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tv   After Jesus The First Christians  CNN  December 24, 2013 7:00pm-9:01pm PST

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tonight on back to the beginning. did the exodus really happen? >> moses is there. his back is against the red sea. >> what happened to the ark of the covenant? >> can we see the ark of the covenant? >> can we see that? >> and will the end of days start right here? >> soon the world as we know it will come to an end. >> come along as we continue our epic journey around the world and across time. >> oh, my gosh. >> as a war correspondent who has seen everything that tears us apart -- >> christiane amanpour in israel -- >> -- searches for what unites us. >> christianity, judaism, and islam have so much in common. >> with christiane amanpour, danger is real.
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and so are the discoveries. >> our guide is carrying a gun. >> look at this, guys. is this cool or what? >> as we trace the saga, spanning generations of greed, envy, love, betrayal, and forgiveness, back. back to the beginning with christiane amanpour. we're thrilled to have you join us on a great adventure, a trip across the ancient world, as we plumb the secrets and the mysteries of the stories of the bible. hello, everyone. i'm christiane amanpour. and those stories, from genesis to jesus, still incredibly today have the power to comfort us and to guide us, to cause us to go to war and also to make peace. today jews, christians, and muslims revere the same tortured, often brave, always fallible heroes that stride across the pages of this book. as our journey continued, we
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headed east into the sinai desert, following the trail of yet another complicated biblical hero. moses, wanted for murdering an egyptian slave driver who was beating up an israelite worker. the bible says that moses traveled this way to flee the pharaoh's death sentence. >> so we're whizzing through this desert at top speed because of the potential danger. >> tension was growing in egypt as people waited for the result of their first democratic presidential election. in the political turmoil authorities were losing control of this remote, bandit-ridden region. >> there are bedouins around here who have been attacking vehicles as they go through this part of the sinai during this time of political confusion in egypt. our guide has put on a head scarf to try to blend in a little bit more. and he's also carrying a gun. >> wait. you have a gun, sir? >> yes. >> when was the last time
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someone was kidnapped? >> yesterday night. >> yesterday night. >> okay. are you nervous, kids? okay. so why are we stopping? >> suddenly our driver pulled over in the middle of nowhere to have a chat with a local bedouin. it seems out here in the desert everyone knows one another and gossip travels fast. >> what does he say? >> he told me the road now until now it's okay and don't worry and if anything happens contact us and we'll negotiate everything. don't worry. >> we're safe? >> yeah. we are safe. >> so with our peace of mind restored we arrived at st. catherine's monastery. tucked into the mountains of this same remote region where the bible says moses had finally stopped running. a place called midian. >> when they came here they're astonished by how stark everything is. >> we were welcomed by father justin, a greek orthodox priest and a texan by birth. he is the caretaker of the
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monastery. >> you must have had so many pilgrims visiting here. what is it you think they take away? >> they become aware that you have to be away from the distractions and the routines of modern life to really become aware of god's presence. >> according to the bible and the koran, which names him the prophet mussa, this is where moses married a local girl, had a few children, and became a shepherd, a seemingly simple existence for the man who would go on to lead the exodus. but as the bible tells it, his time as a shepherd was the perfect preparation for what was to come. >> every prophet was a shepherd at one point. being a shepherd softens the heart of the prophet, prepares him for being a shepherd of a community, not only shepherd of cattle. >> meanwhile, far away on the banks of the river nile the bible says that moses'
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brethren, the israelites, were still enslaved by the pharaoh, building his grand palaces and temples. after many years of suffering, the bible says, they were fed up and began to grown and cry out to their god. >> you know, jews have been at the forefront of almost every social justice movement of the 20th century. when you look at, you know, the civil rights marches, there were very often jews in the front row and second row. and i think there's a straight line from that groaning in the story of the exodus to that. the idea that we speak up. >> reporter: it seems god heard their cries. the bible says that moses, who was living in peace and quiet, then got the surprise of his life. >> and everything's peachy keen. until one day he notices a bush that seems to be on fire and yet it's not consumed.
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and from that bush comes the voice of god. >> reporter: and according to tradition, that miraculous bush is still right here today. >> there's the burning bush. and what is the structure around it? >> well, it had to be enclosed when the area was engulfed with pilgrims. >> and people would come and, what, try to take bits away? >> yes. >> like a relic. >> that's why it's sort of pruned where at first you could reach. >> father justin tells us that st. catherine's, one of the oldest monasteries in the world, has been protecting the bush from relic-hungry pilgrims for more than 15 centuries. >> are you convinced that this is the burning bush? >> we believe that the first christians who came here picked up this living tradition, that this is the place where god revealed himself in such an extraordinary way. >> reporter: according to the bible, it was at that very moment that god first revealed
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his name, yahweh. in hebrew it means "i am who i am." >> basically, moses is given the mission. go down. shall we sing it? go down moses? go down and tell pharaoh to let my people go. >> you know, moses is very reluctant when god signals to him that he has to be the leader of the jews. and his first response is effectively i don't want to be or i wouldn't be good at it. >> he is an unsure leader. don't pick me, god. how many of us have -- you know, if some finger came out of the sky and said you, we would say no, not me, not me. >> reporter: but it turns out there was another figure in ancient egypt who didn't hesitate to give everything up to follow the path of who he believed was the one and only true god. far away from the ancient royal capitals of luxor and karnak, archaeologists have discovered the remains of the lost city of amana. >> deserty space. but akhenaten seems to think it was great.
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>> reporter: akhenaten was the pharaoh who built this city and his revolutionary ideas about just one god shook ancient egypt to its core. >> how are you? i'm christiane. >> i'm rahwiya. >> that's a nice name. what does it mean? >> it's a classic arabic name. it means storyteller. >> you're aptly named for us. >> an egyptologist from cairo who spent years studying the ruins of amana. she says when akhenaten gave up the comfort of his palaces along the fertile nile delta and moved to this desolate place it was an act of devotion to his one god. >> why did he come here? what kind of an outlier was he? >> the idea was to find a place that has never been used by any other gods, to be virgin as what he called it. so he chose this place. >> reporter: at first glance we couldn't see much. but then a caretaker arrived to
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open a padlocked door and led us into one of the most beautiful tombs that we'd seen so far. even thousands of years later the walls are still covered with akhenaten's radical message of monotheism. >> the main idea is the sun and the rays of the aten. and the influence is -- the one god. >> yeah. that's the main idea. is the one god is responsible for everything. he looks after us. underneath. and he looks after us in the resurrection. >> reporter: in another tomb at the site rahwiya shows us an inscription of the famous hymn to the god aten. the hymn is surprisingly similar to psalm 104 from the old testament of the bible.
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a psalm that's often attributed to king david. >> connections lead you to believe certain things about moses. >> as an archaeologist, maybe not. i am -- as a muslim woman he believe he existed from the koran because these type of words can never be manmade. no matter what you call this power. allah, jesus, yahweh, whatever. it's one at the end. >> and in all these religious traditions, judaism, christianity, and islam, moses finally answered god's call and headed home to face down the pharaoh. >> coming up just minutes from now, snakes and hail and clouds of locusts. we go in search of the story behind the ten plagues and the pharaoh who messed with moses. our journey around the world and across time continues when "back to the beginning with christiane amanpour" returns. ♪ [ male announcer ] how could a luminous protein in jellyfish, impact life expectancy in the u.s., real estate in hong kong,
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and now, snakes, storm clouds, and swarms of bugs. and who was the pharaoh who messed with moses? as "back to the beginning with christiane amanpour" continues. our journey back to the time of moses took us to the ruins of luxor. it is a grand reminder of the glory that once was ancient egypt.
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and nearby we met betsy bryan, an american archaeologist who's unearthing clues about this place and its people. >> all the digging that's gone on for the last several hundred years, has that enabled us to reach a conclusion about history, about even the biblical stories? >> well, i think that there's always a new conclusion. you know, the conclusions keep changing, and people's ideas keep changing as a result of archaeology and historical study. >> so there are always surprises. >> there are always surprises. >> reporter: and that's exactly what bryan and her team have been finding. amidst the ruins of a temple that was used during the biblical time of moses. >> how significant is this dig?
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>> this is where the workers worked and also where they lived. because we have a temple over here but you also have to have things like bread making, beer making. but surprise is that this year we started to get a lot of human beings. they are probably the people who actually worked here, the very poor people who are seemingly finding a place to bury their family members. >> i really can't believe what i'm seeing. how old is that? >> well, it's probably around 1700 b.c. >> just jump down. if you can. >> yep. >> reporter: call it beginner's luck, but graduate student katherine davis made this rare find on her second dig. >> so we were excavating this room right here, and we saw in the wall of this room this bone sticking out. and then we saw the two arm bones. and then teeth. and actually in excellent shape. >> really excellent shape. >> it was the first thing we noticed. these pearly white teeth. >> is it exciting for you? >> oh, i think it's fabulous. i mean, i'll be honest.
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it's -- i mean, you're discovering something that nobody has seen for thousands of years. it's very hard to resist that. >> reporter: the man she's just found was one of legions who likely worked here for the pharaohs. the bible says among them were the israelites. but so far nobody has turned up hard archaeological evidence of that. >> how much of egypt is yet to be dug up? >> i have no idea. but all i can tell you is that you cannot dig anywhere in egypt and not find something. that's the truth. >> reporter: but bryan told us there was one place we might find a small clue as to what happened to the biblical israelites. so we left luxor and headed north to cairo. just across the street from tahrir square, the birthplace of egypt's recent revolution, there's the egyptian museum, where you can find a treasure trove of ancient artifacts, among them one that may prove that once upon a time the ancient israelites were here.
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>> we're going to take a journey back in time? >> yes. travel to unravel. >> travel to unravel. >> reporter: this is ahmed sadiq, a young aspiring egyptologist. we asked him to show us this monument. it's the earliest evidence of israel's existence in the egyptian record. it belonged to a pharaoh who ruled more than 3,200 years ago. king memta. >> what is it? >> we view it as a facebook page. you know, the royal facebook page for the king. >> a pharaohnic facebook. >> yes. this is the chronology of king -- >> it tells the story of the king's successful military campaigns. and one of the last entries talks about a victory over the people of israel.
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>> when you look at the inscription here, ezrail, then fik et ben peret es. what does it say? israel is laid waste. and then literally no more. >> it originally belonged to memta's father, the famed ramses the great. so was he the pharaoh that moses confronted? it's not fully proven, but the idea is backed up by the biblical account of the israelite slaves. >> if there was evidence of the exodus, would it make sense that it would be around the time of ramses? >> the bible speaks of slaves being put to work by a cruel pharaoh and names the cities that they were put to work in, and one of them is ramses. so it's a real place. those kinds of clues make one think, well, maybe there really is something to placing this exodus in that time period. >> coming up -- did the red sea really part? and what was the root of the exodus? wait until you see what we discovered on our journey. when "back to the beginning with christiane amanpour" returns. [ male announcer ] this is george.
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and now, snakes, storm clouds, and swarms of bugs. and who was the pharaoh who messed with moses? as "back to the beginning with christiane amanpour" continues. in the bible story, after decades in the desert, moses obeyed god's order to go back to egypt. >> and so moses goes back to the egypt in which he grew up to the court where he learned and became a young man and confronts pharaoh, surely someone he knew as a young man, to say here i am, i'm not the egyptian you thought i am, i too am an
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israelite, and i'm asking for my people to be released. >> to convince the pharaoh god gave moses the power to perform what the bible refers to as signs and wonder. >> he goes to pharaoh and says let my people go and pharaoh says -- >> okay. >> okay. >> reporter: the most famous of these powers was the ability to turn his staff into a snake. in the ancient world stories of snakes and magic were common. >> a magician takes a little image of wax which can be held in the hand of a crocodile and as soon as he throws it on the ground it becomes a real crocodile until the magician grabs the crocodile by the tail and once again it reverts to its small size in his palm. >> reporter: these magicians were men of high status back in ancient egypt. it's a tradition that continues to this day. >> yikes! ah! >> reporter: back in luxor we met mohammed. he comes from a long line of
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snake charmers. his snakes, on the other hand, not so charming. >> oh, my goodness, there's something -- oh, it's pooped. gross snake. do you know the story of moses, mohammed? >> when the stick turned into a snake, this was from god. god made that happen. >> right. so can you turn the snake into a stick? >> he says he didn't have the special powers. >> you don't have special powers. you can't do it. it only comes from god? >> he was a prophet. >> oh, moses was a prophet. >> yes. >> reporter: moses gave his brother aaron the job of impressing the pharaoh. >> he throws down his staff, it becomes a serpent. >> and when the magicians of egypt attempted to do the same thing, they succeeded. but moses' rod had the advantage. he swallowed them all up. >> the egyptians effectively
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laugh at him and the egyptians say this is a little piece of trickery, forget about it. >> reporter: unimpressed, pharaoh still refused to let the israelites go. it was at this point that god unleashed a series of disasters known as the ten plagues. >> these are absolutely horrible. you know, as horrible as anything you can imagine. >> and every spring jews commemorate the exodus story in the passover seder. they remember the ten plagues by placing on each plate a drop of wine for every plague. >> hail, gnats and flies and things of that sort. >> wild beasts. plague. boils. darkness. which was supposedly not only a darkness that was the absence of light but a darkness that was too thick to pass. it was so dark that you literally couldn't even walk through it. >> it would look like a short series of natural disasters that most of the people sort of understood in terms of their
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gods and their religion. >> can we account for the plagues naturally? probably. is that the point of the story? certainly not. in the space of a year these ten disasters destroyed egypt. and that's the point. it's a miracle. miracles don't beg natural descriptions. miracles are miracles. they are when god intervenes in the order of nature. >> then god told moses to prepare the people for the coming of the tenth and worst plague. the killing of all the first-born. >> moses instructed the jews to sacrifice a lamb and to paint its blood on their doors so that the angel of death would know who was jewish and who wasn't. this is where the term "passover" comes from. >> and pass over that house. >> right. >> reporter: the seder is a time where jews are encouraged to ask questions. especially the children.
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>> how do you wrestle with that? what does it mean? >> there are a lot of ways to wrestle with it. you can wrestle with the political ramifications. freedom never comes easy. it has never historically come easy. wars never end easily. people do not obtain rights easily. but it says in the talmud that when we divorce justice from mercy that is pure evil. so it was unquestionably just to free slaves. and it's unquestionably right to be merciful. but it certainly seems in the tenth plague like mercy has been divorced from justice. whatever we think about the egyptian enslavers, we must believe that some of them were good people, some of them were at least indifferent, and we know that the infants were innocent. >> reporter: the bible says that on that night the angel of death swept through egypt. even the pharaoh lost his own son. and he quickly sent for moses. >> for all the first nine, you know, it was possible for the pharaoh to say this was not enough, you know, to say i'm not
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ready to free the jews yet. it's hard to imagine that the egyptians themselves weren't saying -- >> enough already. >> enough already. especially the -- weren't being built for them but for the pharaoh. at the killing of the first-born, which included the pharaoh's son. that the pharaoh finally said, enough. >> reporter: and the bible says the pharaoh told moses, take your people and go. >> coming up -- did the red sea really part? and what was the root of the exodus? wait until you see what we discovered on our journey when "back to the beginning with christiane amanpour" returns. especially today, as people are looking for more low, and no calorie options. that's why on vending machines, we're making it easy for people to know how many calories are in their favorite beverages, before they choose. and we're offering more low calorie options, including over 70 in our innovative coca-cola free-style dispensers. working with our beverage industry and restaurant partners,
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may be more likely to misuse lyrica. ask your doctor about lyrica today. it's specific treatment for diabetic nerve pain. and now, we follow the root of the exodus. did moses really part the red sea to escape the pharaoh's armies? as "back to the beginning with christiane amanpour" continues. the story of the exodus begins here on the banks of the river nile. a mighty pharaoh has been humbled. and he allows moses to lead the israelites out of egypt. the bible is talking about a massive mobilization of people. >> the figure is given of 600,000 weapon-bearing males. if you add in the old men,
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women, and children, this would give you approaching 2 million people. >> reporter: our exodus is just a bit smaller. my son darius and i along with our team board a train at luxor station. >> here we are. number 1. we are going to find and follow the biblical route into the sinai. >> reporter: but the route, the number of people, in fact the exodus itself, has left no archaeological trace, nor any written record other than the biblical account. >> there is virtually no evidence as the torah says that 600,000 jewish males with their wives and children and elders left egypt in the exodus. those are big numbers. you'd think someone would notice. >> reporter: the bible tells us the pharaoh had just lost his son and many of his people to the plagues, the wrath of god, and now with the israelites about to flee the pharaoh was also going to lose a vital workforce.
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>> with crushing results for the economy of the country and also for the political structure. >> reporter: and so, the bible says, pharaoh has a change of heart. instead of letting the israelites go, he musters his army and pursues them. >> and they wind up suddenly in a very, very bad situation. in front of them is the red sea. behind them is pharaoh's army. >> and moses says, have you brought us this far only to abandon us? >> moses is there. his back is against the red sea. he doesn't know what to do. so the faith of our people rooted in that tradition, in those stories, says you may think that there are insurmountable obstacles before you. oh, no. but there is a god somewhere who is going to make things right. and god gives him instruction. >> god says, why are you
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shouting to me? go. and moses lifts his hand, lifts the rod. and the sea splits. >> behold his mighty hand! >> reporter: the most famous image, of course, comes courtesy of hollywood. in "the ten commandments," starring charlton heston as moses. contrary to popular belief, the bible doesn't tell us exactly where this took place. and as we tried to follow the route, we came across several possibilities. first, we traveled under the suez canal through a tunnel, and then across the gulf of aqaba on a ferry. and the holiday destination of sharm el-sheikh we dipped our toes in the red sea itself. one of the most dramatic moments of the exodus story could have taken place right here. that would have been the parting
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of the red sea, of course. only today it's a middle eastern gold coast full of beach resorts and diving holidays. and the waters look decidedly less ominous. but today's red sea may not be the place. the original hebrew bible refers to it as yom suf, roughly translated as the sea of reeds. and that leads some scholars to suggest the story might be describing more of a marsh. >> or the lagoon of swamp grasses or something like that, which puts you in mind of a fairly shallow body of water. >> reporter: somehow a swamp crossing doesn't quite measure up to hollywood's "the ten commandments." >> the israelites passed through the sea on dry land, and the water was like a wall on their right and on their left. >> and the egyptians are coming on their chariots and coming in. they're trying to get through that patch. and god stopped their chariot
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wheels. so the sea came crashing upon them and they all drowned on the command of moses' staff. >> reporter: 12-year-old samara schaub has been studying this story as she prepares for her bat mitzvah. and it's also the story that jews commemorate every year during the passover seder. >> these words have so much meaning, and this song in particular is really symbolizing our freedom because this is the song that they sing once they were free. ♪ az yashir moshe ♪ >> people of african descent were singing these spirituals based on the story of moses. wickedness a while may reign. satan's cause my seem to gain. oh, but there is a god who rules above.
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with the hand of power and a heart of love. and if i'm right, he'll fight my battles. ♪ as i go >> reporter: the story of the exodus is, of course, timeless. as dramatically relevant today as it ever was. because freedom is a song that continues to be sung by those who have it and those who still struggle for it. >> but we say at the end of the seder is "next year in jerusalem." jerusalem is more than a place. you know, jerusalem is an idea. jerusalem is an ideal place where there are no slaves, where everybody has freedom. >> does that mean the exodus continues, we never leave egypt, so to speak? >> or even if we're lucky enough to have left egypt, has everybody left egypt? one of the great ironies of celebrating a seder now is our thoughts are often with egyptians and their struggles.
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♪ >> when they were marching in tahrir square, what was great was here was freedom that was born in the soil that had come back to the soil. >> what the moses story stands for is that the power is with the powerless. ♪ >> we had no guns. we hardly had a vote. we had no money. the only power that we had was the moral high ground and god. ♪ i shall be free ♪ someday >> coming up, just minutes from now, the ten commandments. what really happened on that mountaintop? and what do you find when you climb sinai today?
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"stubborn love" by the lumineers did you i did. email? so what did you think of the house? did you see the school ratings? oh, you're right. hey babe, i got to go. bye daddy! have a good day at school, ok? ...but what about when my parents visit? ok. i just love this one... and it's next to a park. i love it. i love it too. here's our new house...
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daddy! you're not just looking for a house. you're looking for a place for your life to happen. where moses is said to have received the ten commandments. as "back to the beginning with
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christiane amanpour" continues. out of the darkness of slavery, freedom. moses and the israelites crossed into the sinai desert. >> step number one, to the torch of moses' sinai. >> reporter: with flashlights in hand my son darius and i along with our team got up before dawn to join dozens of tourists and pilgrims to climb to the mountaintop and see the place where the bible says god gave moses the ten commandments. mount sinai is no leisurely hike. >> i don't want to talk. i just want to climb. >> reporter: two hours into our climb, we were getting tired. darius thought a camel might be a nice break. >> whoo! >> reporter: but it's not as easy as it looks. >> you feel like you're going to topple over the edge.
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>> reporter: as we regrouped in the dark and remote mountain range, it wasn't hard to imagine how the israelites, waiting for moses to return, got nervous. >> moses is up on the mountain 40 days, 40 nights. the israelites down at the foot of the mountain terrified that he is gone. >> reporter: alone, the bible says the israelites began to doubt the one god and took comfort in a familiar bad habit. >> at the very moment that moses is sealing the deal with god, that's when they build the golden calf. >> reporter: when moses came down from the mountain with the commandments, he was shocked to find they had abandoned all self-control, drinking, carousing, and worse, worshiping a false idol. >> he's furious. god's furious. moses smashes the tablets. ultimately, everybody shapes up and moses goes back up the mountain for a second shot at
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it. >> reporter: we've made it to the top of mount sinai. the sun has risen and we're amongst pilgrims from all over the world. and perhaps the sheer physical effort of getting up here -- >> pretty rough. >> -- adds to the spirituality. ♪ ♪ glory, glory hallelujah >> the view is out of this world. and it seems fitting that this is the first and only place the bible says man ever came face to face with god. no matter what your faith, what happened here, this part of the exodus story, this part of moses' story has affected all of us for millennia. ♪ his truth is marching on
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[ speaking foreign language ] >> reporter: the ten commandments tell us not to kill, not to steal, not to lie. they tell us to worship and love god completely, to honor a day of rest, and to honor our mother and father. they have left an indelible mark on our moral code and our civil law. and in a sense they're an early unifying response to the chaos and cruelty of the world, a declaration that with freedom comes responsibility. >> it's why the statue of liberty, which was modeled on moses, the tablets in her arms, the rays of light on her head, both of which come from the moment when moses comes down mount sinai with the ten commandments. >> reporter: but like many stories in the bible, things weren't so straightforward. >> the story most people know is moses got ten commandments on two tablets on mount sinai. there are a whole lot more than ten commandments. traditionally, 613. >> reporter: many of these laws
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must have had some meaning during the time of moses. even if they seem puzzling to us today. >> if you're wearing a fabric, you are not allowed to mix that fabric, wool and linen, together. if you ask the rabbis why, the answer is i don't know, god commanded it. >> reporter: god also commanded moses to build a portable temple for the tablets called the ark of the covenant. >> the bibles tells us the exact dimensions, it's a box, it's got long handles, it's supposed to have cherubim, or angels sort of on the top. >> reporter: archaeologists have found evidence that boxes such as these were common in biblical times, suggesting that the ark and its contents may have actually existed. and that would have come in handy because it was a long time before moses and his people had a permanent place to settle. according to the bible, the israelites were constantly on
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the move, spending 40 arduous years wandering in the desert. >> for 40 years in the wilderness the jews just bitched at each other constantly. it is a nonstop rant. we are human. we complain. we kvetch. the israelites actually had the temerity to say maybe it would have been better to stay in egypt. can you imagine? >> good morning. >> welcome to mount nebo. >> thank you. nice early morning to see the promised land. >> it is indeed. moses i'm not sure if he came early morning or evening. >> reporter: we met father fabian overlooking the place that moses has spent his whole life searching for. >> i think this is the last moment of the life of moses, when he's standing here and looking out, he's completed his mission.
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>> reporter: but moses would never cross into the promised land. after years of carefully following god's orders, risking it all on faith, he was denied his goal because of one mistake. as god had done so many times before, he gave moses some complicated orders to follow. he told him to speak to a rock to bring forth water. instead, moses smacked the rock with a stick. the water came, but god was angry, and he delivered an unspeakably harsh punishment. for not listening, god told moses that though he had led his people here they would go to the promised land without him. it strikes me that this must have been such a disappointment for him. that was his life's work. >> he knows that this is the end of his journey. he's delighted because he's finished. he's 120. >> reporter: the bible says moses did the only thing he could. he reassured his people.
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>> i told the story to my son, and he was listening to it and he started to get weepy. it is actually quite an emotional story. if you think about all of the things that this person went through, and then he can't enter the promised land. so my son, i was telling it to him and he starts to get weepy. >> how do you comfort him? >> i say we're here to tell the story. that's the comfort, actually. there are certain stories in the canon of storytelling, like the greek myths that just seem to capture our imagination over time. it's hard to imagine a future in which they're not told. >> reporter: indeed, the story of moses at mount nebo continues to echo powerfully even in our own time. it is the story of a leader who's taken his people as far as he's able to go and who leaves them with the only thing that will sustain them, faith and the justice of their cause. >> i see god working in the 20th century. >> reporter: martin luther king has been called the american moses. he gave this speech the night before he was assassinated. >> like anybody, i would like to live a long life.
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>> martin luther king saying that just before he died as if it was a premonition. i mean, you must have thought of that a lot. >> well, of course i've thought of that a lot. i thought that he understood that his transition was at hand. he understood that it might even be a violent transition. >> and i've seen the promised land. i may not get there with you, but i want you to know tonight that we as a people will get to the promised land! >> next -- from jericho to jerusalem, david and goliath, king solomon and the queen of sheba, what happened to the ark of the covenant? and is this the staging ground for the armies of the apocalypse? when "back to the beginning with christiane amanpour" continues. ♪
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tonight, an amazing journey around the world and across the centuries, in search of david and goliath. >> the slingshot was in fact a bazooka. >> the lost ark of the covenant. >> the ark became a weapon of mass destruction. >> the real armageddon. >> we are in the end times. >> as we investigate the mystery behind the stories of the bible. if these stones could talk, what would they tell us? and can a war correspondent who has seen all that tears us apart? >> christiane amanpour in israel -- >> discover what it is that can bring us together. "back to the beginning with christiane amanpour" continues. >> reporter: driving through the region known today as the west bank, the heart of canaan in biblical times, it's hard to
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believe that this was the promised land that moses tried for so long to reach but never did. until an unexpected patch of green comes into view, signaling our arrival into the biblical city of palms, jericho. >> jericho's one of the most interesting cities in the ancient near east. there's a spring there that's still gushing out. hundreds of gallons of water per minute. it's always been a beautiful place to live. this oasis in what is now the middle of the desert. >> reporter: it's believed to be the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world. traces of 23 distinct civilizations have been found in a small archaeological park on the outskirts of town. but what draws pilgrims from around the world is actually the biblical account of how one of these ancient civilizations may have disappeared. >> flying over the sprawling modern-day jericho, we can just see the footprint of ancient jericho, where the bible tells us joshua led his people, the israelites, in their first
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conquest of land in the promised land. >> reporter: the bible tells us that before his death on mount nebo, with guidance from god, moses chose a man named joshua to lead the israelites on the last leg of their journey. >> and so we have this real transition, a handing over of power from one generation to the next, where moses and his generation have been wandering it's the story of wandering for 40 years, joshua's more action-packed. this is where they come on in and they take over. ♪ fought the battle of jericho >> reporter: as told in the book of joshua the conquest of canaan has all the trappings of a summer blockbuster. ♪ and the walls came tumbling down ♪ >> sounds luke a movike a movii. it's an action-packed scene. >> reporter: with the ark of the covenant leading the way, joshua crossed the river jordan with his army. >> i'm sure this is an elite fighting force. >> reporter: the conquest of jericho is one in which god is clearly in the role of a divine
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warrior. >> the bible tells us that joshua conquered jericho by walking around the city seven times. ♪ he marched around the wall seven times ♪ >> reporter: the whole time carrying the mystical ark of the covenant, which the bible describes as having special powers. >> god at that moment causes the walls to crumble and to fall down. and it's at that moment you that just get this image of them just rushing in on the city and flooding in and taking it over for better or for worse. however you view that kind of image. whether that's one of excitement and action or that's one of hey, this is war, and war can be ugly. >> reporter: in this war the bible makes clear that no prisoners should be taken alive. every man, woman, and child should be slaughtered. and according to the bible, this bloody battle was just the first stop on joshua's campaign. >> now, according to the book of joshua, the israelite troops invaded en masse from
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transjordan and in a period probably of a few months conquered the whole land of canaan, expelled or slaughtered the canaanites, divided up the whole land among the 12 tribes, then joshua gives a sermon at the end, and it's all over. >> reporter: jericho is a highlight now on most holy land tours. the pilgrims are drawn here by the violent version of how the israelites came into the promised land. but it's unlikely that this is actually how it happened. >> people forget that there are two versions of the so-called conquest of canaan in the hebrew bible. >> the book of joshua suggests a blitzkrieg. it's a form of mass colonialism, massive slaughter. it's horrible. and then we have the story of judges, a gradual infiltration into the sparsely populated hill country, do we want the blitzkrieg model or do we want the gradual settlement model. >> the question is what do we
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believe? what do we actually think happened? >> reporter: the archaeology does lend some support to the less dramatic and gentler account. >> of all the years when jericho was inhabited, the one period where we want it to be inhabited so joshua can attack it, there's nobody living there. it's empty. there's no wall for joshua to knock down. >> to put it bluntly, the book of joshua is almost all fictitious. >> yes, there are some battles. yes, there's some killing. but overall, they're coming in and they're living side by side with some of the canaanites. >> this sounds radical, but when i talk to most people they're relieved. the genocide that is god's will, yahweh's will, never happened. >> reporter: for some the story told in the book of joshua presents a troubling picture of a violent god. but others draw a sense of mission from the very same story.
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a few days after we visited jericho our team was invited to the graduation ceremony for jonathan friedland and his elite unit of the israeli defense force cadets. >> just like joshua and his troops came to israel and had their battles here and were able to live here, i'm just continuing it just like my brother did it and my father did it and my grandfather did it. and that goes back all the way to the bible days. [ speaking foreign language ]. >> reporter: they had marched 175 kilometers overnight, a journey that ended here, in the disputed golan heights along the syrian border. the cadets' families joined them for the final stretch. >> joshua used a sword to conquer, from jericho. nobody picked up their bags and said dear joshua, god promised you, here it is. >> reporter: historians who are
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trying to piece together the truth think the meaning of the story is less clear-cut. >> one of the problems that we've got is it's very difficult frankly to tell an israelite from a canaanite. >> reporter: eric klein thinks it's possible that modern dna testing will show that present-day palestinians and jews who are locked in a modern struggle of biblical proportions might go back to the same ancient tribe. >> if it turns out the israelites and the canaanites are one and the same, not only would you have to throw out a lot of the biblical story, but you also might find out that the palestinians and the israelis are actually related, that they're either cousins or brothers. and then what does that do to modern politics? so everything is wrapped up in one big gargantuan mess. >> up next -- lies, sex, and murder. it's all part of the story of the famous king david. but did he really slay goliath? when "back to the beginning with christiane amanpour" returns. [ male announcer ] this store knows how to handle a saturday crowd.
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and now, the story of david and goliath and the lust, the lies, and bravery of the beloved biblical king as "back to the beginning with christiane amanpour" continues. the landscape of this region seems unchanged from how it probably looked thousands of years ago. in fact, it's a landscape that's baked into the stories of the bible. and so many of them involve stones. there are rocks all over the place. one of the most famous stories is about a stone and a slingshot. how the boy david faced off against the great hulking giant goliath. the same david who the bible says grew up to be the king who built the city of jerusalem. >> david is one of the most
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fascinating characters in world literature. he looks almost perfect. >> reporter: david is the bible's first real hero. >> david was a very talented man who could sing, who could fight, who could lead. >> he's a poet. he's a musician. we're told that he's absolutely gorgeous to look at. and god loves him. >> reporter: and he's been portrayed by some of hollywood's biggest stars. in movies such as "david and bathsheba" and "king david." >> respect what is ours and we shall keep faith with you. >> reporter: david was ancient israel's greatest king. he is also one of islam's earliest prophets. and christians believe jesus is directly descended from david. and yet this hero was a deeply flawed man. >> david was kind of a bastard. there are some texts in which we can see so clearly that david is a problematic character.
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>> he's running a protection racket. he's got bodies piling up all over the place. he's strategically marrying women in different parts of the land of israel to consolidate his run for the throne. >> reporter: but that wasn't how it all started. the first time we meet david in the bible, he's an innocent young shepherd boy with that stone in his hand. he was the only one from his tribe brave enough to face goliath, the most fearsome fighter from a rival tribe, the philistines, whom the bible described as over ten feet tall. >> we don't have any proof that david actually ever fought goliath. and yet it does to a certain extent make sense. we know that the philistines were there. we know that the israelites were there. we know that they're banging heads against each other. >> reporter: and it is written that david felled the giant with only a slingshot. and we all think of it as the teeny little pea that brought
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down a giant. >> well, the slingshot at that time was in fact rather like the sort of sniper rifle of today. these could be huge stones. they could be propelled at incredible velocity. and they could go straight through armor. a handheld bazooka that could actually stop a tank. >> reporter: and today from tiananmen square to tahrir square the story is invoked when the most unlikely heroes stand up to forces that seem certain to crush them. >> prophet david does win against the goliath. it's not only about him but the underprivileged, the underdog. the weak is rendered victorious ultimately. >> reporter: according to the bible, david's triumph continued. he recaptured the ark of the covenant from the philistines. it had held the ten commandments. and he brought together the warring tribes of the 12 sons of jacob to form a nation.
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even today the flag of modern israel, founded 3,000 years after his reign, bears the symbol known as the star of david. and jerusalem is the place he chose as his capital, making it not only a holy city but a political one too. there's evidence that king david really lived. just 20 years ago in northern israel archaeologists discovered a kind of ancient royal archive called a stila. >> and it mentions a house, or dynasty of david. and the reading is clear. it also mentions an entity, a state-like entity called israel. >> reporter: it may seem like a small thing, but it's an important discovery. it makes david the earliest biblical figure whom we can confirm actually existed. but the stila doesn't confirm some of the more scandalous details of david's life. >> david, here was a guy who was the king. he had it all. he could have anything he wanted.
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he had the absolute loyalty of his soldiers. he was on top. and then he goes out, breaks a moral covenant with god. >> david was on his route in jerusalem and he saw this beautiful woman bathing on the roof, and he said, who's that woman? they said that's bathsheba, wife of uriah the hittite. >> his eye is the beginning of the problem. his eye that makes him forget everything he's heard in terms of god's commandments. >> he says she's hot and i want that, bring me that. and his henchmen go, bring him bathsheba. >> and so that eye leads him to the act of adultery. and when the woman says i am pregnant, he goes deeper and deeper into the darkness. >> reporter: and here is where the bible becomes a little like "pulp fiction." king david tried to cover his tracks by getting bathsheba's
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husband uriah drunk. >> in the hopes that uriah will immediately bed his wife and be none the wiser. all does not go according to plan. david has uriah killed. and then brings bathsheba to live with him. >> reporter: the intimate details of david's personal life are unlike anything else found in the bible. >> and that suggests that some of the text is extremely ancient and may be based on an actual memoir of his court because the portrayal of david is so real. >> i did not have -- >> reporter: it's a familiar story. the sometimes reckless sense of entitlement that comes with power. it's known today as the bathsheba syndrome. >> a lot of people think of that as a story about sexual lust, and it kind of is, but it's a story about power. and how power corrupts. and wow. that's all over our world today. >> reporter: but this bible story is also a cautionary tale.
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>> david's sins impact his children and his grandchildren all the way down. >> david's sons have grown up learning how to deal with women from their father. two of david's sons grow up to be rapists. >> reporter: and indeed, david it did suffer the consequences of his actions. >> the child he's conceived with bathsheba dies. and he mourns and mourns and mourns. and again, you get the old attractive lovely david again. >> we have to look at david in both ways. he rose to the height of power, and he sunk to the depths of depravity. and yet he comes back. he repents. >> reporter: and the bible tells us that god never stops loving david. he forgives the sins of this imperfect hero. david was given a second chance, a second child with bathsheba, a son named solomon.
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>> coming up -- today it's the most contested spiritual site on earth. but is it also where king solomon put the ark of the covenant? our amazing journey continues when "back to the beginning with christiane amanpour" returns. [ sniffles, coughs ] shhhh! i have a cold with this annoying runny nose. [ sniffles ] i better take something. [ male announcer ] dayquil cold and flu doesn't treat all that. it doesn't? [ male announcer ] alka-seltzer plus fights your worst cold symptoms plus has a fast-acting antihistamine. oh, what a relief it is! plus has a fast-acting antihistamine. hey there, i just got my bill, and i see that it includes my fico® credit score.
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and now, for centuries everyone has searched for its treasures. from knights templar to modern adventurers. but what do we really know about king solomon's temple? "back to the beginning with christiane amanpour" continues. on our journey through the lands of the bible we found ourselves lingering in the old city of jerusalem here in this place that is so sacred to jews, christians, and muslims. it is easy to imagine your way back to around 970 b.c., when the bible says the famous king solomon reigned. >> solomon became in a sense the very ideal of the oriental emperor as the sort of magnificent king. >> under david and solomon the israelites were able to amalgamate into a pretty powerful kingdom. >> solomon seemed determined not
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to repeat the mistakes of his father, king david, and his brothers, whose lust and pride wreaked havoc on their kingdom. >> solomon becomes the greatest king because he's of the davidic dynasty and yet he has none of the faults, none of the sins of david. >> solomon is known as the man of peace. >> reporter: and a man of wisdom. instead of killing his enemies, solomon, we're told, married many of them, including a pharaoh's daughter. in other instances he disarmed them with his wit and his wisdom. like the famously beautiful ethiopian queen of sheba. >> the queen of sheba went to see the prophet solomon. >> reporter: in the bible the queen of sheba is drawn to jerusalem for an audience with solomon after hearing of his great wisdom. >> he treated her as an equal and as an equal politician. he was not surprised by the fact that she was a queen and she rules a nation.
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>> according to ethiopian tradition, during their meeting solomon and sheba became lovers. and the ethiopian royal family descends from their union. >> when the koran gives you this example of such a powerful female ruler, this inspires me. this tells me i have a place in the world of politics. >> reporter: and while it's possible that solomon's wisdom may have attracted those seeking his counsel, so too would the temple that he's said to have built. >> solomon's temple was of course an astonishing building. >> reporter: in the bible pages and pages are devoted to describing the temple. >> solomon's temple, as far as we can tell, was built as a replica of the garden of eden. when human beings and gods lived close by one another. >> reporter: and through the ages people have imagined what it might have looked like. >> it's a very common human yearning to feel that god is here among us and that in this abode we have built, that is where god dwells with us on
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earth. >> reporter: and the bible says that solomon placed the ark of the covenant at the center of the temple in the most sacred spot. but it said that the temple was destroyed when the babylonians sacked jerusalem around 600 b.c., and ever since then this is where many people believe that the great temple once stood. a mountaintop in the center of the walled old city. it is a storied place, layered with spiritual meaning and now dominated by the golden dome and a muslim mosque. but just a short walk away outside the city walls a picture is emerging of the ancient and humble beginnings of jerusalem, which the bible says was founded by solomon's father, david.
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>> the city of david was a rather small settlement, hardly can be termed as a city. most probably unfortified. but it was here somewhere. >> reporter: we met doron ben ami, an israeli archaeologist who leads a team digging for evidence of the original city, which would have existed around 1,000 b.c. >> and it's got an interesting name. i mean, at least colloquially we're calling it the parking lot dig. >> yeah. it's hard to believe. but five years ago cars used to park right above our heads here. and once we decided to go beneath the asphalt, immediately the early remains of jerusalem start to appear. >> how much do we know about solomon's temple, the first temple? >> actually, we know nothing. if not the biblical account, we have absolutely no proof about the building itself. >> reporter: but they say they're getting closer. >> we know that from the 9th century on, just a bit after the time of solomon, most of the things that are told in the bible are historically correct. most of them. but we are still left with a huge, large question mark regarding the time of david and
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solomon. >> one day maybe you'll find out. >> or not. this is also an answer. >> reporter: today jews pray at the only wall that remains of the second temple that was built later and also destroyed. the idea of the first temple was so powerful that for thousands of years people of different faiths have considered that same spot sacred. >> even muslims decided to build their sacred building on the same spot, on the same hill. >> reporter: even though evidence of the temple or the man himself hasn't been found, most scholars believe there was a solomon. >> but not the larger than life solomon in the hebrew bible did not exist. he did not rule a vast kingdom. he did not build a huge capital city in jerusalem. he was not a nationally or internationally known figure. >> reporter: even though the wisdom of solomon is legendary, it turns out like his father he had flaws too.
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>> his government is inflated. he runs it according to corve, according with forced labor. he's married or marrying hundreds of wives and hundreds of concubines, who as the bible say took his heart astray. >> reporter: the wives solomon took tone hans ties with foreign kingdoms turned him to their idols and eventually corrupted his own relationship with god. and the story of solomon's downfall is an interesting window into the religious practices of the early israelites. >> people worshiped many gods. you could pick them up. you could see them. you could pray to them and expect that they would have effect. >> this wasn't the judaism that we know today. archaeologists have found evidence that the israelites worshiped idols before david and until the time of jesus. >> there are those who say i suspect somewhat metaphorically that we still worship false idols, whether it's, you know,
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money or fame or a big house or the right fashion, just the right pair of shoes. all of these could also be false idols. >> reporter: so it seems that despite solomon's best efforts he too was a disappointment. and before he died, as a punishment, god told him the kingdom he loved would be no more. >> coming up -- what do we know about the ark of the covenant? and why have so many thought they could find it? we head deep under the city of jerusalem. it's a journey to find the ark of the covenant when "back to the beginning" with christiane amanpour continues. i take prilosec otc each morning for my frequent heartburn.
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it's captivated us for centuries. from "the raiders of the lost ark" all the way back to the knights of the crusades.
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but what really happened to the ark of the covenant? and can it be found? back to the beginning with christiane amanpour continues. even today the truth behind so many biblical stories that took place here in jerusalem is still captivatingly elusive. that's in part because so many answers may be buried underneath what today is a living, breathing city. it's notoriously difficult to dig under the old city of jerusalem. >> it's very difficult because it's very sensitive. we are talking about holy places of the three main monotheistic religions. >> so politically charged. >> it's so politically charged. >> anat shimoni cohen is a biblical scholar and a tour guide. she took us to one of the only places where archaeologists, pilgrims, and tourists can explore beneath this storied city. discovered by accident in the
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19th century when an archaeologist was walking his dog, this massive network of caves and tunnels is known as solomon's quarries. >> is this a natural cave? >> no, not at all. >> reporter: the quarry once provided building materials for some of the greatest construction projects in the city. >> so what is this great big gaping hole here? >> actually, what you see here is the shape of cut of a big stone that used it in the second temple. we can see today in the western wall. >> reporter: the secretive freemasons even believe the stones mined here were used to build something much older. >> they say king solomon, the first builder, actually king solomon is the founding -- >> founding father. >> of the freemasons. the freemasons believe that they even took from this quarry stones to solomon's temple. >> reporter: and that temple of course was the last known resting place for the mysterious ark of the covenant.
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>> the 10th century b.c. is the last time anybody actually really sees it according to the biblical tradition. now, there are other stories. and these all are related to the babylonian destruction of the city in 536 b.c., that maybe somebody spirited the ark out of the city just ahead of the destruction. >> reporter: many believe these underground tunnels were used to secretly transport the ark out of jerusalem when the city was under siege. and when the babylonian invaders took detailed inventory of the treasures they plundered, something was missing. >> the babylonians took all the treasures from jerusalem, it was not in the list anymore. >> the ark? >> yes. the ark was not in the list. >> there are all kinds of possibilities as to where it ended up. >> reporter: so we went in search of it.
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one famous story suggests the ark was taken from jerusalem to egypt, hundreds of years before the babylonian siege began. >> that's where indiana jones goes and looks for it. we're told that sheshaq of the bible, an egyptian pharaoh, that he may have attacked jerusalem just after the time of solomon. >> yes. around about 980 b.c. >> and there is one theory that he took away the ark of the covenant. this is where we get the indiana jones theory. >> he may have taken the ark back to the city of tanis. >> reporter: archaeologists find the evidence of that underwhelming and believe the ark is no more likely to be buried in the sands of tanis than locked away in a government warehouse. >> bureaucratic -- >> what did they say? >> they don't know what they've got there. >> reporter: strangely enough, our search for the ark also brought us back to jerusalem, to the church of the holy sepulcher, the place christians
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believe jesus was crucified. hello. very nice to see you in this beautiful, beautiful spot. >> we met an ethiopian orthodox priest named abasamuel, who surprisingly told us that he knows exactly where the ark is. his evidence goes back to that affair between king solomon and the queen of sheba. >> queen of sheba's son with king solomon. >> yes. >> took the ark of the covenant, moses's commandment commandment. >> yes. >> and so where do you think they are? >> city of axum. >> in your country of ethiopia. >> yes. >> do you think it's there really? >> yes. >> he's positive it's inside this chapel in the heart of axum in ethiopia. although he's never seen it and no one's allowed inside. except for one monk known as the guardian, who's entrusted with the lifelong duty of safeguarding the ark. scholars do believe there is an
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ark inside but that it's only a replica from the middle ages. and down in the caves below jerusalem we consider another possibility. the ark never left but was instead hidden away in this underground labyrinth. >> so you think it remained in jerusalem. >> yes. we know from the bible another thing. one of the kings put it somewhere in the tunnels. >> a tunnel like this? >> nobody knows. >> is there any evidence of this -- >> no evidence. no evidence at all. only many stories around. >> reporter: if only these walls could speak. they do, however, appear almost to weep. and their tears are said to tell a powerful story about the destruction of jerusalem. >> the name of this corner is tzedakiah's tears. >> tears of the king. >> the tears of the king. tzedakiah was the last king of judea. >> tears for the destruction of the temple. >> the nation. this was the end of the first
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temple period. >> do we think that these tears, this mineral spring, has been running since then? >> well, i think it's running since many, many years. for sure it's more than 2,000 years old. >> and it's really interesting because look, there are people here, there are people all over the place. it's still a living, breathing place. >> reporter: which allows the people who visit to connect with their spiritual heritage. >> it's important for us to touch the history of this place and to feel this energy. it makes us cleaner. >> pure? >> pure. in your soul. >> in our soul. >> right here. >> yeah. >> a profound revelation for these christian pilgrims and one often shared by muslims, jews, and even those who come to visit for reasons other than faith. >> believers and non-believers come here. what do you think about them?
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do you think they -- >> if somebody feels the energy of the place, he doesn't have to be a believer in a certain kind of tradition or certain kind of belief but where he touched the stone and felt the energy i think at the end of the day, yes, he has something -- he took something from this holy spirit back with him. >> a little belief. >> a little belief, yes. i don't know how long it will last, but i think a little bit, yes. >> are people trying to be detectives? are they trying to uncover something? >> well, some people prefer to leave it as it is, and some people i know that still look and wants to find the ark of the covenant. i don't know if somebody will find it. and i don't know what's remain after more than 2,500 years. >> what was once a container for moses and a weapon for joshua and even an earthly home for god in solomon's time is now something much more than that. the idea of the ark and the search for it excites and inspires so many to explore the
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mysteries of our past and the meaning of the stories that live on today. >> coming up -- you've heard of armageddon. but we go to the real place. why do so many people believe the end of days will start here? when "back to the beginning with christiane amanpour" returns. ♪ how do you explain the feeling of this place? of driving into beautiful. running hard down roads of your own making. and declaring, "i...am...alive." you don't explain it. you just experience it. los cabos. live it to believe it. impact wool exports from new zealand, textile production in spain,
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now we journey to the place many think the end of taste will begin. the real armageddon. "back to the beginning with christiane amanpour" continues. with the death of solomon the bible says the kingdom of israel began to unravel. it ushered in a period of nearly constant war for the israelites. and it was during this time that voices arose in the land starting to talk about the end times. what today is called armageddon. and now i'm about to enter armageddon. >> reporter: believe it or not, the name refers to an actual place about a three-hour drive north of jerusalem. >> it's amazing to be here
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because according to the bible we're now living in the last days. >> armageddon is the greek name for this ancient city. in hebrew it's called megiddo. many christians believe this vast plateau will be the staging ground where the armies of the righteous and the wicked gather for the final showdown. >> soon the world as we know it will come to an end. and that we'll live in a paradise earth where we won't have to die or get sick. >> but while some focus on what they believe might happen here in megiddo, the site itself gives us a nearly unprecedented glimpse back to some of the major battles of biblical times and helps us understand where those modern ideas of armageddon came from. >> so for me megiddo is a key for understanding the history of this country. >> reporter: our guide here is israel finkelstein, a renowned israeli archaeologist who's directed the excavations at
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megiddo for 20 years. >> so perched on top here you can see from all sides that it's such a strategic vantage point. >> it's -- it controls the most important highway of antiquity in the ancient near east between egypt and mesopotamia. >> this stunning hilltop in northern israel was once a city larger than ancient jerusalem and hotly contested. these young, eager students laboring in the summer heat unearth history every day. this is a burial site from nearly 4,000 years ago. so is that one skeleton? >> there are actually multiple skeletons here. >> and these massive jugs. that's so remarkably intact, isn't it? >> yeah. this is the last meal, or the meal for eternity for the dead person. >> megiddo was fought over by all of the great empires of the region. the assyrians, the babylonians and the egyptians. >> yes. and also the amazing accumulation of layers.
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>> and each victor would build on top of their vanquished foe, providing finkelstein and his crew with an abundance of evidence from 1200 to 700 b.c. >> so we're talking about what, 500 years -- >> 500 years. >> the turbulent period of king david and king solomon as well as their heirs. >> in these 500 years there were four major destruction layers at megiddo because of big wars. >> reporter: the wars brought turmoil. >> rioting broke out. >> reporter: think of america in the 1960s. and at times like these amid the unrest and confusion there are always a few distinctive voice that's capture the mood of the moment. the people who played that role in ancient israel are known to us now as the biblical prophets. >> the prophet is the one who calls us to do what is right at a time that it's so easy to do what is wrong. >> and the hebrew prophets cry aloud against their own people,
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against their own rulers, against their own aristocracy for their unjust dealings with the people. >> reporter: but they also offered hope. the prophet isaiah comforts the king of judah, predicting the birth of a child called emanuel, which literally means god is with us. >> and what he says is when that kid is still young enough to be eating baby food the enemies you're worried about will be gone. they'll be conquered. >> a couple of centuries later the gospel of matthew picks up that prophecy in isaiah. >> reporter: but it's unlikely that isaiah intended his prophecies to hold such meaning even centuries later, much less in our own day. >> people didn't write down and pass on the stories of their families and their people in order for a bunch of americans a couple thousand years later to
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learn about their own world. >> reporter: but prophets also spoke of a day when the lord would make a new covenant. the temple would be rebuilt. and the land would be ruled by a righteous leader, a figure who came to be referred to as the messiah, god's anointed one. this is a cemetery outside the walls of the old city of jerusalem. in fact, this is a valley filled with cemeteries. jewish, christian, and muslim. all lying side by side in death. because they all believed that the words of the prophets will be fulfilled, that the messiah will come to this very valley, and they all want to be first in line when he raises the righteous from the dead. the valley, called the kidron, is the final scene of that final fiery battle between good and evil, accompanied by a mass resurrection of souls who will be gathered into god's army. and half a world away, in kansas city, missouri we went to meet
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some american christians who are ready to enlist now. so our search has brought us to a strip mall in the bible belt, to a building that's called ihop, which frankly most americans would associate with pancakes. >> but they're not focused on breakfast at this ihop. this is the international house of prayer. ♪ >> where are we right now as far as you're concerned? have the end times, end days started? >> yes, i think we're in the early stages of that story coming to a crescendo. >> jesus is coming back to the earth. and he's coming back to the earth to establish his kingdom on the earth. >> reporter: since 1999, 24 hours a day, there's been a nonstop prayer service here. mike bickle, the founder of ihop, told us it's founded on a
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round-the-clock musical worship service from the biblical story of king david. >> so you're literally taking something from the bible and enacting it here today from the old testament. sounds a little bit odd. >> it is odd. >> it is. >> i tell people when they ask me what do i do, i go it's really strange but it's really exciting. >> reporter: bickle's ministry now boasts over 2,000 members and counting. >> when i was about 13, i actually found ihop on the internet, and i met him, and we've been -- dated and got married in july, and we just love being here together. >> reporter: in fact, prayer gatherings like ihop have been happening all over the united states and across the world. >> are you a prophet? >> no. >> does god speak to you? >> yes, god speaks to me. but i think that god speaks to everybody who has relationship with him. but i reserve the word "prophet" -- i use that very, very sparingly because that means old testament stature. that's pretty intense. >> reporter: so for now bickle and the ihop faithful continue
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to spread the gospel. every minute of every hour of every day. while they wait. >> will i see it in my lifetime? i don't know. i don't even care really. i just want to do my part in my generation. but i might. >> reporter: but they are a controversial ministry, both at home and abroad, and critics say they prey on vulnerable people with words that were never intended to be used in this way. but at the very least they are living proof that the words of the prophets themselves remain as controversial as they were in their own day. >> "back to the beginning with christiane amanpour" will return. [ sneezes, coughs ]
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thank you for joining us. we set off on our adventure to discover whether the biblical stories could bring us together, could unite and heal instead of just divide and harm. and in the stories of abraham and the patriarchs we found our answer. thank you for coming along with me on this extraordinary journey "back to the beginning." i'm christiane amanpour. good night from jerusalem. ♪
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tonight, a special holiday event. was the christmas star real? >> there was activity in the skies. >> did noah's flood happen? where is the garden of eden? come along on an epic journey around the world and across time, with christiane amanpour. >> oh, my gosh. >> a war correspondent, who has seen everything, that tears us apart. >> christiane amanpour in israel. >> the dangers are real. >> our guide is carrying a gun. >> and s

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