tv 1968 CNN May 28, 2018 4:00pm-5:01pm PDT
and their families, we say thank you and we honor your service and your sacrifices. i'm brianna keilar, thank you so much for watching. "1968" starts right now. ♪ ♪ hello darkness my old friend ♪ i've come to talk with you again ♪ >> the enemy is not beaten but he has met his master in the field. >> i'd like to say hi to mom back home. i know she's worried about me, so, hello, mom. >> diana ross. everybody knows diana ross. >> you're how old? >> 23 years old forever and ever. >> we are planning simultaneous action in many cities.
♪ i walked alone ♪ in narrow streets of cobble stone ♪ >> today i state i'm a candidate for the united states. >> i'd like to confirm that i will be in the new hampshire primary. ♪ >> that i think we have to support the president and the administration. ♪ by the flash of a neon light split the night ♪ ♪ and whispered the sounds of silence ♪ [ applause ] mr. speaker, mr. president, members of congress and my fellow americans, i was thinking
as i was walking down the aisle there tonight of what sam rayburn told me many years ago. the congress always extends a very warm welcome to the president as he comes in. [ laughter ] >> as 1967 faded into 1968, lyndon johnson knew he compiled one of the most important presidencies for domestic policy in history. >> our food programs have already helped millions avoid the horrors of famine, and last year, medicare and medicaid brought better health to more than 25 million americans. [ applause ] ♪ >> also, that great period in which he passed all this landmark civil rights legislation dismantling much of institutionalized racism, would
give him a place in history. >> in terms of civil rights, no tree in the forest is as tall except lyndon johnson. >> if ever there was a nation capable of solving its problems, it is this nation. >> johnson had to be the best. he just was driven by this idea to be top dog. that's also how he felt about vietnam. >> since i reported to you last january, the enemy has been defeated in battle after battle. >> he knew all of that would make him a candidate for some future at mt. rushmore. but he also knew he was unlikely to be at any future mt. rushmore because of the vietnam war. this was the frustration that made lyndon johnson's fingernails sweat. >> b-52 bombers today made raids -- made six raids on north vietnamese positions around the united states marine base at khe sanh.
>> it's a marine base up in the northwestern corner of south vietnam. >> 6,000 american marines and 5,000 vietnamese rangers are surrounded by 40,000 communist troops. >> and general westmoreland says, this is great. this is the big culminating battle that we wanted. >> johnson is very worried that the outcome of this battle could change the outcome of the war. >> the eyes of the nation and of all history itself are on that brave band of defenders at kkh kkh khe sanh, and the area that is around it. [ gun shots ] >> it's hard for me to imagine that the '60s would have turned out the way they did had there been no war in vietnam. [ chanting ] >> they raised their voices, their placards, and they marched against the government.
>> 1968 is the culminating moment for a generation of young people who couldn't understand with so much unrest at home, why there were so many resources going into the vietnam war. >> i had a big sign on my bulletin board at home that said "alienation is when your country is at war and you want the other side to win." >> they're stampeding people. they just ran someone down back there. >> to understand the passion behind the anti-war movement, you have to keep in mind that the united states had a draft at the time, that every year young men were waiting to find out would their number be the number that's chosen for service. >> president johnson orders another 10,500 men sent to the war. >> there was also a sense that even if you weren't chosen, your friends were chosen. so you were in it together as a generation. [ chanting ] ♪
>> in the beginning, it was said we were simply sustaining and strengthening south vietnam. well, the early escalation did not satisfy that, so the objective was extended to include nation-building in south vietnam. then we were told we were saving all of southeastern asia. >> eugene mccarthy was this senator from minnesota who entered the new hampshire primary as an anti-vietnam war candidate. and the young people flocked to his banner. they cut their hair off. they put on clean clothes. the saying at the time was they were going clean for gene. >> it's just crucial you pay very close attention to the appearance you are presenting. >> good afternoon. we're representing senator mccarthy who is seeking the democratic nomination for president. >> when mccarthy chose to be a candidate, i dropped out at the end of the first semester and went to work for the campaign. the issue was vietnam. >> you have to say that this war has gone too far. >> what makes 1968 such a pivotal year in american history
is that an incumbent president couldn't seem to hold his party together. >> will there be some kind of split in the democratic party? they're all getting quite vocal. >> yes. they're saying that if they nominate a liberal or republican, democrats will support him, and the conservatives in the republican party will support lyndon johnson. >> yes. >> is that possible? >> yes. [ laughter ] ♪ cleaning floors with a mop and bucket is a hassle, meaning you probably don't clean as often as you'd like. for a quick and convenient clean, try swiffer wetjet. there's no heavy bucket, or mop to wring out, because the absorb and lock technology traps dirt and liquid inside the pad. it's safe to use on all finished surfaces tile, laminate and hardwood. and it prevents streaks and hazing better than a micro fiber strip mop, giving you a thorough clean the first time.
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now here is nbc news correspondent frank mcgee. >> the new communist campaign in vietnam continues. just after midnight their time, a band of vietcong raiders blew up a power installation and attacked two pleegedzs at hue, the old imperial capital, 400 miles to the north, the vietcong is holding on to part of the town. >> i tomorrow there was a graphic put up on the screen on the news, it was the cartoon explosions that were just all over this little strip of the country on the other side of the world. >> it all amounts to the most am ambitious series. >> for a year that was supposed to start off as a grand, sophisticated year, it was literally redefined within 48 hours by tet. >> the attacks on the night of the 31st, were really my first
exposure to major combat. initial reports for very clouded. we couldn't really get a good grasp of what was happening, except something was happening all over vietnam. >> saigon airport. >> casualties in south vietnam. >> hear the rounds flying overhead. >> the tet offensive, simultaneous attacks on every city in town in south vietnam, shocked the american people. >> the enemy very deceitfully has taken advantage of the tet truce and ordered to create maximum consternation within south vietnam, particularly within the populated areas. >> every year there was a ceasefire, on the lunar new year's holiday known as tet. they believed that year would be the same thing, but that wasn't what happened. >> these are american combat military police and troops from
the 101st airborne division. half a block to the u.s. embassy, vietcong snipers and suicide commandos were holed up inside the embassy compound and firing from surrounding buildings. now cia men and mps have gone into the embassy and are trying to get the snipers out. by themselves. >> military police got back into the compound of the $2.5 million embassy complex at dawn. the fighting went on for a total of six hours before the last known vietcong raider was killed. in a small residence of the embassy's mission coordinator, george jacobson, who had been hiding out all alone all morning. >> you had quite an escape at the end. how did that happen? >> they put riot gas into the bottom floors of my house which of course would drive whoever is down below up top where i was. they had thrown me a pistol about ten minutes before this
occurred and with all the luck i've had all of my life, i got him before he got me. i'm sorry. >> with a pistol? and he had what? >> an m-16. >> and you got him? >> that just really scared people because that showed americans being attacked, the marines unable to defend the embassy. in reality they did defend the embassy. they killed them and drove them back, but that's not the way it looked on tv. and then at the same time, the destruction of this beautiful, ancient city of hue, my god, what are we doing here? [ gun shots ] >> it's been like this all weekend in hue. one nasty little firefight right after another. rounds going overhead. little firefight across the perfume river. what do you think at a time like this?
>> well, keeping down. bullets are flying over here too fast. >> well, we weren't prepared for the combat in an urban area. so we had to go in and to use the marine corps phrase, we had to adapt, improvise and overcome the many obstacles that we had. >> colonel cheatham, what are your men about to do? >> i got two companies here about to clear the next two blocks up. >> what kind of fighting? >> it's house to house and from room to room. >> had you ever expected to experience this kind of street fighting in vietnam? >> no, i didn't. i think this is the first time the marine corps has been street fighting since 1950. >> most of the fighting happens in the countryside. the north vietnamese leadership believed large-scale military
action in the cities will stimulate a popular uprising and basically make the american position in vietnam untenable. >> he hoped that when his troops mingled with the people, intimidated them, terrorized them, that they would join his ranks. >> but the south vietnamese people don't rise up. >> the biggest fact is that the stated purposes of the general uprising, a military victory or psychological victory, have failed. >> the tet offensive may have been a huge military defeat for the nlf, but psychologically, it was an enormous victory, because it suggested this war had no d end. >> we lost a lot of people. probably have to drop back today to regroup. >> how do you feel yourself? >> scared i guess. but i'm hoping we'll drop back and regroup, because i lot my engineer and i need another man to help me with my job. >> there was something deeply
corrupt and even evil in our involvement, and i'll tell you the moment that defined tet all over the world. it was the moment when general wilon, the chief of police at the saigon police department, pulled out a snub nose .38 revolver and held it up to the temple and shot him, bang. eddie adams of the a.p. took the picture. it was the next day all over the world. and it was injected right into the center of the american brand. and it made americans feel morally unclean. can it be that we are the most idealistic people in the world, can it be that we are actually evil? ♪ >> that was what tet did.
>> i'll be so glad to go home. i don't know. this is the worst area we've been in, since i've been in vietnam. >> do you think it's worth it? >> yeah, i don't know. they say we're fighting for something, i don't know. e find your social security number on any one of thousands of risky sites, so you'll be in the know. ewww! being in the know is very good. don't shake! ahhh! sign up online for free. discover social security alerts. feeclaritin and relief fromwsy symptoms caused by over 200 allergens. like those from buddy. because stuffed animals are clearly no substitute for real ones. feel the clarity. and live claritin clear. -yes -yes cool. i want to show you guys three chevy suv's. the first one is called the trax, great for when you move in together. -ahhh! and this is the chevy equinox, perfect for when you two have your first kid. give me some time... okay. this is the traverse... for when you have your five kids, two dogs and one cat.
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1,000 striking sanitation workers marched on memphis city hall this afternoon and demanded mayor henry lobe hear their grievances. >> on february 1st in memphis, two sanitation workers were crushed in the back of a garbage truck. memphis policy did not allow them to seek shelter in a rain storm, because the white citizens of memphis did not want to see sanitation workers in their yards and that sort of thing. the rain was so terrible that they got into the back of this barrel trash truck, and a broom fell on the lever and compacted them with the garbage and killed them. the situation in memphis was local. that sense that they were desperate led them to accept these conditionings until they just got to be intolerable, and then they went on strike. >> the garbage collect ords, predominantly negro want higher pay and recognition. >> public employees cannot
strike against their employer. i suggest that you go back to work. >> no! >> police used riot control gas and night sticks to break up a disturbance among a group of striking garbage men. >> over a thousand of us were maced and marched from the beginning of that corner up to here, was broken up. that became the cry essentially for the entire negro community to say, the fight was on. >> i saw that strike as another part of the emerging movement of non-violence in the united states. and that's the way king saw it as well. >> the vast majority of negros in our country are still perishing on a lonely island of poverty in the middle of a vast ocean of material prosperity. and it is criminal to have people working at a full-time
job, getting part-time income. >> i think king was inspired by that movement, and he saw that as a poor people's movement. >> we are poverty stricken and we have been at the bottom too long. >> it was always hard to be martin luther king, but it was really hard in 1967, '68. he had alienated many of his moderately conservative white allies by his attack on the war in vietnam. >> let us save our national honor. stop the bombing and stop the war. >> on the other hand, his continued insistence on non-violence had alienated him from many activists who felt that non-violence had run its course. >> is this what you want to do, destroy the country? >> i'll destroy a whole bunch of y'all. >> what you want to destroy who? >> you and a whole bunch of others like you.
anybody who gets in our way. >> people started to say, we aren't going to get our rights the martin luther king way. so what are we going to do? we're going to build black power, black companies, black organizations. we'll have our own black power center. >> black power. black power, my friends, means that we are developing now a new breed of cats. >> this is what spurred stoker carmichael. >> the major energy is the honky and its institutions of racism. that's the enemy! >> this is part of what spurred the black panthers to organize. >> it's the pigs and their mentor, the people who control the power structure. >> so there was a sea change in the movement and its goals, and that impacts the black perspective being played out every day in american society. ♪ ♪
>> say it loud, i'm black and i'm proud, there's no ambiguity here. it's a civil rights anthem, a black power anthem. >> i want you to know that i'm a man, a black man, a soul brother. >> james brown had been the dominant black musical figure. he was the best showman by far in any genre of music. he also was a smart businessman, took over booking his own shows. so he was the hardest working man in showbusiness. then he becomes soul brother number one. >> he's black and he's proud. >> mr. brown is the number one soul brother in the united states. >> there's no question that james brown was a huge influence for sly stallone. sly stallone was different, there were women and the band was integrated. that was a big deal.
>> sly stone is a product of the black church and also a child of the bay area, which is incredible progressive politics, and he also was a radio deejay. there was no show better, no band more interesting to look at. and he was writing hit song after hit song after hit song. ♪ dance to the music >> sly came out with those outfits, it was over. every r&b group had to flip it. >> so in 1968, the spreemz put out "love child," and it's this whole idea what it's like to grow up in a ten ment. i started my life in an old, run-down tenament slum. ♪ my father left ♪ i shared the guilt my mama knew ♪ >> diana ross is singing this?
for the supremes, this is a darker, more mature album, they're singing about social issues. and motown promoted itself as the sound of young america, not black america. for motown, that was a big step. ♪ love child ♪ never meant to be ♪ love child ♪ scorned by society today back pain can't win. now introducing aleve back & muscle pain. only aleve targets tough pain for up to 12 hours with just one pill. aleve back & muscle. all day strong. all day long. since joining ninehahi, ubmonths ago,o. my priority has been to listen to you... to cities and communities, and to my own employees.
i've seen a lot of good. we've changed the way people get around. we've provided new opportunities. but moving forward, it's time to move in a new direction. and i want you to know just how excited i am, to write uber's next chapter, with you. one of our core values as a company, is to always do the right thing. and if there are times when we fall short, we commit to being open, taking responsibility for the problem, and fixing it. this begins with new leadership, and a new culture. and you're going to see improvements to our service. like enhanced background checks, 24/7 customer support, better pickups, and ride quality, for both riders, and drivers. you've got my word, that we're charting an even better road for uber, and for those that rely on us every day. ♪ (burke) so we know how to cover almost anything.en almost everything even "close claws." (driver) so, we took your shortcut, which was a bad idea. [cougar growling]
(passenger) what are you doing? (driver) i can't believe that worked. i dropped the keys. (burke) and we covered it. talk to farmers, we know a thing or two because we've seen a thing or two. ♪ we are farmers. bum-pa-dum, bum-bum-bum-bum ♪ ithe race for governort. has turned into a scam. gavin newsom's trying to elect a republican who was endorsed by trump. and villaraigosa's being bankrolled by a handful of billionaires.
it's everything that's wrong with politics. and none of it is helping struggling families. here's my pledge to you. i'll keep our budget balanced. invest in affordable housing. fight for universal healthcare. and stand up to donald trump. as governor, you can trust me to do what's right- because i always have. i support the affordable care act, and voted against all trump's attempts to repeal it. but we need to do more. i believe in universal health care. in a public health option to compete with private insurance companies. and expanding medicare to everyone over 55. and i believe medicare must be empowered to negotiate the price of drugs. california values senator dianne feinstein
have you thought about graduate school? >> no. >> would you mind telling me then what those four years of college were for? what was the point of all that hard work? >> you got me. >> "the graduate" is probably the most important movie of the '60s. maybe it's the best movie of the '60s. >> the pervasive sense of alienation, of being not at one with the world around you. that's the idea of the '60s and that is the crucial idea of 1968. >> now you know we are just about the friendliest folks you'd ever want to meet. >> in bonnie & clyde, the impossibly attractive couple robbing banks as a sexual summation. >> what's it like? >> when it was released in '67 people didn't know how to take it.
>> armed robbery. >> it had a tone that challenged people that they hadn't seen in the film before and this was a movie that changed the way people regarded how those movies were done. ♪ >> so we go to see "planet of the apes" at an all-black theater in brooklyn. and we're having a base time because we identified with the apes. hell, yeah. [ bleep ] charlton heston. why we rooting for him? >> do we want something? come on, speak! >> charlton heston lands on this planet and he realizes that this planet is a plan of the apes, that the apes were now in charge. >> take your stinking paws off of me, you damn dirty ape! >> charlton heston would have to confront the tragedy of a broken civilization. >> you maniacs! you blew it up! oh, damn you!
god damn you all to hell! >> this was a hit. it really captured something very deep in the psyche of america in a year where the cities were falling apart. >> please go in your homes. please go in your homes. >> in 1965, after the civil rights and voting rights acts passed, you had the watts riots. >> then in '66 and '67 in newark. in detroit. dozens of people are killed, and johnson is chagrinned and said, look what i've done for the blacks, why are they doing this to me? >> there had to be a response to that by the establishment. and that's what led to the kerner commission. >> we need to know the answer, i think, to three basic questions about these rights, what happened, why did it happen, what can be done to prevent it
from happening again and again? >> now, asking the question and accepting the answer are two different things. and they didn't like the answer. >> for the last few days, this country has lived under indictment, a charge of white racism, national in scale, terrible in its effects. the evidence to support that charge has now been presented in the text of a report released just last night. our nation says the report is moving toward two separate societies, black and white -- separate but unequal. >> get your hands up. and go! >> you told people about the civil rights act, that we would have more freedom and told them we'd pass this law and have this, and when you give people hope and you don't fulfill that hope, then you are more likely to have problems. >> every time i come to town, you overcharge me for everything i get. and how in the world do you expect for me to get it?
you're not going to give them nothing, just enough to keep you eating. yeah, i eat breakfast this morning. i don't know where dinner coming from. how do you think i feel? >> in 12 out of 24 riots studied by the commission, the spark that touched off disorder was the violent response of our own institutions. >> first one drops their hands is a dead man. >> it was going to take a lot of resources to deal with it. >> if the police in this country could could just run it for about two years, then we could walk in the parks and on the streets in safety. >> george wallace was a southern segregationist politician, former democrat, and he runs for president as an independent and taps into the deepest well springs of american rage and reaction. >> well, i think that the negro,
no doubt about it, has got out of hand. and i think wallace will enforce law and order. >> you can see character in its eyes. got a little spunk to him, little backbone. that's what the american people need. >> wallace realized that if you could remove overt racism from conservativism that lots of americans would go for it. because they were tired of the rights revolution. it was too much change for them too fast. >> well, let's come to the basic question. would you let your daughter marry a negro? >> i don't even want to -- i don't want to get into a discussion of race, really. because the most important thing in our country is maintaining law and order. race relations are going to work themselves out. i don't believe in the marriage of negros and whites. i'm candid about it. i don't think it's good for either race. i think the races ought to remain intact. >> one of the most astute men in the world of politics and world affairs on the scene today, ladies and gentlemen, the former
vice president of the united states, richard m. nixon. >> when 1968 begins, it's an open question whether richard nixon can win anything. >> you have that stigma has a loser because of losing two big contests. how do you plan to combat that? >> the way you combat it is to win something. >> nixon lost two big elections, to kennedy, to brown in california. people would say, the guy's a political loser. talented, yes, but a loser. >> america will be watching on march 12th. let the people go out in new hampshire, the people of new hampshire want a change and america will have a change in november. thank you. [ applause ] >> television is a vital, political meeting place. to be successful, a candidate must use the medium and use it well. richard nixon prefers informal, no-holds-barred discussions. >> new hampshire was the first time we saw a new innovation in televised campaigning.
richard nixon's aides would gather a group of ordinary citizens and have them, instead of the media, asking questions. >> any further questions that you have? >> and they made it look like richard nixon was this brave truth-teller, who was willing to face down any critic, when in fact, it was completely staged. >> this is the nixon answer, in which richard nixon discusses the aissues with stsss of new hampshire. >> lawlessness, crime, is a major problem in this country today. we talk about civil rights, you know what the most important civil right in this country is? it's the right to be safe in the streets, to be safe in your home. >> nixon's campaign in new hampshire was a classic. there is a new nixon, the reporters were saying. he's much better disciplined. he also is more relaxed. he takes criticism well. >> i plan to shake a lot of hands, and i have a good strong hand, and i also like to talk to
people. >> the intelligence of the old nixon, combined with the better behavior and outlook of the new nixon. that's the candidate in '68. >> i am my son and i am going to continue to play that role. if people looking at me say that's a new nixon, well, all i can say is, well, maybe you didn't know the old nixon. trave. even when i travel... for leisure. so i go national, where i can choose any available upgrade in the aisle - without starting any conversations- -or paying any upcharges. what can i say? control suits me. go national. go like a pro. you wouldn't accept from any one else. why accept it from your allergy pills? flonase relieves your worst symptoms including nasal congestion, which most pills don't. flonase helps block 6 key inflammatory substances. most pills only block one.
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[ rapid gunfire ]. >> after the initial attacks of the tet offensive were beaten back, hue was still occupied by the enemy. it had been completely overrun. >> the north vietnamese are deeply entrenched in buildings and bunkers, carefully camouflaged, waiting for the marines to move forward, to gun them down in the open. they have been holding out for three weeks n what has become the longest, bloodiest battle of the war. >> initially when we went into the citadel, the citadel being a fortress that was roughly four square miles, it was occupied by some 7,000 mva. the remains of an old tower fortress built more than a century ago again is put to combat use.
that's the north vietnamese strong point, that's where the rocket firing had been coming from. now the marines are trying to silence the firing with grenade launchers. >> i had a strong group of marines, they were magnificent in every way, unwavering in going forward under intense fire. [ rapid gunfire ]. >> after 24 days of heavy fighting the americans and the south vietnamese troops finally pushed the enemy out of the citadel. the estimate was that 80% of the city was damaged or destroyed, and 80% of its population was homeless. in order to preserve the city of hue, we had to destroy the city of hue. >> whatever price the communists pay for this offensive, the price to the allied cause was high.
where if our intention is to restore normalcy, peace to this country, the destruction of those qualities in this most historic and serene of south vietnam cities, is obviously a setback. >> walter cronkite and the cbs evening news had a very large audience. when he delivered what he did from vietnam, it had an impact. >> but it is increasingly clear to this reporter that the only rational way out would be to negotiate, not as victors, but as an honorable people who lived up to their pledge to defend democracy, and did the best they could. >> he felt he had a public obligation to actually share with the americans the fact that our government is not telling us the truth. >> no matter what we say, it is our napalm burning thatched huts, our bombs being used against simple people, our gas reported three non-lethal, the
other day was reported to kill only 10% of the adults who inhale it, and 90% of the children. so it's only semi- lethal. >> the big surprise of the first primary of campaign '68, has been the strength of senator eugene mccarthy. [ applause ] they hope for perhaps 35%. the total they ran up was a dream come true. >> the results on election night gave us a sense that there was a real opportunity here. we even got the feeling like maybe we can run a national campaign after all. let's take a run at this thing. >> the mccarthy vote was just not a peace vote, it was an anti-johnson vote on many other issues. >> mr. nixon, do you think you can be stopped now? >> let me put it -- >> no! >> that's a fair enough question. i can say this. i'm not going to stop myself, that's for sure. >> new hampshire was critical. but you know what, we looked at
the numbers and nixon's total in new hampshire was more than all the other candidates in both parties combined. >> new hampshire was a significant turning point. it locked in a certain popularity that he had. and at the same time, you had the democrats fighting among themselves. >> the president and his advisers are most concerned about what tonight's returns mean in terms of bobby kennedy. mccarthy worked hard, had good financing and good organization in new hampshire, one of the president's advisers says, but mccarthy and new hampshire don't mean a thing, unless they mean bobby is coming in. >> would this encourage you all to change your -- >> i have no plans. i have no plans at the moment. maybe i'll have something further to say after i see the rest of the figures. thank you. >> would you accept a draft? >> i don't think anybody's suggested that. >> i'm suggesting it now. would you accept it?
>> i don't think that's a practical matter. >> would you refuse it? >> i just don't think -- would you accept one? and i don't think anybody suggested that's going to happen. >> all of bobby's more seasoned political advisers were saying, you don't depose an incumbent president. all you're going to do is rip the party apart and make sure that nixon was going to win. he was also worried people would chalk it up to bobby's ruthless desire to be president or his loathing of lyndon johnson. >> lyndon johnson and bobby kennedy hated one another. >> this man is mean, bitter, vicious, animal, in many ways. >> i believe that bobby is -- >> bobby kennedy doesn't go after lbj until he's politically
wounded. >> i'm announcing today my candidacy for the presidency of the united states. i run because it's now unmistakably clear that we can change these disastrous, divisive policies only by changing the men who are now making them. >> can you imagine the anger that here -- here was his nightmare. >> i hear lbj is trying to get rid of 150 pounds -- bobby kennedy. is called the trax, great for when you move in together. -ahhh! and this is the chevy equinox, perfect for when you two have your first kid. give me some time... okay. this is the traverse... for when you have your five kids, two dogs and one cat. whoa! five? uhhh... it's the chevy memorial day sales event! get an additional $750 on these select models. that's on top of most other offers!
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make a sweep all the way down. from london back this way. you understand me? all right. lock arms on both sides of the street. let's sweep it all the way down. >> today in memphis a 3,000 man protest march led by dr. martin luther king jr. in support of the sanitation worker strike the strike has turned into a major racial issue in memphis. >> we were an orderly march going up the main street. i was in the middle of it. and there was some unruly people no doubt, loud people. and i saw the police in a phalanx and said they're going to break up this march. >> then suddenly a handful of men busting a window over here.
>> chaos has just broken out downtown. negro youths are smashing windows. >> and i went back to king in the first rank and said, martin, the police up there are planning to break us up, and you're going to be a major target. so we're going to turn around and go back. >> that sound you just heard was the sound of tear gas fired by a police officer in an attempt to thwart this unruly demonstration. >> if you do not leave this area, you will be arrested. we urge you to return to your homes immediately for your own safety. >> move! >> we must not allow the events of the day to cause us to let up. that would be a tragic error. >> there will be continued marches. we will not stop. >> i don't think king had a
choice. he had to go back to memphis and prove that there could be a non-violent march. >> and all are concerned. two behind you and one right here. >> good evening, my fellow americans. tonight i want to speak to you of peace in vietnam and southeast asia. no other question so preoccupies our people. >> it is a new war in vietnam the enemy now has the initiative. now there are finite limits to the destruction vietnam can absorb. there are only so many buildings and so many people. the time is at hand when we must decide whether it's futile to destroy vietnam in the effort to save it. >> we are prepared to move immediately toward peace through negotiations. >> daddy tried to the end to get peace with vietnam.
>> i'm no goddamn fascist. i'm fine to settle this thing. both daughters' husbands are going out. one is going to hue and the other to da nang, right there in the middle of it. god knows i'm more concerned than anybody. >> i followed chuck out to get on the plane to vietnam. and so there's a picture of chuck and me carrying this tin of cookies. and before he left on the airplane, i am now pregnant, but it's secret. and he says to me, i have signed my will, and if i'm killed, the marine corps will take care of everything. >> now as in the past the united states is ready to send representatives to any forum at any time to discuss the means of bringing this ugly war to an end. >> by the end of march, president johnson is in despair. bobby kennedy, his great nightmare, is in the race. >> i'm interested in the future of this country and what it must stand for, and i don't think it's been satisfactory up to the
present time. >> so this on top of all the other bad news he had in march pushes lbj over the edge. >> finally, let me say this. >> he told very few people about the last part of his march 31st speech. >> of course mother knew that he was going to do it that night. i talked to him. i said please, don't do it. but daddy had made his decision. with american sons in the field far away, with america's future under challenge right here at home, i do not believe that i should devote an hour or day of my time to any personal partisan causes or to any duties other than the awesome duties of this office. >> he just was worn out. >> accordingly -- >> by all of these heavy, heavy burdens. >> -- i shall not seek and i
will not accept the nomination of my party for another term as your president. >> i stood in the wings and -- and cried. >> good night and god bless all of you. >> but i think it lifted a lot from his shoulders. and he said, i did the best i could. it was very hard. it was just very, very hard. >> in terms of politics, it's still a long time. a lot of things can happen. >> the next president of the united states hubert humphrey. >> richard nixon. >> i've come to oregon. we've had a rather successful primary there. >> this campaign train is on a life or death mission. >> along columbia students barricade a university building. >> the students push forward and the police push back. >> washington, chicago, detroit, new york, racial confrontation. a state of emergency.
>> mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the lord. ♪ you say you want a revolution ♪ ♪ well you know >> please stop! please stop! ♪ we all want to change the world. >> we're tired of full-time jobs for part-time income. ♪ you told me of evolution, well you know we all want to change the world ♪ >> i know nonviolence will work. >> this what you want to do, destroy the country? >> i'll destroy a whole bunch of y'all. ♪ but when you talk about destruction ♪ >> the american embassy is under siege. ♪ don't you know that you can count me out ♪