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tv   1968  CNN  May 27, 2018 6:00pm-7:00pm PDT

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here on cnn. and that does it for me this weekend. thank you so much for watching. have a great week and a very special memorial day. ♪ ♪ >> the enemy is not beaten but he has met his match in the fiel field. >> i want to say hello to mom. she's worried about me. hello mom. ♪ the vision that was planted in my brain ♪ >> dianna ross. you how many years old? >> 23 years old forever and ever. >> we are planning simultaneous
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action. ♪ ♪ >> today i state i am a candidate for president of the united states. >> i want to confirm i will be in the new hampshire primary. >> i think we have to support the president and administration. ♪ ♪ [ applause ] mr. speaker, mr. president,
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members of congress and my fellow americans, i was thinking as i was walking down the isle there tonight of what sam rayburn told me many years ago. the congress always extends a very warm welcome to the president as he comes in. [ laughter ] >> as 1967 faded into 1968, lyndon johnson knew he compiled one of the most important presidencies for domestic policy in history. >> our food programs have already helped millions avoid the horrors of famine and last year, medicare and medicaid brought better health to more than 25 million americans. [ applause ] >> also, that great period in which he passed all this landmark civil rights legislation dismantling much of institutional racism would give
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him a place in history. >> times of civil rights, no tree in the forest is as tall except lyndon johnson. >> if ever there was a nation capable of solving its problems, it is this nation. >> johnson had to be the best. he just was driven by this idea to be top dog. that's also how he felt about vietnam. >> since i reported to you last january, the enemy has been defeated and bin battle after b. >> he knew all of that would make him a candidate for some future of mount rush more but he also knew he was unlikely to be a future mount rushmore and this frustration made lyndon johnson's fingernails sweat. >> b-52 bombers today made raids around the united states marine
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base. >> cason is a marine base up in the northwestern corner of south vote vietnam. >> 6,000 american marines and 5,000 rangers are surrounded by 40,000 communist troops. >> and he says this is great. this is the big come nabattle w wanted. >> johnson is worried the outcome of this battle could change the outcome of the war. >> the eyes of the nation and of all history itself are on that brave band of defenders at cason and the area that is around it. [ gunshots ]. >> it's hard for me to imagine that the '60s would have turned out the way they did had there been in war in vietnam. >> they raised their voices, their plaques and marched against the government. >> 1968 is the moment for a
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generation of young people who really couldn't understand with so much unrest at home why there were so many resources going into the vietnam war. >> i had a big sign on my bulletin board at home that said a a alienating is when your country is at war and you want someone to win. >> to understand the passion behind the anti war movement, you have to keep in mind the united states had a draft at the time that every year young men were waiting to find out would their number be the number that's chosen for service. >> president johnson orders another 10,500 men sent to the war. >> there was also a sense even if you weren't chosen, your friends were chosen so you were in it together as a generation.
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>> in the beginning we were sustaining and strengthening south vietnam and early escalation does not satisfy that and so the objective was extended to include nation building in south vietnam. then we were told we were saving all of southeastern asia. >> eugene mccarthy was this senator from minnesota who entered the new hampshire fry marry as an anti vietnam war candidate and the young people flocked to his banner. they cut their hair off. they put on clean clothes. they were going clean for jean. >> it's just crucial you pay very close attention to the appearance you are presenting. >> good afternoon. we're representing senator mccarthy speaking to the democratic nomination for president. >> when mccarthy chose to be a candidate, i dropped out at the end of the first semester and went to work for the campaign. the issue was vietnam. >> you have to say that this war has gone too far. >> what makes 1968 such a
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pivotal year in american history is an incumbent president couldn't hold his party together. >> will there be a split in the democratic party? they are getting vocal. they say if they nominate a liberal or republican, democrats will support him and conservatives in the republican party will support lyndon johnson. >> yes. >> is that possible? >> yes. [ laughter ] ♪ ooh, heaven is a place on earth ♪ uhp. i didn't believe it. again. ♪ ooh, baby, do you know what that's worth? ♪ i want to believe it. [ claps hands ] ♪ ooh i'm not hearing the confidence. okay, hold the name your price tool. power of options based on your budget! and! ♪ we'll make heaven a place on earth ♪ yeah! oh, my angels!
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now here is frank mcgee. >> just after midnight their time a band of raiders blew up a power instillation and attacked two police stations at way the old imperil capital, 400 miles to the north, holding on to part of the town. >> remember, there was a graphic put up on the screen on the news, it was the cartoon explosions that were just all over this little strip of the country on the other side of the world. >> it all amounts to the most am ambitious series. >> for an exciting year, it was redefined in 48 hours. >> the attacks on the night of the 31st were my first exposure to major combat.
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initial reports were clouded and we couldn't get a good grasp of what was happening except something was happening all over vietnam. >> this neighborhood. >> saigon airport. >> casualties in south vietnam. >> hear the rounds flying overhead. >> simultaneous attacks shocked the american people. >> the enemy has taken advant e advantage. >> every year there was a seize fire on the holidays and they believed that year would be the same thing but that wasn't what happened. >> these are american combat military police. half a block.
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snipers and suicide commandos were held up inside the compound and firing. now cia men and mps have gone into the embassy trying to get the snipers out by themselves. >> military police got back into the compound of the $2.5 million embassy complex. the fighting went on for a total of six hours before the last known raider was killed. a small residence of the mission coordinator george jacobson had been hiding out all alone all morning. >> you had quite an escape at the end. how did that happen? >> they put riot gas into the bottom floors of my house which of course would drive whoever is down below up top where i was. they had thrown me a pistol about ten minutes before this occurred and with all the luck
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i've had all of my life, i got him before he got me. >> he had what? >> an m-16. >> and you got him? >> that just really scared people because that showed americans being attacked, the marines unable to defend the embas embassy. in reality they did defend the embassy. they killed them and drove them back but that's not the way it looked on tv. and then at the same time, the distraction of this beautiful ancient city and my god, what are we doing here? [ gunshots [ gunshots ]. >> it's been like this all weekend. one nasty fire fight after another. ground overhead. little fire fight across the perfume river. what do you think at a time like this?
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>> keep down. bullets are flying over here too fast. >> we weren't prepared for combat in an urban area so we had to go in and use the marine corps phrase adapt, imp imp vic and overcome. >> i got two companies here about to cle text t blocks up. >> wt kind of fighting? >> house to house and room to room. >> do you ever expect it to experience this kind of street fighting in vietnam? >> my didn't. the marine corps has been street fighting since 1950. >> most of the fighting happens in the countryside. the north vietnamese leadership believe large scale military action in the cities will stimulate a popular uprising and basic basically make the american
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position obtainable. >> we hope that when they mangle with the people and tell nated them, terrorized them they would join his ranks. >> the biggest fact is the stated purposes of the general uprisin uprising, a military victory or psychological victory have failed. >> the defense may have been a huge military defeat for the nlf but psychologically, it was an enormous victory because it suggested this war had no end. >> a lot of people. we probably have to drop back today. >> how do you feel yourself? >> scared, i guess. but i'm hopeful because i lost my engineer and helped me with my job. >> there was something corrupt and evil in our involvement and
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i'll tell you the moment that defined ted all over the world. it was the moment when general who was the chief of police of the saigon police department pulled out a snub nose 38 revolver and held it up to the temple and shot him, bang. eddie adams of the a.p. took the picture. it was the next day all over the world and it was injected right into the center of the american brand and it made americans feel morally unclean. can it be that we who are the most idealistic people in the world can't be that we're actually evil? that was what it did. >> i'll be so glad to go home.
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i don't know. this is the worst area we've been in since i've been in vietnam. >> do you think it's worth it? >> i don't know. they say we're fighting for something. i don't know. as long as there is fear and curiosity. washing machine dying)
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workers marched on memphis city hall this afternoon and demand their kngrievances be heard. >> two sanitation workers were crushed in the back of a garbage truck. memphis policy did not allow them to seek shelter in a rainstorm because the white citizens in memphis did not want to see sanitation workers in their yards and that sort of thing. the rain was so terrible they got into the back of the barrel trash truck and the rain compacted them with the cin the and killed them. >> the conditions got to be intolerable they went on strike. >> they want union recognition. >> public employees cannot strike against their employer. >> i suggest that you go back to
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wor work. >> police used riot control and gas against striking men. >> the march stretched at the beginning of the corner and here. what's broken up, that became the cry to say the fight was on. >> i saw that strike as another part of the emerging movement of non-violence in the united states. >> the vast majority of negros in our country are still parishing on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of prosperity and it is criminal to have people working at a full-time job getting part time income. >> i think king was inspired by
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that movement and he saw that as a poor people's movement. >> we are poverty stricken and we have been at the bottom too long. >> it was always hard to be martin luther king but it was really hard in 1967, '68. he had alienated many of his moderately conservative white allies by his attack on the war in vietnam. >> let us save our national hon honor. stop the bombing and stop the wall. >> on the other hand, his continued insistence on non-violence had alienated him from many activists who felt that non-violence had run its course. >> is this what you want to do, destroy the country? >> i'll destroy a bunch of y'all? >> who? you want to destroy who? >> you and anybody like you, anybody who gets in our way. >> people are tired of saying we're not going to get our
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rights in the martin luther king way. we'll build black power, companies and organizations and have our black power center. >> black power, black power mighty friends means that were developing now a new breed of ca . >> this ishat spurred carmichael. >> the major enemy is the honky and his institutions of racism. that's the enemy. >> this is part of what spurred the black panther party to organize. >> if the pigs and their mentors, the people who control the pigs, the power structure. >> so there was a sea change under the civil rights movement and goals and impacts the black perspective being played out every day in american society. ♪ ♪ >> "say it loud, i'm black and
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i'm proud." there is no ambiguity there. >> james brown had been the dominant black musical figure. the best showman by far and also a smart businessman. he took over bookings on shows and radio stations. >> this is tony scott, the james brown station. >> he was the hardest working man in show biz and soul brother number one. >> he's black and proud. >> mr. brown is number one in the united states. >> there is no question that james brown was a huge influence. you hear it in the music. sly stone was different. there were women and the band was integrated. that was a big deal. ♪ ♪ >> sly stone is a product of the
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black church and also a child of the bay area, which is incredibly progressive politics and he also was a radio d.j. there was no show better. there was no band more interesting to look at and he's writing hit song after hit song after hit song. ♪ ♪ >> when sly came out with the outfits, it was over. every r and b group had to flip it. >> in 1968 the supremes put out "love child." what it's like to grow up in a teneme tenement. i started my life in an old, cold tenement slum. ♪ ♪ >> dianna ross is singing this? this is a darker more mature album. they are singing about social
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have you thought about graduate school? >> no. >> would you mind telling me then what those four years of college were for? was the point of that hard work? >> you got me. >> the graduate was probably the most important movie of the '60s. maybe the best movie of the '60s. thealienation, that's the idea of the '60s and the crucial idea of 1968. >> now you know we are just about the friendliest folks you want to meet. >> in "bonnie and clyde" the impossiblebly attractive couple robbing banks as a sexual summation. >> what's it like? >> when it was '67
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people didn't know how to take it. >> it had a tone that challenged people that they hadn't seen in the film before and this was a movie that changed the way people regarded how those movies were done. >> so we go to see "planet of the apes" at an all black theater in brooklyn and we're having a base time because we identified with the apes. hell yeah. [ bleep ] him. why we rooting for him? >> do we want something? speak. come on. >> charleston lands on this planet and realizes this planet is a planet of the apes. the apes are now in charge. >> take your stinking paw ps off me you dang dirty ape. >> he would have to confront the tragedy of a broken civilizat n
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civilization. >> you blow it up. damn you. god. damn you-all to hell. >> this was a hit. it really captured something very deep in the psyche of america in a year where the cities were falling apart. >> please go to your homes. please go in your homes. >> in 1965 after the civil rights, voting rights acts passed. >> then in '66 and '67 in newark in detroit dozens of people are killed and johnson and he says look what i've done for the blacks. why are they doing this to me? there had to be a response to that by the establishment. and that's what led to the mission. >> we need to know the answer, i think, to three basic questions
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about these rights, what happened, why did it happen, what can be done to prevent it from happening again and again? >> now, asking the question and accepting the answer are two different things. and they didn't like the answer. >> for the last few days, this country has lived under indictment, a charge of white racism, national scale, terrible in its effects. the evidence to support that charge has now been presented in the text of a report released just last night. our nation says the report is moving toward two separate societies, black and white separate but unequal. >> get your hands up. >> go. >> you told people about the civil rights act, that we would have more freedom and pass this law. when you give people hope and you don't fulfill that hope, then you are more likely to have problems. >> every time i come to town,
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you over charge me for everything i get and how in the world do you expect for me to get it? go out there and see yourself. that's what make criminals out of people. you're not going to give them nothing, just enough to keep you eating. yeah, i eat breakfast this morning. i don't know what dinner coming from. how do you think i feel? >> in 12 out of 24 riots studied, the spark that touched the disorder was a violent response of our own institution. >> the answer was that american institutions created this and that it was going to take a lot of resources to deal with it. >> the police in this country could do it for about two years, we could walk in the parks and in the streets and be safe. >> george wallace is a southern segregation politician and former democrat and runs for president as an independent and taps into the deepness well
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springs of american rage and reaction. >> well, i think as a negro, no doubt about it has got out of hand and i think wallace will influence law and order. >> you can see collharacter in eyes. he has spunk and backbone to him. that the what the american need. >> he realized if you could remove overt racism from conservatism that lots of americans would go for it because they were tired of the rights revolution. it was too much change for them too fast. >> well, let's come to the basic question, would you let your daughter marry a negro? >> i don't even want to -- in fact, i don't everyone want to get in the discussion of race, really, because the most important thing in our country is maintaining law and order and race relations will work themselves out. i don't believe in marriages of negro and white. i'm candidate. i don't think it's good for either race. the races ought to remain in
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tact. >> one of the men in the field of politics on the scene today, ladies and gentlemen, the former vice president of the united states, richard nixon. >> when 1968 begins, it's an open question whether richard nixon can win anything. >> you have that sigma as a loser because of losing two big contests. how do you plan to combat that? >> the way you combat it is to win something. >> nixon lost two big elections to jack kennedy and lost to pat brown in california and people would say the guy is a political loser, talented yes but a loser. >> america will be watching on march 12th. let the message go out from new hampshire, the people of new hampshire want a change and america will have a change in november. thank you. [ applause ] >> television is a vital political meeting place. to be successful, a candidate must use the medium and use it well. richard nixon prefers informal no holds bar discussions.
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>> new hampshire was the first time we saw a new invasion in televised campaigning. richard nixon's aids would gather a group of ordinary citizens and have them instead of the media asking questions. >> any further questions that you have? >> and they made it look like richard nixon was this brave truth teller who is willing to face down any critic when in fact it was completely staged. >> this is the nixon answer in which richard nixon discusses the issue. >> wallalawlessness, crime is ar problem in the country today. we talk about civil rights. you know what the most important civil right is in this country? the right to be safe in the streets, to be safe in your home. >> nixon's campaign in new hampshire was a classic. there is a new nixon the reporters were saying. he's much better disciplined. he also is more relaxed. he takes criticism well. >> i plan to shake a lot of
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hands and i have a good, strong hand and i also like to talk to people. >> the intelligence of the old nixon combined with the better behavior and outlook of the new nixon, that's the candidate in '68. >> i am myself and i'm going to continue to play that role. if people looking at me say that's a new nixon, then all i can say is well, maybe you didn't know the old nixon. parallel parking job" goes to... [ drum roll ] ...emily lapier from ames, iowa. this is emily's third nomination and first win.,! um, first of all, to my fellow nominees, it is an honor sring thed with you. and of course, to the progressive snapshot app for giving good drivers the discounts -- no, i have to say it -- for giving good drivers the discounts they deserve. safe driving!
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[ gunshots ]. >> after the ininititial attackt was still occupied by the enemy. completely over run. >> the vietnamese are encased waiting for the marines to move forward and gun them down in the open. they have been holding up for three weeks in what has become the longest, bloodiest battle of the war. >> initially, when we went in, being a fortress that was roughly four square mile it was occupd by some 7,000.
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>> what remains built for than a century ago is put to combat use. that's the forth vietnamese strong point. that's where they were coming from. now the marines are trying to silence the firing with grenade launchers. >> i hear a strong group of marines were magnificent in every way, unwavering and going forward under intense fire. [ gunshots ]. >> after 24 days of heavy fighting, the americans finally pushed the enemy out of the sidesi. the estimate was that 80% of the city was damaged or destroyed and 80% of its population was homeless. in order to preserve the city, we had to destroy the city.
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>> whatever price the communist pay for this offensive, the price to the allied cause was high. foreign tension to restore normalcy, peace, serenity to this country, the destruction of those qualities in this most historic and serine of all south vietnam cities is of usualyou o setback. >> walter cronkite had an audience and what he did what he did from vietnam, it had an impact. >> the only rational way out would be to negotiate, not as victims but as an honorable people that live up to the pledge to defend democracy and did the best they could. >> he felt he had a public obligation to actually share with the americans the fact that no, our government is not telling us the truth. >> no matter what we say, it is
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our burning, our anti personnel bombs being used against simple people, our has reported to be non-lethal, the other day was reported to kill 10% of the adults who inhale it and 90% of the children so it's only semi lethal. >> the big surprise in the first primary of campaign 68 has been the strength of senator eugene mccartney. they hope that perhaps 35%, the total they ran up was a dream come tr. >> the results on election night gave us a sense that there was a real opportunity here. we even got the feeling like maybe we can run a national campaign after all. let's take a run at this thing. >> the mccarthy vote was just not a peace vote, it was an anti johnson vote on many other issues. >> mr. nixon, do you think you can be stopped now?
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[ laughter ] >> that's a fair enough question. i can say this, i won't stop myself, that's for sure. >> new hampshire was critical. we looked at the numbers and nixon's total in new hampshire was more than all the other candidates in both parties combined. >> new hampshire was a significant turning point. it locked in a certain popularity that he had and at the same time, you had the democrats fighting among themselves. >> the president and his advisors are most concerned what tonight's returns mean in terms of bobby kennedy. mccarthy worked hard, good financing and good organization in new hampshire but mccarthy and new hampshire don't mean a thing unless they mean bobby is coming in. >> would this encourage you to change -- >> i have no plans at the moment. other than maybe i'll have
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something further to say. >> would you accept a draft, senator? >> i don't think anybody sugg t suggested that. >> i'm suggesting it now, would ugest that? >> i don't think that's a practical matter. >> would you refuse it? >> i don think would you accept one? i don't think anybody suggested that's going to happen. >> all of bobby's more seasoned political advisors were saying you don't depose an incumbent president. all you're going to do is rip the party apart and make sure nixon or whoever will win and if he ran against him, it would be his desire to be loathe johnson. >> johnson and dskand kennedy he another. >> this man is mean, bitter, vicious animal in many ways. >> i believe that bobby is
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having kacatholics, all of it makes bobby looks like a great hero. >> bobby kennedy doesn't have after lbj until he's politically wounded. >> i'm announcing today my candidacy i run because it is now unmistakably career that we can change the disastrous divisive policy only by changing the men who are now making them. >> can you imagine the anger that johnson had? here -- here was his nightmare. >> i heard lbj is trying to get rid of 150 pounds. bobby kennedy. >> announcer: 1968, the year that change america. ♪ cleaning floors with a mop and bucket is a hassle, meaning you probably don't clean as often as you'd like.
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i'm a small business, but i have... big dreams... and big plans. so how do i make the efforts of 8 employees... feel like 50? w can i share new plans virtually? how can i download ae-file? virtual tours? zip-file? really big files? in seconds, not minutes... just like that. like everything... the answer is simple. i'll do what i've always done... dream more, dream faster, and above all...
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now, i'll dream gig. now more businesses, in more places, can afford to dream gig. comcast, building america's largest gig-speed network. london back this which. now each side of the street. let's sweep it all the way down. >> today in memphis a $3,000 man protest march led by dr. martin luther king jr. in support of the sanitation worker strike trying to turn it into a racial issue in memphis. >> we were an orderly march up to main street. i was in the middle of it. and there was some unruly people no doubt loud people. and i saw the police in a
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phalanx and said they're breaking this up. >> then suddenly a handful of men busted a window over here. >> the chaos has broken out downtown. >> and i went back to king in the first rank and said, martin, the police up there are planning to break us up we're you're going to be a major target. so we're turning around and going back. >> this was the sound of tear gas fired by a police officer in an tempt to thwart the unruly demonstration. >> you will face arrest. we urge you to return to your homes immediately for your own safety. >> we must not allow the events of the day to cause us to let up. that would be a tragic error.
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>> there will be continued marchs. we will not stop. >> i don't think king had a choice. he had to go back to memphis and prove that there could be a non-violent march. >> good evening, my fellow americans. tonight i want to speak to you of piece in vietnam and southeastiage. no other question so preoccupies our people. >> it is a new war in vietnam the enemy now has the initiative. there are finite limits to the destruction vietnam can absorb. there are only so many buildings and so many people. the time is at hand when we must decide whether it's futile to destroy vietnam in the effort to save it. >> we are prepared to move
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immediately toward piece through negotiations. >> daddy tried to the end to get peace with vietnam. >> i'm no god damn facist one of them going to hwa within one going to danang. >> i followed chuck to get on the plane to vietnam there is a picture of chuck and me carrying this tin of cookies before he left on the airplane i'm pregnant but it's secret. he says to me i have signed my will and if i'm killed the marine corps will take care of everything. >> now as in the past the united states is ready to send representatives to any forum at any time to discuss the means of bringing this ugly war to an end. >> by the enof march president johnson is in despair.
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bobby kennedy his great nightmare is in the race. >> i'm interested in the future of the country and what it must stand for i don't think it's been satisfactory up to the present time. >> this on top of all the other bad news he had in march pushes lbj over the edge. >> finally let me say this. >> he told very few people about the last part of his march 31st speech. >> of course mother knew he was going to do it that night. i said please don't do it that night. but daddy made his zpliegs with american's sons in the field far away, with america's future under challenge right here at home i do not believe that i should devote an hour or day of my time to any personal partisan causes or to any duties other than the awesome duties of this office. >> he just was worn out.
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>> accordingly. >> by all of these heavy heavy burdens. >>ish not seek and i will not accept the nomination of my party for another term as your president. >> i stood in the wings and -- and cried. >> good night and god bless all of you. >> but i think it lifted a lot from his shoulders. and he said, i did the best i could. it was very hard. it was just very, very hard. >> in terms of politics it's still a long time a lot of things can happen. >> the next president of the united states hubert humphrey. >> richard knicks zploon this campaign train on life or death mission. >> students barricade a university nlding.
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>> the police push back and the students push forward. >> washington, chicago, detroit, new york, racial confrontation. >> mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the lord. ♪ ♪ you say you want a revolution ♪ ♪ well you know ♪ we all want to change the world. >> we are hiring a full-time job for part time income ♪ ♪ you told me of evolution. well you know we all want to change the world ♪ ♪ >> is this what you want to do


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