tv Charlie Rose Bloomberg September 14, 2015 6:00pm-7:01pm EDT
♪ announcer: from our studios in new york city, this is "charlie rose." charlie: we begin tonight with the migrant crisis, with the number rising sharply in the last month, people making a dangerous journey from syria and iraq, starting a conversation, and president obama said the u.s. would take in 10,000 refugees year, and germany announced it is expecting 800,000 asylum seekers and refugees by the end of the year. the government has said it can taken up to half a million each year.
coming up from washington is the german ambassador to the united states, peter wkittig. good to be on your program, charlie. charlie: from people looking at this humanitarian crisis, how this came to be, migrants moving to the front page and forcing governments to reconsider their policy. this is al, charlie, crisis of historic proportions. almost epic proportions. not since world war ii have we seen that flow of refugees and migrants coming into europe, and, of course, it is triggered by the crises in the middle east and in north africa. the middle east is in flames, and northern africa is very under babel, so people, refugees, especially from syria,
look for safe haven, a better life, in europe and especially in germany, and i have been serving. in lebanon, i know syria pretty well. those people, they are just escaping hell. to flee from the barrel bombs of assad and the , and theywars of isil e in to find well, -- welcom europe, and mostly syrians coming to germany, and put into proportion, it would equal 3.5 million in the u.s., and i am happy and proud of my fellow countrymen and welcome them wholeheartedly, and the tens of thousands of volunteers that brought them food and shelter, and so it is a wonderful welcome
for those, but, of course, this is just the beginning of a larger transformation of europe, and we see in a very short time span a fundamental our societies,of of my country, of all of europe. migrants, of refugees, will change the face of europe. charlie: how so? peter: we become countries of immigrants, and this is something that the germans, in particular, are not used to. a very homogeneous society, and over the last years, almost under the radar screen, we have become a country where 20% of the population has an immigrant background. now, with this refugee crisis, this will change. have 1%, 2% of our population increased with
refugees, and we will become more diverse. we will have a challenge to not only welcome them as it happened, to house them, to give them the necessary facilities, and to integrate many of them, because many of those refugees who come to us will stay longer in our country. you know,s anti-immigrant political parties have been on the rise in some countries. is this likely, this focus, this change of government policy, does it have an impact on the attractiveness of anti-immigrant political parties? peter: well, you know, europe was ill-prepared for this influx of refugees, and it was to be expected that there is a segment, almost in each of our european countries that is less ,elcoming or xenophobia
outright xenophobia. these are people mostly at the margins of society, who see themselves as losers of polarization. influx,not embrace that and we have seen ugly scenes in many countries, including in my country, where refugees have not been welcomed by some of those rather hostile people, and they have met those people who are xenophobia. they have met the full force of the law. there is zero tolerance in my country vis-à-vis those people andeven resort to violence, it is important that we sent out the message that this will not be tolerated. in some countries, fortune li na in my own country -- we have seen political parties on the rise that capitalize on that influx of refugees.
that is the reality, and i think we have got to tell the people. look. embrace that movement. see it as an opportunity, but do not fear it. charlie: it is interesting to see how this crisis began. there is a story in the wall street journal with the chancellor above the story, mass basicallyodus, and it says on tuesday, august 25 at 1:30, a government agency in a southern german city of nuernberg posted a sentence on twitter that would change the lives of tens of thousands of desperate people. in dublinlonger procedures for syrian citizens. us about this? peter: we have those dublin procedures that say that refugees who come into europe
have to be registered and receive probably in the country that they enter, and those countries in recent weeks have been mostly greece and italy, so the dublin rules say they should stay there until they are and whereegistered all of the procedures are completed, but what happened, those refugees wanted to move and did actually moved to germany, so we said, ok, we do not send them back to those in,tries where they entered to greece and italy, but we waive those dublin rules and show flexibility and live up to our you manage terry and standards of not sending them live up to our humanitarian standards of not .ending them back and that created a little bit of a factor in the world so people
thought they could go straight to germany, and they did, but we did it for humanitarian reasons, and not that we wanted to invalidate the dublin rules, but we wanted to be living up to our own standards of the, welcoming refugees, and not sending them back to the countries where they entered europe. itrlie: so germany opened did.? >> -- peter: it it did, and for many reasons. firstly, we feel that we have humanitarianrd of laws and values, and we have to live up to that, and we have a asylum law in germany that i think is, i think, a lesson of our history. nazit to germany, -- in
germany, we produced many refugees, and many countries took them in, so i think one lesson of our country is we have very liberal and very humane when it comes to exile. here, the decision by your chancellor and apparently public support for her, including tabloids. is that accurate reporting? peter: yes, and that support for her, for the foreign minister who embraced that, a wave of refugees. it is really high, and that is something that i am, frankly, very proud of, that this reaction was so positive, and it shows so much to the can gauge and ir the refugees,
think it is wise. we need immigration in germany, and it provides a great opportunity. this flow of refugees. we are in aging society, and we need immigrants, and if i may say so, we can also learn from your country, how you deal with immigration, how you dealt with it, the enrichment it provides, that we is something should welcome, and if you look back, we germans have absorbed 12 million after the second world war. 12 million. we managed the reunification well, and we can do this. we can handle that. same time,t at the and, clearly, you can, and other countries will have to. it is not a crisis that you can look the other way, and the pope has added into the public focus. yet, there are also challenges,
challenges and terms of shelter, housing, challenges in terms of that people who want to be caught up in the migration because they have their own political ends, including, perhaps, terrorism. are right. those challenges are for real. the organizational challenges, housing, winter proof in a short time span, getting ande people decent food schooling, all of those things. it is a huge, huge challenge, and then, beyond that, it is also the acceptance of the population, and i think we have that there is a welcoming culture that is
sustainable, and we have to appeal to the european solidarity. that is an important point for the european union. a fair to have distribution of those refugees. if one or two countries just take the bulk of all of the refugees, that is not sustainable, so that is a litmus test for the european union, and a litmus test these of the -- vis a vis ae -- fair distribution, and that is quite a challenge. asrlie: looking forward, and you suggested, hillary clinton has called for, i think, an emergency global gathering in the latter part of september. is that a good idea? i think it is necessary to put this refugee crisis on
the agenda of the united nations when all of the leaders meet, and let's not forget. we have to tackle the root causes, and the root causes in the middle east is mostly the war, the civil war in syria, so together have to get to ponder to ponder about a political solution of the syrian quagmire, and they have to fund the international refugee agencies that look after refugees. they are underfunded, so it is an important point on the agenda at the united nations. i hope so. charlie. -- charlie: it could be that it provides some sort of incentive at long last. peter: that has to be hoped. charlie: about stopping the war. eater: exactly. , think that is an urgent need that countries and this fighting
this fighting, including the regional forces, and that includes iran and saudi arabia, a political settlement to get a cease-fire. it is long overdue. charlie: and russia should get involved and other countries also. peter: yes. whatie: how do you measure each country should do? your country has made a huge commitment. the united states has so far, i think, made a commitment of 10,000. some look at that as not sufficient on the part of the united states. peter: the president of the european commission mr. juncker came up with a plan of a quota, and he has appealed to european countries to divide up 160,000 refugees according to their size and their absorption capacity, and i think this is important,
that we look at the internal capacity of each country to do what they can. assignment,icult but we have to take into account the economic situation of each country, the size, but is in dire need in europe. this is a great test for europe. charlie: we also saw what happened in the senate yesterday, giving the president and democrats a victory in the iran nuclear deal. it is said by many that the impact of the p5 plus one ministers, foreign ministers, made a real impact on the thought process of the democrat who were considering how to vote.
sense of their own significance to the deal and their commitment to the president, how they saw their own political world. what took place at these meetings that was so persuasive? eater: well, we were, myself and , were invited by the democratic caucus, by leader on theto give our take iran deal, and we welcomed it, inause we have a lot of skin the game it. we have negotiated this together with the u.s., and we will be in the implementation with the u.s. together. , thatl be the watchdog this deal is abided by by iran. so we made our case in front of the democratic congressmen. it was a very lively, spirited discussion, and i applaud the whole congress to have such a
thorough debate about this important agreement. many congressmen and senators were really well-versed about all of the details of this deal. deal, and weis want the american people and the leadership of congress to embrace it, and that is why we made our case, and we were grateful to be able to do that. part of the argument goes that your country and others, the p5 plus one, made it clear that if, in fact, the deal did not get the support of the united date at the president urging and the urging of the p5 plus one that it was said that it would be very, very difficult to restore sanctions and to maintain sanctions. belief.his is our the sanctions, if the u.s. would walk away from the deal, the sanctions regime, the existing
sanctions regime would unravel. the sanctions would simply not be followed by many countries in this world, and iran would walk away from the deal, would uranium,s before, to a nuclearoser weapon that would be the beginning of a nuclear arms race, and those are the alternatives. so our firm belief -- and the deal is the best possible to pathway to a nuclear bomb. that is why we want the u.s. to embrace the deal, and that is why we hope it will get through. charlie: one more question about migrants being excepted in germany and the promise of excepted in other countries, as well. do you see this unfolding
going forward? i mean, it you believe there is a powerful sense that this is a genuine world crisis that has to be dealt with and countries are recognizing it, so we will see further progress as we move forward from fall into winter? peter: well, charlie, i believe this is a generational task. r.is is not a one time this will not be over in a couple of years. this is a transformation of our european union, and it will keep us busy for many, many years. beannot predict how we will able to deal with it, but we have to get used to the fact that we will be hosting a lot more human beings in our continent than before, and we will have more diversity. we will have great opportunities, i am sure, but we
also have burdens, and the question is can we share the burdens in the spirit of solidarity, and can we make use of that opportunity, or are we in a mode of rejecting that, of denial, and i hope we will do the right thing in europe. charlie: thank you very much. peter: thank you, charlie. ittig is theer w ambassador. we will be right back. ♪ announcer: "charlie rose" on bloomberg television is brought to you by boeing, or the drive to build something better inspires us every day. ♪
♪ charlie: this weekend, the world's best tennis players will face off in the u.s. open. joining us for a look at it so far is tennis coach nick bo llettieri. than anyrked with more other a live. i am pleased to have you at this table. nick: thank you. charlie: hatch me up you you are now, what? 84.: 500 acres, eight sports. charlie: not just tennis. men and women. nick: men and women. charlie: you were inducted in the tennis hall of fame, so what is the secret for nick bollettieri?
nick: i love children, charlie. to see a child go home with a smile on their race and say, "i want to do it," that is fantastic, and helping people. a, giving hopeust to inner-city children and concentrating on their education and character. that. charlie: how do you teach them? them, charlie, first of all to know that you say i will, i can, and i will do it no matter what. but what most people do, charlie, most errands today grade children by their grades. getting started at my first camp in wisconsin. my team has never lost. we just ran out of time. so even though the score dictates the winner, efforts can
also make you a winner, and parents must understand that, charlie. not did you win? did you get an a? my mother would say, were you a good boy today? she did not ask me how i did in school, charlie, but she asked me if i tried, and that is a message that i think is very important. charlie: they have given you some warts also. yes, and the sons of italy made me the michelangelo of the week. yes, sir. f and martina and williamsand with the father, who started them at notn and eight years old, afraid to bring them out, and they said you need a coach, you need a coach, but, charlie, when they came out, look what they
did, and i was honored to be part of the williams team. they were taught to run after every single ball, and they said, daddy, what if the ball is out? and their daddy said no ball is out. it is interesting because he was not a tennis pro, and he did not bring in any rows. -- pros. know, and they had a rule. once they left the tennis court, no talking about tennis, and one time serena mentioned it, and he made her walk home. serena, i am going to beat you up. one time she got mad and started to walk off the court, and i said, serena, get your backside out here, and she said not even my daddy talks to me that way, but she was a treasure, charlie.
she just played with the men. her and venus. said, youtommy haas girls have got the number one quart, and they said, we will play with you guys. and charlie, she is strong. number one. physically. taught both girls to stand very close to the baseline and hit the ball up on the rise and go for it, being very offensive. the last fewbut in months, their coach, or serena's coach, has added a little defense to serena's game. what do i mean about that? throwing a t-ball. but with serena williams, you hit a short, defensive ball, it is all over. it is all over, charlie. but, charlie -- you cannot.
charlie: is there any weakness in her game? any part of her game that needs improvement? serena: who can beat serena? serena herself. can you put that out of your mind? you cannot put it out of your mind. the ones in one year. i wrote a letter to tiger and said, tiger, you are something. and he wrote me back. him, he wouldor be back on top, and i would say do not tinker with your game. make them fear you again. to what you did over and over again. this way, your putback. know, charlie. no. you are aers said
genius because you picked out little things. that is why a lot of these do a little bit here. doing witht ed is coming to the net, standing close to the baseline. and djokovic. edberg is with roger? and who was with djokovic? nick: becker. when you are a champion like tiger woods was, and you begin playing with the game at that age, no, charlie. charlie: re: five, no time to change your game. he draws the crowd. he sure does. but the clock is ticking really loud.
he has to believe in himself. like you said, charlie. charlie: and at the same time, you have to love the game, you know? and you have to enjoy it. people have said to me that the great players love the game. you have to. to spend hours. charlie: and djokovic with that wonderful woman who coached him. a very nice lady, and djokovic and others, they played in -- they had nothing. game,anted to play the and this is the thing that parents must understand. listen to your children. let them talk a little bit. charlie: but these parents send their kids away. kind of a -- not only are you a teacher and mentor, but you are kind of a substitute parent.
and spending the entire nine months with you. nick: charlie, the mission is not to make them a champion but to make them the best they can be. college scholarship, and prepare for life. charlie, there is only one chance. but we try to maximize what the boy or girl can do. charlie: so who is the best you had? nick: serena. charlie: and where do you put sharapova? nick: the most determined. she is not a great athlete. no, no, charlie. that is why her game was standing close to the baseline. moved,or monica seles they would be average players, it is the strength from back there, they did not have.
maria stands on top of the baseline and hit it early. monica. they dictated pace, but if they move back, charlie, no way. look at murray. he had to stand eight or 10 feet below the baseline. -- behind the baseline. hewitt. backuld not paid -- play like he did and the 1980's or 1990's. andre agassi. the game has changed, and you cannot have a weakness, charlie. you have to play the home game and have one or two weapons today. charlie: ok, let me give you this name and tell me the ideas that come to you. roger federer. is one in afederer million on the court and off the court, charlie. he is somebody who everybody should try to copy.
great father. respects the game. helps children, and a great competitor, and he is smooth. magnificent, charlie. magnificent. charlie: he is playing as well has -- as he has played. offset bigger racket to the heavy spin. charlie: offset, what does that mean? one-handed backhand. if you take the ball here, very difficult with one hand, so he takes the ball earlier. he did that with a little bigger rocket. and number two, he has the best 's life, but he is also hitting the back end just rushing it. three, he has improved. he takes the guy off the court, number one from the baseline, charlie, he came in. move in, move and, move in.
-- move in. somebody once told me you always want to be constantly moving in. --nick: you have to be careful about that, charlie. that is why young children today should learn the whole game, but when young children come in, 10, 11, 12, 13, the other guy or girl is going to lob over their head, but, charlie, the only way you learn is to do the whole game. tommy hoss -- haas. time, tommy.the you will find out your own self, but when you are young, charlie -- but, charlie, when your parents want you to win, and your coach once you to win, -- in, you have to do
it from the very beginning. to be able to do that and forced the person to hit their best shot. charlie: and roger is doing that right now. he is doing that right now. rinka?e: what about wa he is strong, very strong. it is going to be interesting. they are friends, playing on the same davis cup team, but i believe roger will have the edge. he is going to take that backhand and will probably hit more balls and force wawrinka. also, watch how roger hits his forehand 80%, 90% of the time. he does that because when he hits that first forehand, he knows exactly where it is going,
and then he starts to be there. charlie: all of the great players. all of the great players know that as soon as the ball strikes the racket, you know where you should be. nick: that is right. martina hingis such a good player. she did not have a powerful stroke, but her anticipation and contact. she is 34 years old. look at what she is doing today, number one doubles team of the world, number one, and, charlie, she cannot break an egg, but she is confident. charlie: give us a tennis primer. what is it that the average weekend players need to know, need to learn? learn how to read the ball
before it crosses the net. that is it, charlie. most able let the ball bounce. do they have spent? charlie, when you warm up with an opponent, you already know what to do. have a know they do not weapon. see if they have spin on the ball or flat. when they warm up, see what they do. charlie come you have got to know a little bit about the opponent, about what type of ball they hit, because you already know what you can do. you tell themdo about backhand? everyone is troubled by backhand. regular players, civilian players, the backhand is a troublesome shot. all, it is on the weaker side of the body, but, charlie, the question is do i or two hands? i never say what to play. i look at the person.
but the grips today for the one-handed backhand is no longer an eastern grip, except for one type. it is way over. why? because you have to be able to have racket head's speed. you have got to roll it. nick, are yousay taking the one or two handed backhand? and i look at the person, charlie. charlie: and what are you saying? able to hit it flat. be able to hit it soon, and also great racket head speed. you cannot guide a forehand. quick hands ond contact, and remember, charlie, your foundation is where you get your power and balance. that is why djokovic is so good. the foundation. everything is built. charlie: you mean the core.
nick: the core. the waist down. you have a chance to be a good player. charlie: someone said to me once that in tennis, people do not appreciate how important your feet are and your body. your lower body. nick: it is the whole thing. charlie: your feet get you there. n when you do not have --nick: when you do not have balance -- charlie: and you have power, too. nick: yes. -- charlie: i you teaching differently today? yes, i am teaching coming in and taking advantage of any defensive ball, and i am teaching to try to play the whole court game today, charlie. it is not just one segment of the game.
charlie: most of us do not think about strategy and playing from side to side to side, and when you think about it, that is what makes it exciting. that is what makes it exciting. charlie: and what are you teaching about serving? everybody tries to hit -- excuse me. the majority tries to hit down. you have to be six feet 10 inches to hit down. you want to be fully extended and learn how to probate, the palm of your hand to the outside. -- learn how to pronate. charlie: and when you come down? to have awant deliberate follow-through, but remember this, charlie. let your body go into the court and then come back for the return of serve.
charlie: do you hit balls much? nick: i teach about six or eight hours at the img academy. i love teaching. it has just been fun for me my entire life and working with my two news side street charlie: how many sons? nick: five, including grandchildren and other adopted. charlie what about the legacy? impact on their lives. they become a doctor, a lawyer, a good mother, that i inspired that wouldthings leave an impact on their life and their children's life. the champions. i want to be able to do something for somebody that helps them get through this life, building character in young boys and girls and have a strong character and learn what discipline is and learn what it
and neurologist, died, and he wrote. his book included "awakening" and "the man who mistook his wife as a hat." he announced he was suffering from cancer in february in an essay in the new york times. cancer with terminal, he wrote, i happen to productive wayst i can. an enormous privilege and adventure. here is a look at some of our conversations with all of her cks over the years. you do.what you think you say it is an interception of biology and biography. meaning what? oliver: well, i want to describe
lives that have been influenced by some overwhelming neurological disorder like colorblind list or autism and expanded into a full item, spending time with the person. you came from a family of doctors, yes? your mother and father were involved in medicine? when did you develop the interest that you had in neurology? er: well, i think it away way, it was very, very early. both my parents trained in the reality, even though they did not in it, and the brain is the most incredible thing in the universe. that was it. charlie: was there a moment or an event or a time where it happened for you? an epiphany? -- ar: a lot of pennies
phanies.pi charlie: in contrast to your skill and training. it seems to me that is what separates you, that is what gives you the gift. i would like to say i would like more empathy. to mee: it would seem that you are full of empathy. are you not? are you less empathetic than we would think? more scientific? oliver: i think science cannot simulate empathy, but it is extraordinary. charlie: what areas of exploration of the brain are the most fascinating to you? i think increasingly those to do with consciousness.
i have looked at perception and movement for years, and now i have interested in consciousness. the basis of being charlie rose or oliver sacks. yourbrain is you in a way heart is not a heart transplant. charlie: i might need one. and the way in which the brain embodies the self. and i think this is an exciting thing. charlie: we are just beginning to understand the brain. the analysis at how the human body works, and the area that is least explored is the brain and has the most potential for payoff. we understand the heart or the liver or the kidney very well now. brain, we are only
starting. we have no idea, the complexity, thousands of messages simultaneously between different parts of the brain. it is unimaginably complex and beautiful, and i think 100 years from now, people will still be in investigation. do you like to swim so much? oliver: because i love the water. i feel like a porpoise. my father was a swimming champion. i have always swam. charlie: someone has said you transform yourself from a geriatric terrestrial form to a fluid, beautiful porpoise. i do my thinking in the water, once i get to a states, and i like to be and i like to be in the water, all day. charlie: you do not believe --
you do not leave in god. : i cannot imagine. i guess i don't. i would like to. i pine for a creator and protector. giotto's some of the paintings, and i think the universe has organized itself and is organizing itself, but without any health or any surveillance. charlie: evolution speaks to you. bever: and yet, it cannot satisfying in the human way of a god. this is just what we put up with. charlie: and this is really three books with footnotes. tell me about the other part of the book. liver: well, the second part of the book is about guam, and i
went there first. at the end of 1992, telling about it, and there is a strange disease that is endemic there, which probably has been for a couple hundred years, much more serious than the color blindness, which is more of a degenerative disease of the nervous system. charlie: parkinson's disease? : one form of it is a form of parkinsonism, and then in gs," there was the reason i was consulted, and i heard of this disease 30 years ago when i was a resident, and then i had not heard anymore, vanished,ght it had and another special reason i was interested is that it had been to the eating of these primitive trees that are all and for which i have a
great fondness for, so with this strange disease and a plant, and this was an irresistible compunction. charlie: and what does that do to you? oliver: it turns me on. charlie: and turned on means? it excites me by its ancientness, its mystery, its beauty, the idea it was around long before the dinosaurs, the fact that it is a great survivor, and a marvelous plant. it used to be all over the world, not just tropical or subtropical now, and flowering plants emerged. , and johnny-come-latelys the mesozoic. iphoto got a taste for the mesozoic -- i sort of got a taste for the mesozoic.
"the man who mistook his wife for a hat." "awakenings." when do you write? late night? morning? in between other things? i have no systematic way. io years after the island, started dreaming of the island, and i think my unconscious was telling me. when the war broke out, i was evacuated to a school in the midlands, and this was a separation from my family for four years, but it was also, i think, a deranged headmaster who had a passion for beating, and beating is a tradition in which
schools, but he was over the top, so this was a very, very bad time, where we got starved and eaten and separated from was a, and i think i little crazy myself when i came back to london at the age of 10. well, sort of disturbed and frightened and anxious and rather distrustful of human beings because of this capricious headmaster who did this for no reason, and i think soon of discovering my chemistry science anding finding something that was solid and predictable was very important. charlie: a way to sort out the abuse, wasn't it? er: putting myself in a sort of more reliable world. charlie: did you share this? oliver: it is often paradoxically difficult to tell about abuse. one feels somehow responsible or
wasty, and my brother who at the school did not complain, and others did complain and were taken from the school, but i somehow felt i deserved it or whatever. charlie: this notion that is always there, and you know more about this than i would ever know. maybe i deserve this. maybe i caused my parents to divorce. maybe it was my responsibility. ver: i was a wicked, little six-year-old who had been sent away, and if only things like this had been shared. charlie: how would it have been different? i think i would have been taken out of the school and sent somewhere less traumatic.