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tv   1968  CNN  May 28, 2018 9:00pm-10:01pm PDT

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a state of emergency. >> mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the lord. ♪ ♪ you say you want a revolution ♪ ♪ well you know >> please stop! please stop! ♪ we all want to change the world. >> we're tired of full-time jobs for part-time income. ♪ you told me of evolution, well you know we all want to change the world ♪ >> i know nonviolence will work. >> this what you want to do, destroy the country? >> i'll destroy a whole bunch of y'all.
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♪ but when you talk about destruction ♪ >> the american embassy is under siege. ♪ don't you know that you can count me out ♪ >> the country is going to get a new president next january. ♪ you know it's going to be all right ♪ >> we are planning today new marches. ♪ all right >> i know where they are is worse, hoping to stay alive from day to day. ♪ all right >> i will not accept the nomination of my party for another term as your president. >> no question about it this was a bombshell politicly. >> i think it will be a good thing for the party. >> we want to deal with our own problems within our own country, and we want peace in vietnam. ♪ all right >> those who got out of hand the other day -- >> chaos has just broken out downtown. >> -- have now been talked with sufficiently to guarantee that nothing will take place in terms of violence.
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i feel that we can still have a nonviolent demonstration, and that we will have a nonviolent demonstration here in memphis. the important thing is we are not going to be stopped by mace or injunctions or any other methods the city plans to use. i think they are making a grave mistake because this will bring much more support to the movement. >> there had been violence the last time he marched. so king comes back to memphis to prove he can lead a peaceful demonstration. >> we feel that this is something we have to do. the nation needs it. the movement needs it. above all, the poor people of our country need a dramatic movement. >> there is a noticeable change in the mood in memphis. people are concerned, and king gives his speech to galvanize his supporters. >> all we say to america is be true to what you said on paper. >> there is an injunction against marching, but king is
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very, very defiant in that speech. he's saying they're still going to march. >> somewhere i read of the freedom of assembly. somewhere i read of the freedom of speech. somewhere i read that the greatness of america gives the right to protest for rights. [ applause ] >> we've got some difficult days ahead. but it really doesn't matter with me now. because i've been to the mountain top. [ applause ] >> and i've seen the promised land. i may not get there with you. but i want you to know tonight that we as a people will get to the promised land.
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>> the next day we had breakfast all of us did together. we were just talking about the next march. >> toward the end of the day dr. king is out on the balcony and he sees jesse down there and james bevel. all of a sudden there was a bolt. [ siren ] >> gunfire. >> king has been shot at the lorraine. >> okay. advising king has been shot. 604. >> we heard what sounded like a firecracker or loud, real loud shot. and when i heard somebody holler "oh, lord." and then i turned around and went back to where he was. he had fallen backwards. >> police put out a bulletin for a young white man who witnesses saw flee immediately after the shooting.
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>> god knows this is the most tragic thing that has ever happened in my life. >> it was so sudden and so powerful. i remember reverend abernathy saying back up, back up, my dearest friend has been shot. so i got up and went to the phone and called mrs. king. said mrs. king, i think dr. king has been shot, in the shoulder, i think. i couldn't see what i saw. >> his wife has notified tonight in atlanta, told only that he had been shot in the shoulder to spare her any further concern and alarm as she flew back to memphis. whether she has arrived or not we have not been advised. >> do they know about martin luther king? >> that is the night that robert kennedy gave what is one of the more remarkable speeches any politician has ever given. >> ladies and gentlemen, i have some very sad news for all of
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you and i think for all of our fellow citizens and people who love peace all over the world, and that is that martin luther king was shot was killed tonight in memphis, tennessee. >> tennessee was on fire. >> washington, chicago, detroit, boston, new york, these are just a few of the cities in which the negro anguish expressed itself in violent destruction. ♪ ♪ ♪ take my hand
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♪ ♪ ♪ >> for my parents' generation, king was the dream. and then he is gone. they were mourning the loss of the man but also what he represented for them and what they hoped he would be able to achieve for their children. >> we have lost something. and we feel it deeply. we feel it.
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>> i don't think americans should mourn martin luther king. i think they should mourn themselves. ♪ hr presents: ordinary versus overachiever. a lot of paints say they can do the job, but just one can 'behr' through it all. behr premium plus, a top rated interior paint at a great price. family friendly, disaster proof. right now, get incredible savings on behr paints and stains. exclusively at the home depot. ♪
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the 40th annual academy awards show. >> good evening, ladies and gentlemen. last monday was the 40th anniversary of the academy awards. >> the academy awards were moved because of martin luther king's assassination. >> this has been a fateful week in the history of our nation. we join with men of goodwill everywhere in paying our profound respects to the memory of dr. martin luther king jr. it was his work that brought about the increasing awareness of all men that we must unite in compassion in order to survive. >> the best picture nominees that year were genuinely controversial and influential.
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movies like "bonnie and clyde," "the graduate," "guess who's coming to dinner," "in the heat of the night," both trying to address racism and race relations. >> virgil, that's a funny name. for a nique -- negro man. i heard you come from philadelphia. what did they call you up there? >> they called me mr. tibbs. >> "in the heat of the night," sidney poitier was playing a black man who was strong, who was smart, who was decisive. the movie takes place in the
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deep south. >> let me understand this. you two came here to question me? >> we were just trying to clarify some of the evidence. was mr. colbert ever in this greenhouse, say last night about midnight? >> this is 1968. you don't have black men hitting white men in movies and getting away with it and living to tell the tale, anyways, and he does. >> there was a time when i could have had you shot. >> sidney poitier completely holds his own not just as an actor, but as the character of virgil tibbs. at its core, it's a murder/mystery, but it's also about the way america is starting to change. >> the winner is "in the heat of the night." >> in south vietnam today, about 20,000 allied troops are pushing through on the ground to khe sanh, the outpost held by 5,000 marines and now only accessible by air. >> all of this is bound for khe sanh, tons of ammunition and supplies to be parachuted in to the marines tomorrow. >> have you been here two and a half months since the heavy shelling has been going on? >> i got here, i arrived at khe sanh the 19th of january. we got hit the 21st. it's been a long two and a half months. >> president johnson was absolutely determined to pull the marine base at all costs.
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>> more than 200 marines died here, 800 seriously wounded. >> there was never the large clashing of forces they had expected. but the marines were subjected to just a brutal onslaught. >> in the spring of '68, you've got the most violent period of the entire war. the united states ramps up use of military force, ramps up airstrikes. about 500 americans a week are being killed. and of course the backdrop for all of this is the draft. >> no one knows when peace will come. and so for all the young men facing the draft, it is not an easy time to be a young man in america. >> i feel that every citizen every male citizen has an obligation to his country. >> i don't see serving in the armed forces as meaningful in any way. >> hell, no, we won't go! >> the draft has really mobilized young people. how many different ways can you say hell, no, we won't go.
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♪ >> my name is chris grounds from jersey. >> michael dover, new york. >> gerald hutchens, new york city. >> so far since the draft resistance movement began last year, between 2,000 and 3,000 young men have burned their draft cards or returned them to the federal government. another 4,000 to 6,000 have fled to canada to avoid the draft. >> it's another example of american youth saying to adults your values are not my values. >> the mantra of that generation is that you don't have to believe anything that your parents told you because look what they got us into in vietnam. you had a generation that was willing to question authority. >> we had a feeling of us against them, you know, us against the government. >> this is a song i wrote it against the american military.
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it's a song called "i ain't marching anymore." >> phil ochs had a song, "always the old who lead us into war, it's always the young who fall." ♪ it's always the old to lead us to the wars ♪ ♪ it's always the young to fall ♪ >> we were aware of all that. why would they send us somewhere and make us kill somebody we're not going to do that. we sang anti-war songs. ♪ st. peter said to vietnam, i can't tell ♪ ♪ i know you'll go to heaven, son, you served your time in hell ♪ coppertone sport.
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now, i'll dream gig. now more businesses, in more places, can afford to dream gig. comcast, building america's largest gig-speed network. we are messing ourselves up shows in many ways. it shows in the racial hatred in this country. it shows in the fact that at this very moment, 500,000 of our friends and our brothers are killing and dying in a jungle 10,000 miles away. and it shows in those cards we all carry in our pockets. well, i'm finished. i'm a free man today. >> by 1968, colleges were kind of the frontline place where much of the protest of this period plays out. >> you saw the creation of sds, students for a democratic society, which organized activists college campus by college campus.
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>> in the spring of 1968, i found myself the chairman of the columbia chapter of students for democratic society. >> we are interested in columbia. we would like to change it. we would like to make it free of these racist elements. >> the central issue was columbia expanding into black neighborhoods and destroying them to build more of columbia. >> also, columbia was involved in secret research for war strategies. we felt that it was our duty to stop it. the war research was symbolic of the war itself. the expansion to harlem we called institutional racism. >> on april 23rd, there was a rally called, and all of these students showed up. and it turned out to be a huge crowd. >> strike! strike! strike! strike! strike! strike! strike!
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>> it became kind of like a spontaneous mob, and we wound up occupying the main classroom building. >> at columbia university, students barricade themselves into university buildings. their leader is a 20-year-old ex-boy scout. >> this is the politics of confrontation. the one way we keep going is by building this strike. >> the task was to keep topping yourself, to keep taking more and more risk. >> the student demands, no more secret military research. no more construction on land in harlem, and no punishment for occupying the buildings. >> people slept in sleeping bags. people slept on the floor, and we were constantly brought supplies and tossed them up to windows. within a couple days, we were occupying five buildings. nobody could go to classes. >> we hope very much that some settlement can be worked out which will not require us
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calling on police assistance. >> grayson kirk was the president of the university. he was a conservative guy who was under enormous pressure, and he wanted to end this thing, wanted to bring back order. >> okay, people, keep clear. there are cops. none of us will begin any violence. if there is any violence it will be because of the police. >> gentlemen, the sidewalk on the buildings. >> president grayson kirk makes what he called a painful decision and invites in the police. >> the police came in on some kind of rampage.
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police brought out the students who have been holding about five buildings for the past few days. what everyone feared took place. >> that's what the cops did. >> we stood in front of low library with our arms locked, faculty and students singing "we shall overcome," "we shall not be moved." >> you look like you have a little blood on your face. what happened? >> yeah, i think i was hit by a club which started bleeding. >> the police grabbed him by the neck and smashed his face into a chair. >> i could never again trust this administration. i could never again trust it. if they didn't understand the kind of brutality that was going to be used on this campus, they should have. >> the young people were being attacked from everywhere. the united states ingested the violence of vietnam. if there was death in vietnam, there was going to be death in america. >> in all, 696 arrests were made. 109 injuries were reported. most of the injuries occurred outside of the buildings.
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>> there was this tide swelling across the country in which cities were burned to the ground. >> a voice was being raised by way of social consciousness and demonstration. and it was an angry voice. the revolution was televised and was televised live. >> dissent is a necessary ingredient of change, but in a system of government that provides for peaceful change there is no cause that justifies resort to violence. let us recognize that the first civil right of every american is to be free from domestic violence. so i pledge to you we shall have order in the united states. >> in 1968 richard nixon comes up with the phrase "the silent center." >> there are millions of people who do not demonstrate or who do not picket or protest loudly. this is the unspoken voice of america.
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this is the silent center. >> what that referred to was how the media was holding up these young student insurgents as the paragons of morality, and richard nixon understood as no one else did that that made the people who were working hard and play the big rules behind their white picket fences feel silenced. >> the message was extremely effective. we were sailing serenely on a calm sea towards the nomination. >> at this time in america's history, this watershed year, 1968, at a time when america has never been in more trouble at home and abroad, there is nothing wrong with this country that new leadership cannot cure, and we promise that leadership. [ applause ]
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i support the affordable care act, and voted against all trump's attempts to repeal it. but we need to do more. i believe in universal health care.
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in a public health option to compete with private insurance companies. and expanding medicare to everyone over 55. and i believe medicare must be empowered to negotiate the price of drugs. california values senator dianne feinstein this large crowd of students has come to greet senator mccarthy at south bend, indiana. this is the state in which he is going to have to beat senator kennedy head-on. >> mccarthy proved himself as the genuine voice of the anti-war movement. robert kennedy has to demonstrate how he could be superior, not simply an alternative to eugene mccarthy. >> you may recall at least i do. you may not.
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but in those early days there was genuine regret that someone better than i had not offered himself. and i -- >> mccarthy and bobby kennedy were not pals. mccarthy had a rather biting wit. >> i had some of the same regrets, i suppose. i didn't know who the other man was, but i had hoped there was someone better. i couldn't name him right offhand at the time. >> my father didn't like mccarthy. he thought mccarthy was effete. he couldn't picture mccarthy at a cuban missile crisis. >> eugene mccarthy was basically a one-issue candidate. he was a peace candidate. but kennedy had a broader vision in terms of what's happening in the cities, what's happening around race and the issues of poverty. >> we want kennedy! we want kennedy! >> we cannot separate ourselves no matter where we live from the problems and the troubles and the difficulties that face the whole of the united states. >> ladies and gentlemen, the vice president and the next president of the united states, hubert h. humphrey.
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>> i shall seek the nomination of the democratic party. >> when humphrey came in as a candidate, he was regarded as a johnson surrogate. >> i will run on the record of the johnson/humphrey administrations, but i will not rest on it. >> and it was very clear to everybody that johnson controlled the party. >> president johnson will do what he can to help humphrey win the nomination and to see that senator robert kennedy does not get the nomination. >> who would be nominated by the democratic party wasn't necessarily going to be determined by the primaries. >> it would be nominated by the people who controlled the levers of power, and that was lyndon johnson and his political machine. and it was vice president hubert humphrey who would be the beneficiary. >> nevertheless, if mccarthy, kennedy amassed enough delegates through the primary process, they might be able to put
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pressure on the democratic machinery. >> and the may 7th primary is critical to the kennedy strategy of demonstrating to party leaders across the country that he is the one democratic candidate who can win big. >> in the end it is going to be decided who is going to be the nominee for the democratic party and therefore who is going to be the next president of the united states. >> mccarthy couldn't get any black vote. bobby kennedy managed to get black vote and also get a lot of the established democrats. so his support looked very broad. >> well, senator robert kennedy has won the first primary test in his attempt to secure the democratic nomination for the presidency. >> my father really focused on the people in this country. his appeal was to really the most disenfranchised classes, people who lived in appalachia, blacks who lived in the delta, people from harlem, watts, oakland, and of course farm workers. very similar to martin luther
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king focusing on the poor and working people. >> in the aftermath of dr. king's assassination, it's coretta scott king who has the legacy of her husband to draw upon to make the case that change was needed now. >> my husband always said that if anything happened to him to carry on his work for his people. >> coretta was always an activist. before martin was an activist. and she continued to be outspoken in order to make the point that you can kill my husband, but this movement is going to go on. >> we have seen the power of nonviolence in the movement for civil rights. the campaign for the poor must go on. >> king's notion was to try to put pressure on congress to try to do something about the issue of poverty.
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he was proposing, to use modern terms, an occupy movement on the national mall, not for a day or two, but to stay. >> i declare this to be the site our new city, resurrection city usa. >> as dr. king had dreamed, they built a shanty town to expose the nation's shame. they call it resurrection city and it sits on the lawn besides the reflecting pool at the lincoln memorial. >> we come here for one purpose and we don't intend to leave here until we conquer what we came for. >> this is a cbs news special report. peace talks in paris, the very first step. >> the very first step did begin today in paris. it was about as small as it could be. all of the problems attendant to a meeting of sovereign enemies were present -- who sits where, what language do you talk in, what do you agree to argue about.
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>> there were tremendous expectations on the american side about these talks. when the delegation first arrived, they just took hotel rooms because they thought, well, this is only going to be a few weeks and then we'll get a negotiated settlement. >> the president is disappointed that the north vietnamese today were unwilling to discuss anything of substance. >> and then after a while, they had to rent apartments because it was going to drag on a lot longer than they thought. >> it is already saturday in vietnam, and the latest communist offensive is now in its sixth day. it may be that the communists are trying to remind the negotiators that the vietcong must have a seat at the conference table when the future of vietnam is discussed. >> well, it's a real horse race out in oregon, and in that democratic primary there that could mean so much to the presidential hopes of senator robert kennedy and senator eugene mccarthy, it's too close, a cbs news estimate says to call. senator kennedy did make clear over the weekend that the
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outcome in oregon he felt was crucial to his hopes for the nomination. >> i can't lose. i mean, i can't afford the lose if i'm going to remain a very viable candidate. >> oregon was just as bad a state as you could imagine for bobby. very few minorities, very suburban, middle class, was progressive but kind of polite, and he never clicked there. >> oregon was a mccarthy victory. we were certainly feeling euphoric that night. >> every wagon train got as far as the missouri river, but the real test began once you crossed the missouri and started up the oregon trail. and now, of course, we're on to california. >> the shockwave is spreading slowly through this kennedy election headquarters. the only word adequate to describe the result appears to be catastrophic. >> kennedy had lost. what you saw on display is something that doesn't get talked about nearly enough which is bobby's humor.
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>> based on the return by taking an entirely new look at my whole organization and my whole campaign is in order, which i've done, and i've decided to send my dog freckles home. >> the oregon primary was the first time a kennedy has ever lost an election. bobby kennedy knew he had to go into california and he had to win. ♪now i'm gonna tell my momma ♪that i'm a traveller ♪i'm gonna follow the sun♪ ♪now i'm gonna tell my momma transitions™
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♪ this campaign train is on a life-or-death mission. robert kennedy's fate as a presidential candidate now hangs on the outcome of the california primaries. his crowds have been good this memorial day in the sun-drenched san joaquin valley. >> bobby kennedy, having lost oregon, knew he had to win california, and that would be his ticket to the convention. >> kennedy is back among his
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people, and after the satisfied prosperity of oregon which failed to respond to kennedy's approach, the senator is again turned on. >> he was a rock star. it gave him a kind of courage and power to keep going. >> part of our job everybody had to wrap your arms around his legs so he wouldn't get pulled from the car by his admirers. >> he campaigns so hard that his -- his hand is swollen. he loses his voice. >> we're here in los angeles, and california, you have made it possible, and i will work with all of you. give me your help, give me your hand. thank you. ♪ >> abc news presents "race to the white house," complete coverage of the presidential election year 1968. tonight the california primary, coverage of today's presidential primary in the golden state. >> an hour and a half after the
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polls have closed in california, the biggest primary of them all, a slate of delegates pledged to senator eugene mccarthy has established an a early lead over a slate of delegates pledged to senator robert kennedy. >> on the last day the early returns were not good. bobby kind of sat, nervous like a little boy, worrying. >> that doesn't mean anything. 49 to 30? that doesn't mean anything. los angeles won't be counted until 10:00. >> why does he have 49% and i got 38? >> probably hillsboro. >> but the returns got better, and bobby was reassured he had a fighting chance. >> with almost a quarter of the precincts having reported in now, kennedy does lead with 44% of the votes. >> who ever gets a plurality gets all of california's delegates. >> if gene mccarthy loses, what happens to your political life? >> well, if gene mccarthy loses, i guess i'll have to vote for kennedy. >> senator kennedy, 48%. senator mccarthy, 41%.
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>> in what i considered to be the most poignant moment of the entire year after the winning result has come in and before bobby kennedy goes to declare victory, he turns to one of the oldest kennedy retainers and says "i feel for the first time that i've made it on my own." "i feel that i'm finally out of "i feel that i'm finally out of the shadow of my brother." [ chanting ] >> thank you very much. i want to express my gratitude to my dog freckles who has been maligned. as franklin roosevelt said i don't care what they say about me, but when they start to
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attack my dog. but listen, and i'm not doing this in the order of importance, but i also want to thank my wife ethe >> it was tremendously exciting, because for some time now he had been building towards this moment, getting an anti-war person in the white house. and now, my god, i think it's going to happen. >> my thanks to all of you. now it's on to chicago, and let's win there. >> "on to chicago and let's win there." i can just still hear him saying it. >> his aides want him to rush to a press conference. the press is waiting. they want him to give a statement. and so they take him by way of shortcut through the kitchen. >> senator. senator, this way. this way. no, no. >> and that's where sirhan sirhan was waiting for him. >> senator kennedy has been
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shot. is that possible? is that possible? >> oh my god. senator kennedy has been shot. >> ladies and gentlemen, we have kept the air on because we've heard an alarming report that robert kennedy was shot in that ballroom at the ambassador hotel in los angeles. a very loud noise like a clap of thunder was heard. >> the great irony is for all the fear of crowds and tumult, it was trying to avoid crowds that took him through that kitchen. >> kennedy has been shot. >> oh, no. >> look out for the gun! >> hold him, hold him, hold him. we don't want another oswald. >> everybody, please stay back. please stay back. we need a doctor here. >> is there a doctor in the house? please, it's very important. we need a doctor!
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>> please, please leave the room. would you please leave the room. >> we cannot get medical aid to the senator. now would you please -- proceed to the exits. >> is there a doctor in the house? >> after he is shot, he says to ethel, how bad is it? and then he says to the ambulance attendant who comes in, please don't -- please don't lift me, and those are his last words before he goes into a coma. >> there was very much the sentiment, how much is too much to take? >> robert kennedy's now undergoing a neurosurgical operation.
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he is said to be in very critical condition. ♪ >> senator robert francis kennedy was 42 years old.
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kyle, we talked about this. there's no monsters. but you said they'd be watching us all the time. no, no. no, honey, we meant that progressive would be protecting us 24/7. we just bundled home and auto and saved money. that's nothing to be afraid of. -but -- -good night, kyle. [ switch clicks, door closes ] ♪ i told you i was just checking the wiring in here, kyle. he's never like this. i think something's going on at school. -[ sighs ] -he's not engaging. this is bill's yard. and bill has a "no-weeds, not in my yard" policy. but with scotts turf builder weed & feed, bill has nothing to worry about. it kills weeds and greens grass, guaranteed. this is a scotts yard. proven to protect street skaters and freestylers.nteed. stops up to 97% uv. lasts through heat. through sweat. coppertone. proven to protect.
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we saw wrong and tried to right it. saw suffering and tried to heal it. saw war. and tried to stop it. those of us loved him, and take him to his rest today. pray that what he was to us what he wished for others will some day come to pass for the world. >> i feel almost like hiding my
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face as an american that something like this could happen. >> we had too much violence in the country. >> they go after the good men like john kennedy. robert kennedy and martin luther king. >> >> like lincoln long before. robert kennedy's body was taken in a train. it was a hot, humid awful day. and the country mourned. they turned out all along the old pennsylvania railroad tracks between new york and washington. as the funeral train made its way to the cemetery. >> i'm heartbroken. it's a terrible waste of a good man. >> it muhurts me so bad to see m go. >> they stood for everybody. it's a shame how they shot him
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down. >> more was being mourned. than the shock and tragedy of another kennedy assassination. a vision of what 1968 was going to be. >> the following is a special report from cbs news in washington. the poor people's rally. for the past six weeks resurrection city has hung on through rainfall and a dwindling population. >> the built resurrection city to address economical injustice in the united states. but ends up a tragic disappointment. it's one of the rainest months in the nations capitol. they are living under deplorable conditions. >> many of the poor who came see their high hopes trickle away. the campaign is at a virtual standstill. >> there appears to be an
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insensitivity. to the demand. on the part of the congressman. >> there were completely taken a back by the response of legislators. many were not moved by the spectacle. >> there's negotiations for them to leave peacefully. they say no. they're going to continue. so the authorities come and swoop everybody out. >> the poor people like myself and other poor people can't get help. from nobody. he was helping the poor.
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he died. kennedy was going to help the poor and didn't give him the chance. they killed him. it's one thing they forgot. king had dreams. they killed the dream you couldn't kill the dream. >> late spring of 1968, a lot of americans believed that things can't get worse. in many ways, what was coming. >> did we come all this way for this? >> growing in size and emotional out burst. >> political pigs your days are numbered.
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♪ the time has come today ♪ young hearts >> students push forward and the police push back. ♪ can't put it off another day ♪ i don't care what others say dr. martin luther king assassinated in memphis, tennessee. ♪ time has come today >> senator robert francis kennedy was 42 years old. >> the enemy is no longer closer to victory.


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