order that they can complete their studies. would you accept that, the chance to ta ke would you accept that, the chance to take another english language test? off—course. take another english language test? off-course. i have done it, i have already done it, the allegation, i have done another test, sol already done it, the allegation, i have done another test, so i have done it three times. i sent a copy, a result of the test, still they say, they are saying that i prejudiced the decision, but how else can i put forward my case. i wa nt else can i put forward my case. i want to speak with him directly, face—to—face, but there was no possibility for me to do that. if there is no allegation, you cannot make a decision. they need evidence. i was so unlucky. despite asking them again and again to sit with me, talk to me, give me an opportunity to prove my innocence, and... your life has been in limbo.” to prove my innocence, and... your life has been in limbo. i don't need
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a proxy, i'm completely fine to speak by myself, i don't need a middle man. you have described it effectively is like being in an open prison, you are kind of trap.” effectively is like being in an open prison, you are kind of trap. i am ina prison, you are kind of trap. i am in a black room, i cannot go anywhere, no window, no doors, i cannot go anywhere, you just need to wait over there. this is how i feel, this is where i am living. living in the uk, with a full life but the life is horrible, terrible, very scary, 0k, as well, i don't know when is the next time the home office will knock on my door and tell me, let's go, we need to detain you again. is that what happened the first time? because i was going there, for signing, they said, you better come here and do the signing every month. i have been going there for two years. to check you did not abscond? for two years. to check you did not abscond ? what was for two years. to check you did not abscond? what was the point? reporting. reporting every month. 2017, january, when i went there for
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the reporting, they just 2017, january, when i went there for the reporting, theyjust took me inside and they said, it will take five minutes, we will speak with you. i was feeling very happy. finding that someone will talk with me. and things are not the way i was thinking. so, i had a very bad laps. after waiting for three or four hours over there, when the closing time is near, they are trying to shut down the office. so the gentleman came on security, and said, you know what, you need to be detained now, we have to detain you. where were you held? bradford, for one week, actually. what you think of this type of treatment? it is disgraceful, it is not how britain should be treated in people, they are doing us a favour by choosing britain to study here, we want
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people to come here to study, the students and 30,000 others that have lost their visas should be given a chance. sajid javid, the home secretary? he has said he is sympathetic and that he is going to make a decision about this, and i hope it is the right decision in the next few days. thank you very much for coming on the programme. we will see what happens, thank you for coming on the programme. thank you for your company today. a lot of showers over the next few days, certainly for today, while there is sunny spells out there at there is sunny spells out there at the moment, in nottinghamshire, we have some showers in the forecast.
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moving up from the south or south—west at the moment and across england and wales, some of those showers will be heavy, perhaps even thundery during this afternoon. we will see some of the shower was pushing up into central and southern scotla nd pushing up into central and southern scotland and northern ireland. in the final, probably the warmest place, 17 or 18 degrees, elsewhere, cooler than yesterday, 13 to 16 degrees. tonight, showers continue to feed north. the next batch of showery rain, pushing its way into western areas. temperatures overnight down from five to eight celsius, friday, and over the next few days, remains very unsettled, further rain and showers, much cooler, and potentially quite stormy by the time we get friday night and into saturday, more details later.
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you're watching bbc newsroom live — it's11am and these are the main stories this morning: knife crime across england and wales has risen to record levels with nearly 41,000 offences recorded by police last year. cases of measles almost quadrupled in england last year, as a report warns more than half a million children in the uk may not have had the jab. calls for an inquiry after yesterday's leak of controversial government plans for the uk to use chinese technology in its 5g network the competition watchdog blocks the planned merger between sainsbury‘s and asda.

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