in tel aviv, the israeli towers, they would have been able to do it. but they chose to attack you in the u.s. come here in washington, d.c. wide? because they wanted to send a message. and for that matter, i hope that the united states of america, and whoever will be elected, will take a leadership decision, maybe it's not popular that it will be a moral decision to stop the nuclear race in iran today. and i don't know how many of you have followed the weekly reports, and what was written there, but something very interesting popped up from the report. when you go into look at the writing of the arab leaders, not israelis, not jewish, arab leaders in the middle east, they are afraid from iran becoming nuclear more than us. the people in saudi arabia, and egypt, jordan, so for that matter i think we will have to
take action. and if the u.s. would decide to sit idly by and watch and to pray in order to take action, israel will have to do it by itself. it will not be easy. it will be harder. to deal with retaliation not only from iran. they will be nation's flying in from iran, from lebanon, hezbollah will join. hamas in gaza will send hundreds of missiles. but if we have to choose today between the option of allowing iran to become nuclear, to the option of fighting ourselves, i think the is a clear message what we will do. and the question is if will do with the u.s. or without the u.s., we are asking today. one of the main points of my book, i know many people here are involved with the middle
east is the issue of two-state solution. for the last 20 years we hear about two-state solution. you must finish the conflict, the resolution will be a palestinian state. and president obama adopted this approach and she's calling upon us, the israelis to build a palestinian state and go back to 1967 lines. and in my book, a new paradigm. enough with a two-state solution. it doesn't work. we have tried for the last 20 years. we signed the accord and we haven't received any peace. we tried to do it at this engagement from gaza. it didn't help us as well. i think it should be a three state solution and not a two-state solution. and when i speak about three state solution, i speak about jordan and egypt and israel. i do not believe it should be a
palestinian state, because look at what's happening today in gaza it's becoming a link of iran. a link of islamic radical forces come and you have to ask yourself do we want to see the same happening in jerusalem? i do not. and in my book i have a lot of criticism regarding that administration, i call it administration, but there are some more decisions. and decision to eliminate osama bin laden, i think it was the leadership inaction for president obama to decide to kill osama bin laden. he did the right thing bordering the troops to do it. but 24 hours later there was one leader that condemned the u.s. for killing one of the greatest leaders. do you know who was that leader?
which condemned you, the americans? it was the leader of the hamas organization in gaza. the only one who say i am condemning the u.s. for killing a great hero of the arab nation. and on the other hand, why send the troops to kill osama bin laden and the american administration is pressuring israel to sit down and negotiate, but with who? with the same people who praised osama bin laden? with the same people who teach and insight against jews everyday? that is what i think that if we need to get to a point where we have to reach a decision, we cannot allow the palestinian state. or so, i don't know how many of have been to israel but to get from there to hear it is almost crossing israel from east to west, the proximity issue is very important, and building and
into key in our backyard, it's not something we can allow. it's not like you where you say well, we have a border with canada, mexico, if you have a border of any state or enemy entity, look what's happening today in the south of israel. prime minister sharon decided to pull out from gaza. i was against it. in my book i write my personal expenses because i was very close to prime minister sharon. and when he decided to disengage from gaza, he was the godfather of my first son and i told him, you know how much i love you, and i want to support you and have you become the prime minister, but the minute we decided to go out and take jews out of the communities, i cannot walk with you anymore politically. and she took that decision. and what we expected, we expected if you take out the jews from gaza, or in your language, you evacuate the
settlements, i hear a lot about the settlement. so we tried. we evacuated all the settlements in gaza. we took out all the jews, all the families who lived there. we even took the people who are buried in the cemeteries, took them out. we destroyed of the synagogues. we moved all of them out of gaza. and what did we receive in return? a peaceful border? no. on the contrary. we pulled out in the hamas and the missile stepped in. and from the very communities in gaza, today people are throwing missiles not to -- into israel. to peaceful cities in israel. and that is the proof that the conflict is not about land. and i say enough with the peaceful idea. when president obama tide,
[inaudible] prime minister netanyahu had to come here to washington, d.c. and to tell them no, we cannot. no, we cannot do what you want because it is much deeper than what we are willing to give. the conflict is about a third resistance of israel -- existence a visual. when you talk today palestinian leader communist in that they want more than back to the '67 line. they don't want to see jews living in the middle east. i want to conclude and changed the language that we speak regarding israel. all the time and in the book i put in, young generation of israelis -- [inaudible] enough with the apologetic. all the fun have to apologize. i'm talking in my book about the rights. we have writes initial. and i start with a biblical
right. there is a lot of believers, christians and jews alike, it is written in the bible about the connection of jews to the land of israel. for me it is enough. but for those of you which is not enough, i'm talking about the historical right. and improved. i go back to the books of mark twain, and other people look at it took him and i shall historically the connection between jews and israel. you cannot prove the connection of palestinians to israel, but if that's not enough, biblical historical, i'm talking about legal rights. i'm sure there are some lawyers or law students here in the room, and when you read the book and you read legal documents about declaration, the accord in 1920, you understand that there are gigabytes, international 19 legal rights of jews to the land. but there's something else which i haven't found elsewhere when i wrote the book, and i call it the common sense right.
when you go to a war and you win a war, you don't give land you wondering that were. and what's happening now, since we won the war, and the side that was aggressive and started the war is coming to us and saying, you know what? i want my land back. it doesn't work that way. even here in the u.s. when it was with mexico, and you want, nobody came to you and told you, you know what, we lost the war, we want our land back. and i think the common sense right is something that states very straight to you. and our neighbors should know that if they would start another war with us, they would not keep any price. on the contrary, if you lose, you lose. and i think talking about the right is something very important to him many times because of the pressure coming from here, from washington and from the u.s., we tend not to speak about what belongs to us.
and i chose the name of the book "israel: the will to prevail" because i think it is all about us. if we believe, if we will have the will and the courage, determination we will be able to prevail. if we will try to satisfy everybody, all the time, we will not be able to win. we live in a beautiful land, and i know every time i speak it sounds like we have so much, summon enemy, so much trouble. but israel is a beautiful country. as a country of innovation and high-tech, wherever you go you see technology in action. and also yourself, whether you love israel or you don't like israel, the israelis is helping with technology. if you're using your cell phone to acknowledge he, your chips in your computer or cat scan in hospital, the amount of innovation we are able to produce in israel, it is amazing.
finally i can tell you it's a great place to live and to bring up your family. so even though speak about the threats and the challenges, still it is something we can all be very proud of, and i'm very proud of my country. but we have to know that every once in a while we stand united and protect ourselves, until we get to a point we will find a viable partner that we can sit down and speak about peaceful agreement. i don't see it in the near future. that's why i speak in my book about conflict management. not conflict resolution. we came to me times washington, to the white house. we've had too many photo ops, too many signs. the austrian accord, big supporters of the environment. think about the amount of paper that was wasted when we drafted the oslo accord. thousands of papers.
but today we come and we speak with the palestinian leadership about the oslo accord, well, it is written, so what? for example, [inaudible] a holy site for jews in an in accordance to the oslo accord were supposed to go there whenever we want pray, that we cannot go there. it's not safe for jews, cannot go to date and pray at the tomb of jordan. so it is written in the oslo accords. i don't want to another accord and another ceremony at the white house. i don't believe in it. i want to get to the point where there will be real peace with real partner, and still we'll get to that point we will have to manage the conflict. i want to sum up and tell you that the book is very straight. i didn't hide, and some of my colleagues in the parliament told me, you're making a mistake because if you buy something out in the book and you are young relatively, what will happen in
two years? people will go back and tell you, your book on page 182 about that, and now what you are doing? i tell them, i said somebody wants to lead, and believe in principle. i'm able to protect, and if one day i will think that i'm wrong i will come and i will say i was wrong. but i think so far what we're seeing the public in israel and the majority of the american people, are a just and it is not about what israel is willing to pay. it's about finding a viable partner. i want to thank you all for coming here tonight, and i will be very happy, i don't know some of you are ready, and you can ready with questions, and i will be very happy to answer your questions. and you very much. >> -- thank you very much. >> first, don't you think the kind of talk you're giving tonight is encouraging the
extremists in the airbus world who want to destroy israel? because there's a struggle going on now between the moderates and extremists, between hamas and the palestinian authority, and the kind of action that you are talking about now encourages the forces of hamas. because like you, hamas does not believe in diplomacy. hamas just believes in strength. like you, hamas doesn't want to come and negotiate in the white house. you are talking to the people who say it's not worth it to talk to israel, and you're discouraging the palestinians in the west bank who believe in peace, people like mahmoud. you're discouraging the bejeweled take a swing vote among the posting and you're pushing them towards hamas. don't you feel guilty? that's the first question. the second question, the second question is right now there's a lot of forces in the world. israel needs friends in the world. and don't you think israel would gain more friends in the struggle against the dangers iran is? i completely agree with you how
dangerous iran and mahmoud ahmadinejad is. those are my two questions. >> okay. i will do it quickly. i do not feel guilty. on the contrary. [applause] i think it is very important to speak up and say can you are talking about being moderate. but he signed an agreement with hamas. he decided to walk together with hamas. ..
but it's not romantic comedy air of spring because whenever the revolution, the islamic voices gaining power. egypt today, following very carefully, but nobody knows what will happen after a the senate voted out of syria eventually. so we are to be very careful. regarding the settlement, you know, with a gap between what people think about the settlement in the jewish community and about reality. maybe you can tell me, gina what is the actual percentage of settlement occupying what his actual jewish underground
>> it's about 5% to 8%. >> 3%. most of the case is they can't. you don't have arabs, pda deals for jewish, because of that we do not accept it. today in israel, we have arab israelis, 20%. where i live, they both like i vote and nobody tell them, if you do not live they are, if you have to move out. so i think we need to get the settlement. it is much deeper than that. [inaudible] >> that is the question? be i am 41, man. >> i assume you've read about
this, -- they said what do you want? effect we just want a little piece. and did he get a piece? what did he get? [inaudible] >> i think my point is very clear. we cannot wait and we cannot allow a leader to get to a point where he think of the jewish people. so when people think about the timeline and sometimes the timing of the america people is different from the israelis. i tell them yes, maybe it's because say. we cannot count and weight when you see that favorite. >> this has happened in europe, to. so i hope you read the history. you are too young.
>> thank you for an attack. i am david maccormack. my question is only related to the issues of something that would give israel the means to prevail. they said that the coast of israel, there's maybe $240 billion worth of natural gas and its ongoing. in the knesset, the decision as to whether the resources can be developed for export and said that no large company can come in and develop the resources that they are not allowed to export. i don't know if this is something you taken a look at, but you have any thoughts towards the committee recommendation in the export of natural gas click >> first of all, we used to complain a lot. they complain that we don't have oil for years. the god we found natural gas in
the amounts of gas we found is amazing. it's much more than we'll ever need in israel. and yes, we'll export the gas and today we decided the government at the beginning we'll export 50% of the gas i will evaluate this decision after we continue to drill in the water. but we are very lucky. and i think the energy market. also one being in my book is i haven't seen any of this year and 10 u.s., but now doing a pilot on the infrastructure and we try to use their brain for their solutions for energy. >> i am an israeli. i was born there. others raise their. as an israeli now, either
argumentative, but this is not the forum for arguments. i am also a guest here. i enlaces gaston we're not supposed to attack, although you tempt me greatly. >> we can do that in israel. >> after my house we can do that. not everybody in israel is in agreement with you. there's many experienced people, smart people, don't hold on to your point of view. i have a very simple question. israel is a mighty country. it is the strongest country in the middle east. israel has a cliché of atomic weapons. for many years, they obtained like we used to do historically
to obtain arms and my young days under the british magnum. all right, do you think there is any bets, bit of connection between israel being a nuclear power and iran and other nations in the middle east striving to reach nuclear power? >> first of all, you know as an israeli when you are to sub for a different view of three opinions. i belong to the ruling party of the likud party and the israelis supported this last election. will happen next election? god knows. i hope so.
regarding the nuclear capability, i will not get into detail, but one thing i can tell you for sure that when the ukrainian leader, thinking about acquiring nuclear capability is selling to the world what he wants it. he wants to change the reality in the middle east. he wants to rule the governing regime in the middle east. you want to say it and i believe it. if israel has nuclear power, i think everybody knows it is in order to show strength and to avoid another war. and i don't intend to convince you because i know that is something we cannot agree on. but i think if you read my book, you'd need to know the enemy. you need to know the other side. >> look, i'm not ready about, but, but a major op-ed in "the new york times" and you fudged a
little bit here and there. >> thank you. [laughter] >> sera, was a pleasure to be here. this is a last-minute trip and a friend of mine and i had read some of your background. i sold everything i've had. it is amazing that one nuclear bomb on tel aviv would wipe out a lot of israelis more than any other city. that's a very scary thought and that is that many of those folks in that region are adamant on. so i agree with you. there is a caliber and fortitude guidance and leadership to make thank you for that. but my only question is, just listening to you speak in kind of peru's interior book and
looking at you on the internet, do you believe there's a chance that she might run for mr. netanyahu's position one day? >> now you want to get me into trouble because i'm sure my prime minister is watching c-span and following it very carefully. first of all, to congratulate you for your move to israel. it is not easy to live in israel, but i congratulate you for that. i think i support prime minister netanyahu. when i've been asked to a support, governor romney, president of thomas and i said we have enough politics without the two of them. but i can tell you one thing, that when i was prime minister many years ago, he's holding in politics we have a peer made. everybody wants to move out. so every member of knesset wants to be minister and every minister has minister. so i'm working my way up. thank you.
>> of i.t. thank you for coming in giving this great speech. i am curious though, not about to save israel was to attack uranium reactors tomorrow. i'm not curious about the day after. i'm curious about five, 10 years down the road. the contract would israel be engaged in it doesn't take away the reactors. it takes out the material already there. i don't want to live at the nuclear iran, but i don't know how one strike or two or three would be less upset. it seems was the cat is out of the bag, it is out of the bag. they thank you. >> i cannot go into the details of the attack, but the message is very important that the message of israel or jews should be a joint western society.
we are not allowing iran to become nuclear. so one strike, 10 strikes, but the message is important because after iran come you'll find other countries in the middle east double to you. we also want to make our neighbors as a middle eastern country following the footsteps of tehran. i think it's amort every decision than a tactical one. >> just a follow-up to that question. in the september 3rd issue of "the new yorker," it was about the liberal writer, david grossman. i just want to quote something from the article and get your reaction to it. earlier this month, and i don't know the pronunciation, iran sarkar's, former military intelligence told the jerusalem post that an israeli attack
would lack legitimacy. unite a fractured iranian leadership and make it clear that they need to bomb no so that we cannot attack them again. >> venue or debate in israel open public debate. it will stop somebody in the street, tell him what he thinks about whether we should attack iran, that is democracy. but in a democracy, there's a government, elected a government. you have experts -- formal experts of the army. you people from the last couple of people from right. but in the u.s., the backstop sale in the responsibility stops at the desk of the government. so the government will have to sit down, view the reports of the intelligence and the arab people and take a decision. it's not going to be an easy call, but it will be decided in the government. so in israel, the bottom line is
the prime minister of israel with the government will have to take that decision. >> i think that i support one of your ideas. i think israel should go it alone and i think that our country has spent lives of dollars that we need our money now and i think israel should go it alone with libya. i mean, with iran. and i wonder if we would've been even attacks on 9/11 if it weren't for her support of israel. >> i think that we will start at the end of your remark. if you look at the attack, they write in the book in london or madrid, countries that opposed these are like the united states and it's much deeper than the connection between israel and the united states. and at the beginning, as you
said i don't think israel should do it alone. if we do not have other choice, we both doodlebug. but i don't believe it should be a joint effort of the russian society because those forces will go against you as well. bp say i don't care. is israel's problem. but she will fight monday at tom on the need for case or a container, it will become your problem. so i think it should be a joint effort of the western society, meaning the u.s., israel, canada, but it will only be a leadership decision. [inaudible] >> i do not know. >> the u.s. is israel's only friend. i think people are pretty disgusted with the kind of undemocratic behavior going on there. >> well, if you show me a stronger democracy in the middle east, or a stronger ally of the united states in the region, i will agree with you.
but i don't agree with you because the cheapest aircraft today of the united states and the middle east is in that region. we are in the front by not presenting the same principle. if israel will not be there come you'll find those forces coming to your shows. >> you know, i share your concerns about iran. i worry about it all the time. i think it's real. but growing up jewish, i learned that being jewish also miscarrying about the stranger from the bible or the people of king david, but also the people of the profits. what i didn't hear in your talk was forgive me, but any kind of humanity towards palestinians. i don't know she planned to do with them. i don't think you saw to that. no offense could be offense could be said the three state solution. does that mean each of its gaza and jordan gets the west bank? i don't know, but differs ill
keeps the territories, though either stopping a democracy or stop being a jewish day. i know there are problems with the palestinians, serious ones. i believe there could've been a deal at oslo and could've been peace. i am not naïve. but i think the constant building of settlements is undermining israeli security in causing the world to condemn it, israel. and i would like to know what your answer is. this is to keep the territories and rollover and other people? i would bet to differ. was your solution here? >> that is to buy the book and read the chapter about three state solution. but i will answer it. my vision first also long-term vision. in israel for politicians, they speak about instant solution millican instant gaia. so for me now and i'll show you
resulted in 20 days. i offer you the opposite. i tell you vote for me now, but i don't think he would be instant. nothing will happen tomorrow morning. but my long-term vision speaks about three states with the palestinians were living are linked into jordan to be negotiated with the israelis and palestinians and the palestinians who live in gaza, will be linked with egypt. but today would have been. if the muslim brotherhood and hamas commotion are very close in their opinions about any issues. should we allow, israel, u.s., they're very close in their minds. they will be asked to work together and find a way of the linkage. yes, i do not think they should be part of israel. i don't want to annex the palestinian town. i think they belong it should be it into jordan and egypt. and yes, it will not happen tomorrow. we will have to wait.
how long will we have to be? i don't know. if i would've come to washington d.c. two years ago, i would've told you that president hosni mubarak would be caged in jail in cairo and think i'm insane. and to them, coming in telling you in the long term should be a linkage between the palestinians and jordan on the palestinian in gaza with egypt would tell you, well, it's not going to happen. they would not agree to it. the middle east is very dynamic and change very fast and we have to put forward what you believe is good for us. >> your situation continues, i fear for israel's security. i see that as dangerous and there's also a moral issue there too, but thank you. >> thank you. >> so my name is terry dan says. i was in jerusalem in 1973 when
the war broke out and all the european nations made a good point of saying we're not going to send any weapons to the middle east because we don't want to encourage the war that has just started. that sets up at the same time the russian were sending weapons to the syrians and egyptians. my concern is with the shiites and the sunnis. if iran gets an atomic of, the question is not that the egyptians will say we want the same toy. the point is that the egyptians, the sunnis, the saudi arabians are sunnis and the iranians are
shiite. and most likely scenario is the surface in pakistan will send atomic arms to their sunni brothers in saudi arabia and in egypt. and you'll suddenly have -- you will have atomic arms all over. so i am aware of the dangers of israel, attacking iran and stop an atomic on. it seems to me the dangers of letting them get an atomic bomb, followed by the sunnis in saudi arabia and egypt is much greater. >> i agree with you. i would just add we had and we have changes in the middle east. rooted in the past, the future, we just cannot wait and see what will follow. but changing the realities and that's why we are very concerned about iran today.
>> groomer questions. >> victor miller. with regards to the atomic bomb, you know, israel -- we believe that israel has had it for many years. they've obviously never used it. i don't believe that any nation, which has any sense at all, would ever dare to use it in the environment that is the middle east today. i think it is a preposterous notion if you've ever been too sure she's not coming you will see what that's an incredible devastation and destruction it does. i don't think any nation could ever consider, nevermind on the blood saying they do on a daily basis. my question to you is i think a lot of this is obvious station is trying to come as far as i'm concerned, what a sap name to
the palestinian people? what kind of future do they face? there was an attack on some palestinians in jerusalem a few days ago, or a few weeks ago. to me, that is the end result of israel's policy of the last 20 or 30 or 40 years. i've been a lifelong zionist and i see in israel that is more and more isolated and more and more surrounded by enemies to an even greater degree. i just like to know, well the day, when there will be peace. i verga given up the fact that it will be in my lifetime. and you know, israel will go down fighting. that's a reality. i would just like your comment on that. thank you. >> if i had an hour, against everything you said. but let's say you need two to
tango. with all due respect, it is not enough. if you do not have a partner, it is not enough. and today we don't have a partner. i think we do care about the palestinians. it's enough to look at today what is happening in syria. i haven't seen the u.n. meeting so frequently opening committees to see what happened and syria as a double standard as you compare what is happening in syria if you to what is happening in syria entering israel. to achieve world peace, not a piece of paper, we have to weight and find a viable part. >> my name is richard corliss. i'm actually a christian in my background is representing persecuted christian communities in places like egypt and baghdad and iran.
my question is i have been fortunate concluded that no approach reason to achieve the middle east peace is unsound, basically not possible to achieve. i have 10 million cop to christians in egypt who are on the no right to exist list. the idea for israel is to be secure and permanent jewish state. it doesn't seem that that has happened. unfortunately concluding that they never have been more likely than not. i think we may just have to think out of the box away from all the current options. >> i think, and about in my book it has nothing to do with the settlement. i know to understand and to agree never to south sudan to dubai last year. when i spoke with the president is vested in any told me about
the war, with khartoum, the war was not because of oil price. this muslim forces do not seek to be christians of the next search them in africa appears so there's no settlement. there's an occupation, no palestinians, but figures the same amount against the christians living today in south sudan. it is exactly the same case we have today in israel. it has nothing to do with foundries, land, occupation. it has to do with the very acceptance of jews living in the middle east. >> on the south sudan issue, the white areas are same black christians were literally described as israelis. zionists with no right to exist after the sudan. it is his intolerance to any community is christians, jews or people they call infidels is an
issue. >> thank you. >> last question. >> i have three questions. if you can hear me. one is whether the chances of iran or even pakistan selling some of their atomic know-how to share his soap would be the state ever ran it would be attacking, the terrorists. and to know, you attacked about a four state solution. the four state being the ultra orthodox. and lastly, aren't atomic bombs altogether and anachronistic if they are going to be computer -- cyberattack. >> i will answer only to. first of all you are right.
if iran is nuclear, no one can do with technology will be used. so look at syria today. there's a big issue at the chemical weapons in syria. the revolution is here today. no one can guarantee to david barrett to chemical weapons or technology go to hezbollah and lebanon or anywhere and it is a threat to all of us. so what is an issue of concern for all of us. regarding ultraorthodox in israel, i read a lot about it in "time" magazine and i know that she discussed this issue coming to israel as a strong democracy, where you have the and arab israelis to move together and we go to elections together. and i sit in the parliament in the israeli knesset, the arab member of knesset. we do not agree all the time comes and we do not argue all the time. i think it is a strong democracy today. israel can be part of that
democracy. i know for some americans it's easy to criticize the democracy in israel. but i am proud of the democracy of israel. sometime, the thing happening in the knesset, a member of arab-israeli, how does bobby decided to join the flotilla from turkey that came to israel on that same note, there were terrorists who attacked the israelis with knives and weapons and blizzard and cannot vote and came back a day later and offered next to my dishy entered and is getting paid and that is democracy in action. i don't know if the congressman would've joined the flotilla for al qaeda if you let them back into congress. but it is really typing as we speak. it's not easy, but i think we can all be very proud of the democracy in israel. i went to two new maps all for coming. should the day after you read
you have more comments and pings today's u.s. i would be very happy if you do it on facebook or my website. i want to thank also, thank you very much. [applause] >> addressed that, the capital's main is home to bowdoin college, bates college and augustine. but to the explore the culture on a visit with the help of our partner time warner cable. >> my name is richard lindemann, director special collections and archives at bowdoin college in maine.
but i've chosen today is from our oliver otis howard collection. it's one of the largest collections in the department and the most heavily used. the reason that is so is is so disempowers career document so many periods of american history which you can have people interested in the indian wars and the west or who are interested in the civil war or interest in race relations all coming to look at these papers and the only thing they really have in common is that all of these resources are used for research. howard first and foremost as a bowdoin upon the city to get beat, was born in maine, went on to the rank of general during the civil war, then became head of the freedman's bureau camus superintendent at west point for some time. was in charge of indian wars in the west for a wild. pundit howard university in washington d.c. as well as
lincoln memorial university in tennessee and throughout his life was engaged in those institutions that he is such a large part in forming. i bowdoin commuters and the board of trustees for years and years, served as president at howard and lincoln university at different times in his life was awarded the medal of honor for service in the civil war, really had a distinct whoosh career in lots of different ways. what is pulled here are images of him overtime early on. he's a general by then, but still young. and some older ones, including an interesting woodcut rendition of had reduces hand to simple elements that provides for a grim portrait at the same time. a photograph here of him with chief joseph, who was chief of war and first tribe in the
northwest, where he was involved in those tribe members to the reservation. a rather and curious howard noticed that his right arm is gone. he had amputated during the civil war. insert a very hard with two of his grandsons, all of whom have fallen into military service. this is very, very late in life for him. and then finally i'm ultimately, a group shot that shows howard sitting right there, along with all the great white men who at the time formed the visiting board for bowdoin college. josh malone chamberlain, who also was a renowned civil war service is also shown in this picture. he is right there. so those are the two gentlemen.
chamberlin and howard were two years apart. chamberlain was five for 52, howard class of 50. they came to have not interacted much when they were here. they do share a dorm, but not a dorm room. so we didn't know too much in the early years about whether they were friendly. certainly later in life they were. and then finally, a picture of howard along with other distinguished alums, including chief justice fuller, who was seated next to howard they are, who is also a member of the board at the time. this one gives a nice gentle motion of the 19th century social life of a small town in maine. this is a letter howard is writing to his son, guy, a christmas morning of 1861. howard at the time was just outside of washington d.c. and it's a great -- his son is
probably three or four, maybe five years old at the time. and it is a great letter showing the civil war officer tried to be a father. the tone is very paternal, but not in a patronizing way, it often avuncular way. lots of pictures for lots of explanation about how things are. in the not since it provides great documentation, so scholars try to figure out the civil war, what camp life was like, what everybody was to when they were shooting each other. these recruit resources in that regard. this one shows a kind, but with a built chimney on it. people don't really associate intense necessarily together, but they happen all the time. it is more camp scenery together with torture is a powers family,
including diet, to whom he is writing the letter. and then after that is the chamberlain himself in the other children in the family. unless of course is mama. this is an 1861. and then in 1862, he was at fair oaks and he gets shot. other than some penetrates his right elbow and he has to have his arm amputated. so this is a sort of blunders and document the document that event. what is a letter but to him from his brother, who is in maine at the time, saying the way, i wish i could be with you. this is not very good news. law, blog, blog. but it's a sanguine letter and gives an indication of how quickly news could travel.
this is a today's empowered the injured and are to his getting letters from home expressing condoled as in concern. this is a transcription of the telegraph that was done to to inform the howard family in maine that he had been injured or have been wounded. and then within a day is a veteran from howard.com, written obviously with his left hand, so you get a sense, something has happened here, that is well enough to want to write, but videos that makes the good old college try of writing left-handed because he didn't have another choice. bitter he was awarded medal of honor for his service. a year later we have another letter from him, again to guy. you can see he is sort of figured out how to write with
his left hand. at least this illegible letter now. this is a great letter for a couple reasons. why does he use camp and outside of chat is at this point and anticipation through georgia. and he writes about how guy should be working really hard school and doing well at school because all the kids around here, that is in southern tennessee daughter how to read, don't the rate. they have to write with an ax by a car so he an example of how an illiterate in tennessee would be signing his name. to submit some of us right with his name really was because he was able to do so. there are examples of most drawing about his topography would say, and he's talking about the illiterates of tennessee.
later in his career, in the 1890s, his fundamental assumption that the more university, should establish for two reasons. one is because there is a need for education in tennessee and the answer is that there is a memorial in the fat. so howard is says to sentiments together and forming this university and served as president in 1890s. this is an oddball peas because it's signed by jefferson davis, the higher theoretically if that actually would be shooting against a few years time. jefferson davis was of course secretary of war for the civil war and this is commissioned a second lieutenant. after he graduated from bowdoin, went to west point and was a commissioner commissioned officer after three years of being there. jefferson davis was an honorary recipient after the civil war.
howard was appointed commissioner of the freedman's bureau. here is a letter from mary showed kerry, who was a black woven who is writing to howard, while howard is at this time president of howard university. he held both positions in the late 60s, early 70s. he had been a founding author of howard university. he and a group of others that a congregation of said about the civil war determining how they could provide help for a variety of disadvantaged in the d.c. area. they initially establish what was a seminary in that very quickly morphed into university. so howard university was founded. in indian affairs who would not be considered progressive. put them on the reservation would be okay with 10. but in terms of his treatment of lax and his involvement with
lax, he would have been. he is also called the christian general because depending on your perspective, he was either very pious or very gracious. he did expect that his troops would comport themselves in the highest christian manner. but there are also suggestions that he was really preachy and maybe not easiest guy to live with. but she really wanted to smoke a cigarette and have a drink. depending how you look at it, carries throughout life and he makes no apologies for it. but is also singled out because of it, certainly many of the biographies published sense. ultimately i mentioned earlier he was superintendent of west point. while he was so the freedman's bureau, the first lax or actually matriculated at west point. and here is federal douglas in which he writes to howard in
1880 that he appreciates howard's sentiments and support for having gone to west point, but later he also depresses into a very better set of paragraphs, talking about christians aren't necessarily the best people in the world to be criticizing anybody else for how well they treat their brothers. later in life, he settles than to writing speeches, writing articles, writing addresses. as an example of that, i pulled out one that we have here, which is an essay on the influence of women in the great conflict. so later in life use ruminating and reminiscing and writing about what the role of the woman was during the civil war. you know, staying home and taking care of children or
nursing the wounded or providing letters that would build morale. but it occasionally also references people, women who had gone to the front lines when their husbands were injured and taken care of to therapeutic is the anecdote of a wife, when pickets are established on both sides of the upcoming conflict, comes downright amid all issues some people stuck in the middle of a sentence. there's also a a good anecdotal study about howard when he loses his arm, of being visited by another general who had lost his left arm. the joke of courses we could go shopping together. so there is some humor in it, but it's a pretty tough time really.
>> we are at the maine state library and our public reading room. this is a normal day at the library. we have patients doing genealogical research and personally is looking for good books. we're going into the main author's collection. in the late -- only 1920s actually, henry danna who is the state at the time started collecting books by main writers, trying to get them signed whenever possible and it's grown into this. in fact, we also have an annex to this room. we have thousands of titles, by writers has some connection to the status name. we like to say that stephen king, the typical writer has probably about 15 or 20 specific ways he is connected to the state. worse, education, employment, home. so if anybody else makes any one of those criteria can for
example come his son joe hill no longer lives in the state of maine, we collecting. we've been collecting books since 1836 year the library. we have a number of unique or very rare items. for instance, we have a copy of the first edition of the book of mormon, which has been in the state library since approximately 1848, was published in 1830. the first run was 5000 copies and in institutions there were fewer than 10% of that left. what makes our copy a little bit different is if you can do the maine state library, will pull it out of the state do much to at it. with gloves. because that connection to sacred literature is so important to so many people, that we think that is something valuable we can do. we believe in preserving books. but there's no point in preserving them without access.
so that is something we do with that of the differently than other libraries. there is one item that we do not let anybody actually touch. and that is the martha ballard diaries. martha ballard was a midwife lived in hollow man, the next town down the river from 1785 to 1812. and she kept a hand written, obviously, diary, of her work as a midwife. in the 1970s, laura on which come into inscribe the diary and read a book based on the tale. this is incredible detail, who she's talking to, what she's doing. and really brings that time. a live from the woman's death.
from the health care perspective, things we don't think about. her perspective is actually interesting in that she's much more furry and doing what needs to be done than our imaginations are at that time. we expect women to event wyatt and gentle. and she's not. she's out there doing her job. and she's a doctor. she's taking care of people. it is just a wonderful look at women says jerry in a way that we don't always do. this is a paul revere. this isn't the revolution after the revelation because this just happened. but it is day to day life and that truly is the biggest general of the collection. the way they talk about the literary history of the gas to, we are really talking about the magazines published, not so much
as magazine is mail order catalogs disguised as magazines. magazines published by the gannett and moore's company. william gannett was a notch burner and he created something called giant ox the end. giant ox david garrett. if you had it come it would cure it. it was a little tablet and you plopped it in water and drink it and always mean well. it brought comfort to your life. the mail order catalogs at that time were actually magazines. so instead of what we would see as the sears catalog or the montgomery ward catalog, we've had these magazines full of stories. and in the stories, you needed to take ox again and it would
make your life better is. in some ways it was a way to bypass advertisers, bypass traditional publishing and sell your project directly to the market. this is late 19th century or early 20th century. 1880s to 1930s. because maine, particularly acosta, have access to the pope and to make paper, water and rail transit. things are published here. and made more sense to actually print these periodicals and aghast at headship them out. a gust has this enormous post office, which is a castle. no longer used as the post office. the current post up as a small
building. at that time we were shipping incredible amounts of magazines all over the world. comfort magazine is the first magazine to reach a million subscribers. we have the complete line. they have all been conserved. we use them in the d.c. seek northeast document center for taking care of them. they are wrapped in incredible detail to protect them. one layer of paper, another layer of paper and then a box. because they were working so hard to say they were magazine, not a catalog, the postal shipping rates varied by that. they publish news articles. they publish biographies of people at the time. the prohibition that started in maine and comfort magazine is really heavily and they were
prohibition. there are lots of articles on prohibition. lots of articles on the kinds of things you see today in the women's magazines, like good housekeeping. but easily 80% of his advertising that anyone time and one of the things they did is they would free. everything was free but more subscribers to comfort magazine. overview bought this thing from you get that for free. it was all advertising. it circulated all over the country. in fact, the state with the most subscriptions as california. and in fact, his success was the reason it failed. when the postal rates, they changed from a straight rate to a regional rate, it became
entirely too expensive to mail something from modesto to california. so that made a huge difference and that is eventually what killed it. the other interesting thing i want to mention today was my rent a very, the history of the appalachian trail admiring a the are completely intertwined. wouldn't have the trail without avery. brett mckay was the person who wrote an article in the 1920s saying there should be a trail that you could walk from georgia to maine to see the whole country. myron avery is the person who built the shrill, watch potrero, he was a maine native, his family background was in sardine
canning, which is course is a huge industry and main in the early 20th century. that he loved the woods. he became a maternity and cap been in the navy. that's spent according to one source at 250 weekends a year working on the trail. he was headquartered in maryland, so he found the potomac appellation club i was president of that group. the trail of a wouldn't exist without him. he died unexpectedly at the age of 52 and had arranged to meet his papers to the maine state library. unfortunately, because of the timeliness of his death, none of that was organized and we are so tried to get a really good handle. there are thousands of pictures that he check or that his
friends took of things happening along the trail as he was building a. some of them are incredibly fun. there's a photograph of an old man, titled older than iran standing on a farm. the next shot is where the trail will go through the farm. avery said he couldn't help the trail without cooperation of the landowner any of really good relationship with landowners to get access across the country, to get access to rather trail is now. this is especially exciting because it is the 75th anniversary of the trail completion this last august. in addition to photograph, a dam under construction, a camp for sale, the camp is in fine
condition. and people are still camping at the area. he wrote on all the photographs what they were about. this is someone and he is on the back of a chart going between spot for the trail building. most of these photographs were taken in 1920s. and what i found interesting was again they were far more women, particularly put potomac appellation sewer out there blazing trails in helping build the jail. most hikers who had the hotel start in georgia and ended main because of the way the season's run, you can get started in march in georgia and finish up with september, october. you can't start in maine until june. this is myron avery's booklet
about the appalachian trail. it is absolutely wonderful and the opening paragraph is delightful. the first forest across the depths of the maine wilderness, uncaring in this course of a german aerial is the gateway to the finest of maine's mountains, lakes, forests and streams come with mains power, those who travel the course of peace, beauty and solitude may indeed feel this is the fourth primeval, the pines and the hum linux garment screens in distinct in the twilight.
>> the only in maine that has a river. so we have any say in the west side of the river in the river billy has become a defining point for us in the city of aghast is. so the other thing of horrors that is unique is the state capital, we host the governor's mansion and of course some other government services that you would expect to have been the state capital. you know, the state capital has its own business. as most i'm sure you've been to, when you have the state government in your backyard, it can pose some difficulties, some sort of stresses.
arabica working relationship with the state and did a lot with them appreciate very much the benefits that being a capital provides two augusta. >> what are some of the challenges? >> where the significant amount of untaxed property because the state is here. all of the state property does not pay property tax. so that puts a burden on the property taxpayer so that puts a burden on the property taxpayer a commercial honor, when you have such a large volume of government -- or a large number of government buildings in properties in the city, which don't pay taxes, but yet use our services, use fire and police and go for it, use our roads, it is a stress or extra burden on property taxpayers. that is part of the burden that the city has to bear or be in the capital city. and of course, sometimes in the state wants to do some thing, it
doesn't necessarily follow typical ordinances that most businesses and residents have to comply with state -- you know, city ordinances don't apply to the state. so that can be a friction point on occasion. we try to work through those things and understand the benefits of being the capital city far outweigh some of them i've do we have to do it. the biggest challenge is always jobs and i think that is true of any community. you've been around in the last week. you have to see what we offer. there's a fiber community, lot going on. or going to have a brand-new courthouse with a $50 million project. a calmer center down the road is a major construction. we're going to have a big construction project on the interstate that is going to make traffic moves better. we've got commercial developments going on in