and managed to rise to such great heights and be an inspiration to all americans. he was a writer, he wrote every form of the language and wrote it well. he was the speaker, he was the first person in his family born in freedom. both of his parents were's slaves. he became a voice for his people. he did so by writing about human dignity. he actually were wrote most of his work, focused on the dignity of all people, and in particular the humanity of the black man in america.
deegan has always been important to paul laurence dunbar and paul laurence dunbar has always been a beautiful adjunct to the possibilities in vegan because paul lived in eight locations, he managed to travel and was like a sponge. he learned very early in life to absorb from his environment, to absorb from his contact, to learn and grow. this is the paul laurence dunbar melting hole. this is something he learned when he was in england. when he returned from england he situated his study in a similar fashion that he created for
himself his own loafing hole, a place to loaf. this is where he would sit in his chair, and reply and rests his eyes, sometimes putting a blanket over him. dunbar enjoyed his daybed. always kept a cover on it and he would cover himself. he could lay here and look out at the world passing beneath him. he enjoyed his desk. it was at his desk that he kept all important references all of his treasure was this particular book case. dunbar kept his book's hero although he had so many books. he had collected all of the contemporary african-american writers of his time, and he had
a collection of the classics that rival any library collection. he kept pictures of his friends because all of his friends renewed the pictures. photography was a new and recent attainment, and he enjoyed exchanging pictures and getting pictures. dunbar wrote many books and he wrote some by compiling his thoughts, collectively from time to time comment and many of his books are outstanding, but the two rest books of his are oak and it and majors and minors. something interesting, a look and ivy was his first publication. it captures the musical tone and
the rhythm of black expression at the time, and remember he was capturing the people who had been captured as not allowed to speak a native language but who had to adjust to a new language and if they adapted it it became known as dialect and it is beautiful and dunbar recognize the beauty and the world did not get it. he said okay, my second book, this is a first edition, majors and minors, this book includes passages in standard english. those first two books of dunbar are his breast because only 500 cases of coke and ivy wherever speculated and i don't know how many, there were reprints of majors and minors but increasingly they too i've very
difficult to find. we are now working into paul's bed room. paul's remington typewriter was probably his most out good literary tool. it was on this little machine that he typed all of his correspondences and works yet to be published. he spent many, many hours, day and night. he worked unceasingly, he developed that pattern and he would be back and forth through the night from his loafing hold to his bed room without interfering with his mother's rest. she had the other end of the hall for her movement through the night but his remington typewriter was the pride and joy
of his life. we are standing in the family parlor. dunbar's book was so expressive of the time, his level of development and his imagination. he wrote the uncalled, about a white character. black people could not read when he first started writing his novel. as a result, he knew he was writing primarily to a white audience. so he developed a plot so that this young man justin countered more and more difficulty trying to spread the word of the gospel to the point that he walks away in failure, decides to move on to cincinnati. that particular novel was not very highly rated by the critics but his best novel was his sport of the gods.
the english publication was entitled the jest of fate and it is the story of a black family having difficulty and fleeing the difficulty in the south, they moved north and then they are caught in to the jar of gentle living and being persons with their southern standards really fall victim to the many surprises of life in new york. dunbar had a message with the simplicity and beauty and values that the black family had known were so basic and particularly in the south and unless you had seen the struggle of the north in the black ghetto, you are not even aware of those kinds of
entrapments being in the world today. dunbar learned of those entrapments and wrote about them. paul contracted tuberculosis. he died at age 33. the interesting thing about his death, he would reset the twenty-third psalm, in his mother's arms, downstairs on the daybed, i walk through the valley and shadow of -- his eyes closed on the word death. that is how he died. >> dayton, ohio is known as the birthplace of aviation because it was the home tone of the inventors of flight, the right brothers. the city now houses the national museum of the united states air force, the world's largest and
oldest military aviation museum. booktv recently visited dayton with the help of our local partner time warner cable to bring you some of the city's local literary and historical chair. >> today we are in the archives at wright state university. the special collection and archives department with the wright collection lives. it has a really great home here. obviously from our name wright state university we are named for wilder and oracle wright and the university carries on that creative spiritbur and oracle wd the university carries on that creative spirit of the wright brothers. oldest creativity carries over to theoldest creativity carries to the collections at wright
state. in the wright brothers collection here we have the wright brothers report card, a record of what they did at school so here we have a few report cards of wilbur. he was quite a good student. in algebra in the 80s and 90s most of the time. he went to central high school in dayton and richmond high school in indiana. the report cards let us know what they were studying in school and what their foundation was for their future experiment. we have orville's report cards which are not necessarily as good as wilbur's. he was not as good a student. this one is from central high school, and he has gone 75 in algebra which you might think is a low score for somebody who is going to go on and invent the airplane but orville was -- he didn't like the organized
classroom. report cards, lots of fun to look at. our young visitors enjoy looking at these and learning what wilbur and orville were studying at school. once they got out of school, they got into the printing business. this is a newspaper the right brothers -- the wright brothers printed. orville wright is listed as the publisher and wilbur will add his name to eventually and be listed as an editor. lots of neighborhood stories about hawthorne street area that they lived in, businesses that were there and going on in the neighborhood. one of the interesting things we have in the collection is this photograph album that was put together by c. h. cloudy, reporter for the new york herald. he took lots of photographs in
1908 and 1909 when orville is trying to sell airplanes at the u.s. army signal corps and includes newspaper clippings and a regional photographs documenting all flights into that in -- in 1908-1909. includes loss of photographs of the crash orville was in that killed the first aircraft accident victim. orville had that crashed. his sister katherine, to nurse him back to health and be at his side. i have a letter i want to read a little bit out of. this was written by catherine from the post hospital at fort myer on september 27, 1908, just to tell you that i have been with orville all night and he had a good night. it is about half past 4. i am going to bed about 6. sunday night he was miserably uncomfortable and i stayed to see what i could do to help.
another item that we have in the collection is this item. this is the original contract that the wright brothers signed with the u.s. army signal corps for the sale of the first airplane. the specifications the signal corps wanted, only two pages long, much shorter than a contract today but if you look at the original contract itself you can see that it was for one heavier than air flying machine and the purchase price was $25,000 and the wright brothers received more money the faster they flew, the higher the flu, the more weight they carried as far as passengers and their speed and it is signed wright brothers by orville wright. a share everything, took credit for everything together. was a joint project, a partnership. they went on in their career, traveled a lot to sell the airplane and went to france
first, wilbur spent almost all of 1908 in france demonstrating the airplane and into 1909. this particular album is the aero club of america album put together by leon bluray who gave wilbur room in his factory in france to construct the airplane and fly locally at the local racetrack. this album is full of amazing photographs, amazing pictures of what the crowds that came to see wilbur fly. you see the women in their hats and fancy dresses and children and bicycles and carriages and so forth. a great photo album. one of the real treasures of the collection is this. this is an original print of the first powered flight. this was printed from the glass plate negative from the wright camera. that a local life-saving man at
the life-saving station take this image, when they were attempting this flight on dec. seventeenth. the life-saving station person was told to squeeze the ball on the camera if the plane lifted off and he did that but when asked if he got the shot he was unsure, he was so excited and the brothers didn't know if this picture came out until they got back to dayton because this is where they developed the glass plate. something that goes along with that is this item. this is a diary that their father kept, their father was bishop nelson wright and he kept a diary from eighteenth 57 until 1970 when he died and he recorded all of his family's comings and goings and accomplishments and things they were doing and things he was doing. is particular diary is from december 17th, 1903. he writes their father has just
received a telegram from orville and wilbur saying they had success and he records that telegram in the diary and he says in the afternoon at 5:30 we received the following telegram from orville dated kittyhawk, n.c. a bishop and wright, four flights, there is a morning against the 21 mile wind, started from level with engine power alone, average speed through the air 31 miles, longest, 59 seconds. home christmas, orville. they have done this amazing thing but they are going to be home for christmas. that is one of the key things to remember, family was still important in the middle of all this experiment in and travel. another thing i always like to share is this photo album. this is from 1911, orville goes back to kittyhawk, n.c. takes along with him his brother,
loren, and his nickname was bust. they go back to kittyhawk in 1911 to do some gliding experiments and this is one of my favorite pictures from this album and it shows all three, orville and his brother sitting on the side of the boat and orville is in his usual suit with his vest and coat, looks like he has long underwear on because it was pretty cold that year down there. his pant legs are all rolled up, sitting on the side of the boat with a big floppy hat on and it shows the human side of orville and his brother and his nephew fishing. something else i want to show you is this particular album. this is the air club of america album prevented to orville and wilbur on the occasion of the awarding of the aero club of america medal at the white house in june of 1909. this particular album contains
lots of congratulatory letters, testimonials, things like that. here's a letter from president william howard taft to the right brothers -- the wright brothers in honor of what they accomplished it here is a photograph of the wright brothers at the white house with president at their sister katherine is with them. these dignitaries from the aero club of america with their original signatures here and this is william howard taft at the white house, wilbur and orville and catherine and other members of the air club that signed this from catherine wright with best wishes of william howard taft and her signature is on the back of the photograph. the last thing i want to show you, very special, is another diary of their father, this diary is -- from 1912 and in
this diary nelson is recording the death of wilbur from typhoid fever. he was only 45 years old when he contracted typhoid and passed away in the middle of the patent fight. the wrights were still conducting business and running the wright company, this was a tragedy for orville and the family and milton wright this morning at 3:15, wilbur passed away age 45 years, one month and 14 days. a short life full of consequence, and unfailing intellect, in terrible temper, great self-reliance and great modesty, pursuing it steadily, he lived and died. many calls, many telegrams. this was thursday, may 30th, 1912. very formal emotional tribute to his friend. a few days later mills and actually writes a lot shakier hand, wilbur is dead and buried, we are all stricken. it does not seem possible that he is gone. probably orville and catherine
field is lost the most. they say the will. that diary entry really demonstrates how this is a story of an entire family who went through a lot of different things in their lives, not just printing business and bicycles and flight, but a lot of tragedy and the motion and family ties and a lot of interesting things that teach us something about what life was like early in the 20th century. >> next from dayton, ohio, learn about the seven events that made america america from author larry schweikart. >> "7 events that made america america" is not the 7 most important things in american history but rather 7 periods or events that i thought were critical to understanding the character of america, what has really made it into the people we are. i thought the first chapter
which was i thought someone boring, the history of how we to political parties came into being under martin van buren's system and that was the one that seemed to provoke the most interest of all. i thought eisenhower's heart attack would be the most interesting. >> why did it invoke most of the interest? >> martin van buren created something to protect slavery. he creates a whole new political party called the democratic party and the goal is to keep people from talking about slavery at all and the way to do that is by rewarding them with jobs. jobs in the party, jobs in the state government, jobs in the federal government. all you have to do is quiet about slavery. don't talk about slavery and it worked for a while. works for almost 40 years. it also contains the seeds of its own destruction because for van buren's idea to work the
central government, federal government has to stay small. states have to remain powerful. second, the federal government, the presidency has to be under the control of what are called and other historians call a northern man of southern principles, people understand by the 1820s you won't be electing slaveholders from the deep south as president. it is hard to elect abolitionists from the northeast as president. you have to have northern men who appear to be moderate and they are going to leave slavery alone but they are from the north. they are comfortable voting for the man slaveholders are comfortable and the dread scott decision is treated as a decision about slavery which was in essence the primary cause. what i wanted to in the chapter was show first of all, the panic of 1857 is a direct result of the scott decision.
what happens is all the railroads that are being built across nebraska, kansas, in the territory, are being built under the notion of popular sovereignty which went into the nebraska act, people will choose whether it is free or slave. dread scott totally undermine that, completely overthrows the missouri compromise. what businessmen sa is we will get bloody kansas, we will get john browns running around killing slave owners, pro slave guys burning down freetown's. is going to be chaos, bloodshed, that is not good for business. i talk about building a new business in downtown beirut. not some place people think of to build a business and the result of that is the railroad bonds running east and west crashed. the east/west crash took down
the banks with them which then brings on the panic of 1857 and as a corollary, the southern banking system surprisingly was very strong, it had branch banks when the norse did not. the south is relatively unaffected and the southerners take the wrong message from that and say cotton is king, nobody will make war on king cotton. we can leave the union without serious ramifications. johnstown has a massive flood, white south the town. how do they respond? did they ask the federal government for aid? note, do they ask the state of pennsylvania? no. they tell the state of pennsylvania keep the militia out. we will handle this. they deputize 70 guys with stars made of soup cans, no looting, no pillaging and supplies were arriving within 24 hours from volunteers and it is remarkable how quickly they rebuilt without any federal support and very
little state support. same thing happens in dayton. we have a very big flood in 1913 in dayton and they build 90 of these small boats to start sailing through all of dayton rescuing people from rooftops, delivering supplies, he deputizes his own security force to make sure there's no looting to protect people. this time the national guard does derive a couple days late but by that time once again the private sector and the local communities handle it and compared to the dependency mentality we saw in katrina, isn't that a much better way to go? self-sufficiency and pull together as a community and handle this by ourselves? i thought it would be interesting from two points of view. in our culture in a debate about
food and the impact of food from mayor bloomberg and his nanny is a man trying to control what size drinks we drink to taking france that out, i grew up, telling how coffee and dayton were going to kill you. i am still around. i figure that that would appeal to a lot of people and also there is kind of day nostalgia for the happy days of eisenhower when america was this unprecedented world power. nobody messed with us and you had a scene like everything was all quiet and serene. of course that is not the case. i figured that with ike, the whole notion that meat was bad and cholesterol was a killer, this would resonate with people especially mayor bloomberg's agenda to eliminate certain types of food. >> was there any particular chapter that you wrote that you learned something? >> guest: the chapter called a steel guitar rocks the iron
curtain which is about how rock music helped bring down communism, i was able through a connection, marc stein, not the author but the keyboard player from vanilla fudge to interview all these rock-and-roll hours, people like alex cooper and billy joel for the book. what i learned from them was really amazing, about how the structure of rock-and-roll, the musical structure itself is a structure of liberation. so if you are in a communist country you don't even have to know the lyrics to get the message that rock-and-roll is about freedom. >> lives are miserable because steel factories -- >> the account of stories, billy joel told me when he played russia i said did a sensor you in any way?
no, they let me play whatever i wanted. the first american musician to play russia since 1964. quite an honor. he said they let me play whatever i wanted but they said whatever you do, do not have the kids come to the front of the auditorium. ♪ >> they were very much into sitting at their seats and he said that the police did not have firearms that they had tranquilizer darts and tranquilizer guns and afraid the kids would go nuts. the billy joel said you know what i had been due? you called them to the front immediately, yes, they all came down, soldiers were throwing their hats in the air.
>> host: what is the biggest mistake ronald reagan made? >> guest: putting our troops into lebanon as peacekeepers. we have learned that peacekeepers are little more than targets unless, and the research now bears this out, unless there is already a negotiated settlement by both sides and both sides want to keep the peace. ..
it's clear he didn't get it was a distinct animal. but you see a shift in the attitude. he say, we're dealing with something. this is not just state-powered terrorism to one state. it's a religious ideology. >> i figured many people would think i was talking about barry gold -- goldwater. the whole idea was after he made his speech, chris matthews said you gave me a chill on my leg. the point of the chapter is that the news media since about 1990 has drifted heavily, heavily, heavily toward the left. i don't really think this is too much a matter of debate anymore. tim in the book "political science of ucla." statistically proved it. there are numerous studies suggesting that this is a case.
again, i think there's a danger there. we've been warned about this by doris kearns good win who said "the new york times" has not done obama any favors by protecting him. our system is designed for the media to be an attack dog on all presidents. a watchdog, a guard against excessive government power and especially presidential power in our term. and i think has been missing for are the last five years. and was already you could see it coming was how they were treating him in the election. >> if you had to make a chapter number 8, what would it be? >> it might have to do with addressing how academia has gone so far to the left. in all departments except engineering and business. because that's the question when i make speeches the two questions i get asked. why is the media so far to the left? why are reporters so far to the left?
i don't have a good answer. that would be something, i think, worth researching. nine u.s. presidents have spoken at dayton's old court house either as presidents or during the presidential campaign. booktv recently visited booktv. to bring you more of the city's history and literary culture. on the first floor of university day to be school of law in dayton, ohio. we're in the head courtroom. i wrote the book because i had done some earlier research on the impact social media on jurors. and i was amazed at how much social media had iran -- influenced the behavior. it got me thinking are there other areas in criminal law that social media had the influence
or impact. i'm talking about youtube, four square, linked in, things that are online involve a community, and user-created. it's going come are a lot of different platform. to ban somebody from that it's a high-risk you're going violate the constitutional law. >> talk to me about how thicks were before social media and the how things have changed. >> i think it's been very incremental the changes with respect to technology. the court -- if you go way back when the telephone was first hit main stream. the united states supreme court found constitutional for law enforcement to actually intercept phone calls. i know, it may surprise a lot of people today. but there are notions of privacy were very spatial in nature. and so that their idea of when the fourth amendment, the fourth
amendment protects you from unlawful search and seizure. when the fourth amendment applies they with respect with respect it applying to your house or person. it was difficult for the supreme court justice of the 1920s to apply this idea of privacy to the air waives or temp conversations. so in the 1920s law enforcement could intercept phone calls as long as they didn't go in your house and do that i that. can listen inside your phone conversation. it took some 40 years for the supreme court to realize it's an innovation of your privacy. a violation of your fourth amendment rights. now fast forward to today, the issue before the supreme court is whether or not upon arrests can they search your smartphone. so now as technology is advanced the concern here and the state of ohio ohio supreme court said they cannot search the smartphone. upon arrest you can't search
someone's smartphone. they have a privacy interest. if you want to do that, you must be get a warrant to state why you want to sthearnlg smartphone. other part of the country out west they allow police to search a smartphone. >> sometimes the jurors are asked to be removed from the courtroom. are they told not use their phones? >> there are numerous examples of folks actually holding polls on social media asking their friends to tell them how they should vote on a specific criminal case. it is a big problem in the court system right now. they're struggling both ways with how to grapple. how to address the issue of jurors going online and either communicating with someone about the case or researching the case. and i don't think it's necessarily going get better unless the court takes some more drastic measures with respect to
jurors. because as jurors. as we get younger and younger. younger than me. younger jurors in the jury box are even more connected to social media. it's more natural for them to turn to social media. so to give them to tell them to go eight hours without checking facebook and communicating with other is a very difficult task. what are the judges feeling about social media? >> the chaijt right now for the court. the idea about education. all evidence submitted in a trial must be awe then candidated. prove that it's what it's to be. the difficulty here is if you want to introdpiews in evidence a facebook page, all right. the first initial step you have to prove that that facebook page belongs to that person and the person wrote upon that facebook page. >> have there been tesseral --
several trials affected? >> numerous trials have been overturned in arkansas. a death penalty case was overturned by the supreme court because a juror would not stop tweeting. and he continued to tweet even though they instructed the judge instructed them not tweet about the case. he continued to talk about it. ultimately it lead to the overturn of the person's death sentence. >> what is the next step? where are we headed? >> base order the individual placers. i think it buries. for example. what i have seen whether or not you can ban somebody from social media. you see it with sex offenders. many states pass laws banning them from social media. it goes back to the point where are we banning sex offenders from social media?
now what can law enforcement do with social media? i've seen them more an more using social media to interact with the community. so before maybe law enforcement walked the beat in the neighborhood in other in order to understand what is going on. people spending more and more time online especially social media you see law enforcement agencies creating their own
social media -- you have people doing nothing but patrol social media. they do it to interact with the individuals on social media and look for crime. the defendants are using social media to commit crimes. they are using social media to talk about the crime. and also plan about and plan criminal activities. you're seeing increase presence of law enforcement on social media. and, you know, before if you were a victim of crime you really didn't a voice. i'll say that -- for attorneys and defendants even and victims. it gives them a voice. generally you had a voice if you had the media behind you. you needed the media to disseminate your message. with social media you can disseminate your own message. i think that's half the battle with respect to those digital
immigrants. immigrated to the internet and digital native. is it education to let them know what people are doing on social media and what steps they can take to be better informed. dutchman restaurant. in my book, i write about the dutchman in ohio, which is in the largest am accomplish settlement in the world. my book is focused on amish tourism in the settlement. we're referring to a really diverse social group. there are -- in ohio, there are eight different groups of amish just in the one settlement. and they ranged significantly in
their practices. they range everything from the amish, which is a group named after someone who helped them break off from a less conservative group. the amish are very traditional. they are very tradition-minded. they try very hard not to change. they are pretty restrictive with their members. the largest group in the united states and the old order amish. when you think of amish. chances are you are thinking of the old order amish. they are tradition-minded as well. there's now a new order amish in ohio, who i don't know very much about. they are pretty new. but they would have sunday school, for example. old order would not have sunday school ever. there's a group who most will say aren't amish because they
drive cars. they are more tradition-minded groups have a higher rate of retention among the young people than the more liberal group. they retain about 85% of the youth, they move in to adulthood. all amish groups are growing on the whole. the amish double their population about 18 to 20 years. i think the amish really lend a kind of legitimacy to the idea that, you know, you don't have to be that fast all the time. there are people who manage to be slower. there are people who do actually get around on bikes, on foot; right. and in a buggy; right. that doesn't go more than 15 miles per hour. it's not -- i think that a lot of times americans feel like there's knows cape; right. from speed. but the amish will suggest there is. i think even just witnessing
being near the amish or getting stuck behind a buggy is a very powerful experience. wow. what would it be like to move this slowly? i think contemporary americans are experiencing a good -- experiencing significance and anxiety about things that have gone away. our relationship to time is so different now than it was a half century ago and certainly a century ago. our relationship to technology is so dramatically different than it was, gosh, 120 years ago. it's changing so fast. our understanding of who we are as gendered people has changed a lot in the last 50 years. and so the amish are this very interesting other for us. because they are so from addition-minded. they hold on to things over time really well.
so they haven't adapted to technology the way the rest of us have. they haven't spend up the the way we sped up. i spent a summer in ohio, which swufnt three towns i talk about in my book in holmes county. what was surprising to my was the esthetic inside the gift shop was a early late 19th century queen ann victorian style. the buildings were done in an updated version of the queen ann. all kinds of lace, they sold all kinds of teapots, long story short. it's a very ornate approach. in term of decor. and i thought why are they doing that; right. when the apparent, i mean, like the obvious draw to this area is the plain and simple life of the amish. why this esthetic.
this is a question i want to answer. is there anything about amish tourism that has something with the amish. is it meaningful in any kind of way, or is it just that consumer culture has colonized the amish too. i found, not surprisingly, it was more complicated than i first thought. that we yes, on the one hand you have these studies or environments that are created for amish tourism in the ohio settlement, the three towns i looked at are themed. and then the third down has a frontier theme. and they produce this theme by way of architecture, way of interior decore, the merchandise they sell. on the base of the theme can seem like what does it have to do with the amish.
does it connect with them? and a frontier the am accomplish aren't pioneers. we don't think of them as pioneers. what is up with that. i thought, well, true. but then when you look more closely at what is offered in towns, i think there are connections, actually. so in this restaurant where we are, one of the connections that i thought was important was, i mean, in some ways it's obvious. the food. right. so the setting might be victorian or whatever; right. but the food is both connected to amish. this is the kind of food that the amish have liked to cook and eat. all right. like broadcasted chicken, mashed potatoes, dressing, chicken and noodles. those things are stables for the amish culture. i think even more than that, it's that this is -- i refer to it not my term.
the notion of -- that the food that visitors encounter is slow food. it's food that takes time to produce. after words we were had a meal with them and we were sitting outside on a peaceful summer day. i asked them, what do you think of tourism? whey expected them to say it's so irritating or the tourists ask the dumbest questions. want to take my picture. that kind of stuff. and it wasn't their response at all. it was really, i was really taken aback. the response was sympathetic to experience main stream americans. that, you know, they really feel
bad for the way they have to live this terribly rushed life. and they republican always in a hurry and a lot of anxiety. they talked about how fortune they feel to live this very different life. they talked about feeling like tourism is an opportunity for them to witness to provide a christian witness to the rest of the world. it's complicated. and of course, it's all or it rich has been huge. the am accomplish have in the last 40 years have gone with don, a famous amish scholar. talks about it as their industrial revolution. and so what has happened because the amish have reproduced very quickly, the population has grown very quickly, and they live in areas where land is very desirable. it's very -- they are good at picking
productive farmland. and because of tourism, so there's a lot of pressure on land where they have the largest settlement. it mean it's difficult for their children to purchase farmland. what this has meant is over the last several decades, it used to be the case the majority of amish were farmers. now it's like 15% or something like that. it's a dramatic change. so the big question has been how will they live? how will they support themselves; right. without being farmers, and one of the answers has been well, tourism has been a significant answer. in those areas they sell a lot of amish-made furniture. you have to have lumberyards, and furniture shop. oddly enough even in the culture seems so overtermed by marketing
and advertising and the pitch to, you know, for you to buy something. we can still find meaning of the human interaction. we can encounter the strange and learn something about ourselves. home to the university of dayton. the library at the university of dayton founded by father john albert in 1943. the university is run by brothers and priest of the society of mary. founded in 1950. 1943 and the 19 40s we witness sort of a flowering of
"devotion" in the united states, especially much -- many materials and yet father albert at the time thought that these materials needed some type of a scholarly foundation. and it was one the reasons for founding the marion library in 1943. the good "devotion" to the virgin marry requires the foundation and scriptture and the teaching of the catholic church. the type of book we have our devotional books to mary. there was one type. in the 16th century we have the diswo. little blessed virgin mary based on the same pattern.
one of the interesting things it's a book and it has the table of -- and in this little office of the blessed virgin mary which was printed in 1622, we have the piece such as easter and pentecost. continuing on we have brother -- tell us about something of the artwork which we have, especially the 19th century devotional materials is jillian
-- our librarian. >> today i'm going to show you these were popular in france in the 19th century. they are basically brightly colored prints that are on popular topics. these happen to be lit any of a blessed virgin and the family tree of the blessed virgin mary. we have a real lick from the cough -- coffin of saint brother conrad. this is a piece of wood fit in the back of the handmade badge. this is from france in the turn of the century. we also have a very old holy card here. this is from the 18th century. it's a corps plate print and it's hand colored. it's of ma madonna and child. i also have a souvenir. this is bark from the tree in
the garden of the visitation. hire are some items i would like to show you. these are manuscript before the invention of the printing press. manuscript were the most common type of book primarily done by monks who would handwrite each letter and usually ill liewl nate some of the letter to provide decoration and bind them together. the particular is an example. we have no publication information likely done before the invention of the printing press.
we also have a number which are printed 1500 the earliest printing book we have -- there's a collection the blessed virgin mary and other. if contains the earliest printed example of the poetry that exists in publication. >> this is a book of hours. which they were printed for educated laypersons who wanted to share the prior vogues of the catholic church and these books were created for them which contains psalms and other devotional prayers that can pray in union of the church. this is a combination of the other two types of books i showed you. it's printed but also has the
contains sermons with lot of language one of the native languages of mexico including sermon about the lady of guadeloupe which is a central "devotion" in catholic mexico. people have a variety of reason for come together library. some come for the scholarship not anywhere else in the world which are difficult to find in one collection. others come for the art work or to experience pious or "devotion" related to the virgin mary. so we try to meet the needs of all the audiences with our various collections. with the help of our local partner time warner cable booktv recently visit decade -- they -- dayton, ohio.
i told him i didn't have time. do something for the exponent which was the magazine here at the university of dayton at the time. i must say, it was -- that's all. just three words. he looked at me and said you can write. >> my brother tom price was looking for work and the famous words to her. you can write. enthen it was like opening the dam, so to speak. words just came out of her. she wrote for the local paper. she wrote for the times.
she wrote for the dayton journal harrold. she wrote for the neighborhood groups. she wrote every chance she could. and her work eventually got caught on by the national world, and indicated went in to 900 papers. she had to do it, i think. it was who she was. once she got the initial encouragement she was on the racetrack. from the dayton area. she grew up here. born in 1927, and spent most of her life in the area. chef just a phenomena unto herself. there's never been anybody quite like her. and she was known to everybody. she was everyone's soul sister.
everybody thought they knew her. and they did pretty much. she would lay her life out for everybody to see. and she told us about what life was like in suburbia for women in the 19 60s through the 1990s. she wrote mainly humor. and it was humor that was assessable to everyone. because it was humor that happened in everybody's lives. but they might not recognize it until they saw it written on the page or in the newspaper column. because funny things happen to us all the time. we have to be on the lookout for them. she's the one that focused our attention on the funny things ha -- ha happened in the family. the moment craziness and driving you nuts. you think it's really funny.
by having somebody point out what has happened in your family what was happening in her family. it gave women permission to smile more at their kids. to laugh at what they're doing. to real those moments will come and pass and what will be left behind is the wonderful memories of their childhood. that's a real gift. that's a literary gift. she was able to make all of us more appreciative of their lives. the people in our lives especially those little bitty ones that can drive you crazy at times but through her viewpoint we saw the charm in your kids. and she was just a wonderful asset to our community. and we knew her so well. you see in the grocery store, or
church, or soccer games or whatever. she was one of us here in the dayton community. it made us proud. proud of her. and the fact she was known all across the country and through canada. she was in the 00 newspapers and on the "good morning america" show for years. ♪ she was in our homes. and we thought she was probably taking over our shoulder oftentimes. the things that she wrote we said, yeah, it was going on in my house too. i think it made better writers of all of us. because we found ourselves
writing more to relatives, friend, and tell them about the things going on in our family. she gave us permission to laugh at the antics that we saw. she let women feel valued in their home. they were doing important work for the culture. what she would want is for people to appreciate where they are at any particular moment. if it's in the middle of chaos in your family. find the goodness that is there.
that will g.i. you strength to get through the moments. i think it's important realize that we do have within us the power of strength. we need to call upon it. humor is one of the ways to do that. for more information on booktv's recent visit to day ton ohio and many other cities visited by the local content vehicles, go c-span.org/local content. >> can you tell me what part you
>> did you return while the speech was going on? did you come back several weeks later? how did you cover this? >> we -- wait until the story -- the last people to the story. so we came back a long time after. and went to the hotel and [inaudible] and the families. and why -- like many by 9/11 and in the u.k.
time. you can be certain is the reason we are particularly interested in them. and of course with afghanistan is the -- [inaudible] something about it is also extraordinary -- [inaudible] from the inside but all of these people 90% of them are pakistani and indian contributors who we draw by having it on what they can did. they overcame extreme danger and fear. many fully -- employees like the hotel.
and the endless -- [inaudible] provide very often the makeup. for example the group -- mastermind -- in the 1990s. early 1990s. specifically to make indian -- [inaudible] their idea was to send over the army to trigger a war. and they then subsequently after 9/11 an element within the group wanted to broaden out. to be more like an al qaeda
asset. >> the headlines. because that is everybody in south asia or nobody really cares. it's quite shocking. and when you come back it it. the continuing describing human right abuses which completely -- there are more people. there are three times the number have disappeared than ever disappeared on in chile. you are talking upwards of 8 to 10,000 people. vanished.
for any one agency. you kind of feel that lacked familiarity was such a huge issue. it's part of what -- it's something we have to write about. within the indian establishment and the perspective of the groups who we make contact with in pakistan and -- [inaudible] what originally sparked your interest in this area of the world? >> oh, wow. the 25 years. 20 years. at "the guardian" and love it. it a great part of the world. there's so much happening in the country. we love them equally. asia is particularly it's recreating itself every day.
but '01 there's a tremendous feeling of energy there. in someceps -- [inaudible] a stunning new film makers. a cartoonist, an artist. you get the feeling. there is no come complacency. and it is just staggering. travel freely and make film in the curlture pakistan too and south asia. is simply 20 years of repeated goifn us. i'm glad we've found the opportunity to do it. >> have you lined up the next process yet? >> yes. [laughter] >> it's a secret.
[inaudible] return to the same area with the similar people. and we are very -- at the time when poland had no money at all and cnn arrived by helicopter he came by bus. we want to be loved and come by bus. then we're going to stay. thank you very much. thank you. >> visit book.org to watch any of the programs you see here online. type the author or book title in the search bar on the upper left side of the page and click
search. is booktv streams live every weekend. text bryan leads a discussion about the book "the negro in illinois "a project part of fdr's work project administration. it employed prominent writers. thank you for being here today faps joy to have the project between book covers now. it's been so long. and, you know, we've been
talking with michael, you know, and essentially going get the project done each step of the way he keeps saying, you know, one day we're going to have that big event. and here we are it's family here. i'm happy to have you here with me today and thank you for coming out on a saturday afternoon. today i want to begin by talking about how i found this project. sort of how it found me. i'll tell some of the background how the negro in illinois was conceived. the individuals who carried it out. and read some passages from the book. my wife and i moved to town in 2004, to urbana champagne. it didn't take me too long to find the research collection just a two-hour drive straight up the interstate 57.
so i came here pretty promptly, and at the tombivity interested -- a fascinating figure. he had ban poet. he was best friends with langston hughs. he had written several children's novels. but still a largely unrecognized figure. so i wanted to look up him and i came and started asking question of the staff here. they bring out the boxes the first of the 50 boxes. i had never heard much about the project. they are labeled "negro in illinois." and i start looking through them and realize what is here in a virtual treasure-trove of materials never been published and never seen the light of day.
so i start hearing from michael that this is one of 17 projects carried out by the federal writers project. illinois being one of the chapters. i have seen the state guide book put out. the books one for each state. you can find them at used bookstores today. they are tourist guides. they have maps in them. places you want to go visit. and i had never heard of the 17 separate project undertaken and headed by sterling brown, the same black poet. howard professor howard university professor sterling brown. additional all the famous writers had worked on. people like richard wright, frank, richard, all of these famous people had worked on the project.
that the point my ears are starting to tingle. i'm starting to realize what the project is. the obstacle is one-third of the chapters were missing. we know there's original 29 chapters. we have the original outline. michael went to great length in the late '80s early '90s to organize these. but it was clear from what we had one-third of the chapters were missing. is i decided to go on the treasure hunt to try to track down the missing chapters, and first went to the university of illinois press. they were interested, thankfully. there was various obstacles around the way. these don't get in the book.
there was somebody in mind piecing together, you know, the chapters we had and we weren't quite sure he was going do a good job of putting it together. i had to muscle in and get the project together, and the press picked it up, and we went with it. so i had to try to track down the missing chapters. first, i went to the new berry library on the north side. i went to the new berry library and visited paper of jack conn roy. he was coed or it on the project. a unique case of interracial collaboration black and white authors here. i weptd to the paper and found some wonderful stuff but not the three missing chapters.
i found some additional chapter. some drafts but i calm out of new berry still missing three chapters. next i had to go the abraham lincoln presidential library in springfield, and i found additional materials there. but still i was left after visiting the library of congress missing three of these chapters. the three missing chapters john browne's friend. the story of john joandz. the chapter on music, obviously, a great interest. and lastly, one of the chapters they had been referred to frequently in memoirs but we couldn't find called "what is africa to me." the what happened --
chapter on black nationals. next i went to syracuse university. where they had donated his papers. all the way in new york state. went to syracuse university and go through the files there. he knew just about everybody in the black lit briers world. it's a fabulous collection. and one little folder there listed in god's country. which was one of the working titles for the study. and there they had the last three missing chapters. i called michael from the lobby excitedly telling him we have found all the original 29 chapters. so at this point, i came back to chicago. i wrote up a project. i sent it to the vivian harsh society.
i got a fellowship to work on the prompt. i spent the summer of 2010 here going through the papers. and i got some really to know the staff here. which has been wonderful. all the staff here. it's a people library and it's ban joy to work here. i find the most recent version. i put them back together. i show them to michael. he said that's great now we need notes. now i have to come up with a layer of footnotes throughout the chapter. pointing to all the other material that exist over here in
the library. one of the best things for me is working with michael. i'm grateful he would pick a young scholar like myself. i feel fortune. i'm also grateful for the other scholars who could be here today. they offered criticism and encouragement along the way. i'm happy to be a part of this growing community of scholars doing work on chicago right now. kate coming up and tell me to come over to -- which is one of the best in town.
whether the federal writers project began. in addition to putting americans back to work, building roads, building bridges, building things like lake shore drive here. built by the wpa. they also put writers back to work. which is kind of a by disaster notion for the time. they put writers to work. they were for arts projects, the federal art project, the music project, the theater project, and the writers project. each had different state officers we had here in town. the illinois' writer project.
but throughout illinois there was some 100 different projects. it was a massive undertaking. nationally there was some 25,000 workers working for the cultural projects. they were tasked with writing state guidebooks. they first started come l out in the 37, 38, the first guidebook when they came out presented a lily white image of the nation, as you might imagine. the roosevelt administration and got sterling browne appointed to oversee several independent black project. study that archive african-american life. i first talked to michael. you told me there were 17 initiated by browne.
how do you know there are 17? i don't know. i had to go part of the tour was finding the 17 projects. it was not until found a microfilm i was going through. i finally found that list of 17 projects. let me see if i can get it going here. hey here on the right here. he was head librarian for some 30 years. he invited the people. sterling brown the national editor of the federal writers project. based in d.c. here is a list of 17 projects. the list of 17. the number 15 was the negro in
chicago. he became the negro in illinois. this dpaited here november 1939. it says here negro in chicago has begun. it's underway. but the actual during his day in 1940 the negro in virginia was published. and this started getting him moving on the project. he starts working more quickly. in the earl days the black writers work alongside white writers. and the downtown loop at eerie street. they were known at the eerie street offices. east of michigan avenue. one of the earliest black writers to work on the project
was richard wright. here he is with vivian harsh. we're at the woodson at the library. a lot of the workers did their work an the library. this is where they went to do the research. the best archives in town for black history. the first document bearing his name is the aspect of chicago here. ultimately worked until 1937 on the project. cement this was here years before black boy. years before native suns.
worked on the wpa. lied about the age to get on the project. she produced several writings on the black press and worked on the unpublished novel which she said inspired wright to produce native. was laid off in 1939 after congress passed the 18-month law limiting the time you can collect relief to 18 months. some of you might also be familiar with the study of chicago black metropolis. at here he is at his desk at the parkway center.
newspaper called the bronzeman. most interesting is a chapter he wrote for unfinished book on the black press that was supposed to be completed, a chapter called don't spend your money where you can't work, famous campaign undertaken by the chicago between the years of 1929-1932. fascinating essay that didn't make it into the final book but you can read it here at the harsh collection. these were public documents. these were not supposed to be stuffed in the archives although they did that for many years. open to the public and available to the public and you can go read some of these materials. another person you heard of is katherine dunham who worked on a project 1938-1939. she oversaw project studying
black cults and storefront churches and she and her group were among the first to study the nation of islam in town. recalls meeting elijah muhammed and being, quote, impressed by his sincerity. there is only one document with dunham's name actually on it. this one i found at the library of congress, the revolt in green pastures, the book project that was to come out of black religious groups, she is kind of riffing on mark connolly's play called green pastures, revolt in green pastures, this story of start up black religious groups, april 25th, 1939. among the numb at staff was the young frank kirby who later
became famous writing several popular novels set in the south, romance novels. and frank, and black and white writers worked together but this particular studies they would try to send in white workers into places like the nation of islam or places like the temple, the white writers didn't get far so they started sending black writers like franker be who went in and started writing stories, firsthand accounts of ceremonies being conducted by the morris science temple and he left some documents behind. some of them made it into the book.
and he read me go in virginia published in 1940. he was struck by the idea that a similar book about negros in illinois should be more interesting. he joined the wpa a year earlier and supervised study of black music. at this time he was ghost writing autobiography for w.c. handy, of the blues. he headed a team from the illinois writers project at produced a pamphlet called the cavalcade of the american negro, a pamphlet that was sold for quarter, they pressed up some 50,000 copies and distributed them as the 1940 american negro exposition which was another major event in chicago in 1941 adam green calls black america's first world fair. you see the project and compiling papers. several of them worked on it.
and then appointed to supervise the negro in illinois with jeff conroy who worked on the misery writers project previously, conroy, a radical was fired, run out of town for trying to unionize the writers' project and eventually nelson recruited into chicago and got him a job on the illinois writers project. perhaps a more progressive writers project than any other in the country really. conroy took up the study of black colts that dunham had started in which he moved out of new york and took the study over. this is the first actual document i was able to find a. documenting the start of the illinois writers project. what we have our papers with the
dates on them we can figure things out but here's a newsletter produced by the illinois writers project. i found this in springfield and you see here published october 18th, 1940, new work received, the negro in illinois by jack conroy, doing a little right up about launching of this new study. and the rosenwald fund. and the project will be housed at 4901 south ellis avenue. and young and older writers, among the older set.
this is before the harlem renaissance. he founded two girls, despite a new career, johnson was broken in the 1930s and w p a helped sustain him during those years. as jack conroy recalls johnson was already moreau's and taciturn. it was a longtime champion of johnson's work, included his poetry in several collections. he was on the project, johnson wrote several essays like friction in chicago. and aristocrats, also wrote much of the material in the first four chapters for the negro in illinois. some people you have not heard of but is important figures, robert lucas, a photo of him from 1945-1947. lucas wrote several drafts for
chapters in illinois, lincoln and negro recreation sports, music and theater, previously worked on the study of black religious groups along with katherine dunham and here it is one of the famous group photos we have here in chicago and we can identify just about all these people. the all white woman on the left, jack conroy's son, and gwendolyn brooks in the middle, margaret burroughs, margaret burrows, marion perkins on the back as well, the tall gentleman, the same journalist, robert lucas on the right. always thought lucas was sitting down here but he is actually short, 5 feet tall. present here in these photos we
know very little about him except to work on the wpa. another little-known individual, the other robert, robert davis and again, happy to have his sister here today, robert davis's sister, a central figure in the black chicago renaissance. the first meeting of the importance outside writers groups took place at davis's home on south parkway, now martin luther king drive. for a time he was on staff for the outside community arts center. robert davis worked on the illinois writers project 1937-1939, those who worked on the study of black colts with katherine dunham, out he didn't work on any of the chapters that became the negro in illinois. move to hollywood, changed his name from robert davis to davis robert. apparently there was another
actor of the same name in the union and had a successful career appearing in many tv shows and in movies. as michael mentioned, the story of the negro in illinois begins with the story of jean baptist gustavow, the first non native settler of chicago. in 2009, this bust was installed on michigan avenue, the approximate place where he had his cabin where the river meets the lake. we have no actual images of gustav0, very few documents. will we have here, the bust created by sculptor eric bloom, this is today. in the 1930s the idea that chicago was founded by a black man was a radical idea and
something being forwarded here by the writers on the little writers project. they helped to uncover the story of gustavall and started by conducting two interviews in 1938-1939 with the founder of the national memorial society, according to any oliver the society was founded in 1928 by a group of 13 women, they had more than 200 women at their height, the most prominent black women in chicago. the society made it their mission to include a replica of the cabin at the 1933 world fair in chicago and here it is the photo of all the women here. right here in the middle sitting up front is any oliver in the photo. this is actual gustavow cabin
behind them. the study is responsible for the naming of the high school which stands today. wpa workers interviewed any oliver, got materials, pamphlets, got a copy of the regional 1933 book by milo called chicago which was the first major historical account to really bring dusable's name to life, 1933. you see this critical convergence of historical documents, activist women, people recording black history in chicago all converging here around these events and bringing to life and name dusable in chicago. the first chapter called first french has multiple versions, one by robert lucas, another -- call make reference to a common
theme in chicago. in those times indians used to say that the first white settler in chicago was a negro. they had in mind jean baptist dusable who built his home at the mouth of the chicago river in 1779 and lived there for 16 years. dusable was born about 1750, no one knows exactly where. the tradition he was a haitian negro who visited new orleans prior to coming to chicago his intention being to establish a colony of free negros in the lake region. it is possible he had been educated in france. we don't know that much actually about dusable. he might have come north through canada, others suggest he might have come from the mississippi
delta. the first reliable record of dusable chicago was dated 1779. at that time the english had taken over the great northwest from the french and the revolutionary war was being raged in a no man's land of the northwest. the loyalty of everyone was under suspicion. july 4th, 1779, british commander wrote baptist, quote, dusable, had various names and back story to that, dusable was a handsome negro, well-educated and settled in chicago but was much in the interests of the fringe, the british writing here, remembering dusable, his sympathy for the french is not conceivable, ordered in detained because of suspicion of
treasonable intercourse with the enemy but he left the vicinity and was later apprehended near michigan city. the report of the arresting officer, lieut. thomas bennett froze some light upon dusable's personality and position, quote, the negro since his imprisonment as in any way behave in a manner becoming a man of his station and has many friends who give him good character. the writers then talk about what we do know from documentation about dusable, his estate, the size of his property, what he intoned. right here in illinois, in "the negro in illinois" correcting the popular perception, at the world's fair. they write, quote, the popular conception that dusable's home
was just a cat and is not borne out by the record. very prominent individual in these parts but for the writers of "the negro in illinois" he was not anything of an exception. they call him a typical pioneer. this is the story of dusable. many little-known aspect of history and people keep coming, asking me what about this in the book? there is so much in the book for you to find, something for everybody. still reading it and putting it together after all these years. slavery was officially banned in illinois although few know about the black laws that existed, basic rights to african-americans, could not testify in court, could not
vote, indentured servitude was common in southern illinois. a chapter in the underground railroad was written -- we see his hand in the chapter, the underground railroad, the negro himself never a docile slave, struck out boldly for his freedom. this is part of writers expressing a new kind of assertiveness on the part of often a new interpretation of history of slavery, black independent and assertive resistance, already written about in two novels. expressing this new assertiveness that was also present during the depression and we see it in expressions like the dusable memorial
society. illinois was the common destination for many traveling on the underground railroad. stations along the southern border like the holiday hotel in illinois where the mississippi and ohio rivers converge. one of the most important underground railroad stations in the state of illinois. also stories of those who advocated for abolition like elijah lovejoy, publisher of the observer, who became illinois's first prominent murder to the cause of freedom. other abolitionists include john jones. we have a photo here in the book. john jones was born free on plantation in north carolina, became a successful taylor in chicago and was a personal friend of john brown. keep in mind the negro in illinois is written by literary types. some were faulted for not being written and some folks have, not
being written by historians, written by people who write poems and novels but you see it makes for a delightful read. a chapter called john brown's friend about john jones. one night in 1856 of band of men moved through the streets of chicago, they stopped before a darkened house. the leader went to the door and rapped sharply and the others waited in the shadows. the door was opened and a shaft of yellow lamplight fell on the man outside. he was tall and gaunt with piercing eyes and a heavy beard. the man extended his hand. john brown grabbed the hand of allan pinkerton, famous detective and later abraham lincoln's bodyguard. pinkerton, an active abolitionists of the men into his house and they were all john brown's men. all of that except for 11 escaped slaves headed for
canada. pinkerton took brown to the home of a mutual friend with whom brown stayed on other occasions, that of john jones, the free negro and leader in the fight for equal rights as well as permanent business. a little-known story of john jones. and a popular rendezvous for abolitionists, black and white, among the thousand african-americans who've lived in the state in 1860. and a few reasons why they should be repealed. the story was lost to taylor, the story was lost in the great fire of 1871 and left a rich man. was the first african-american elected to the board of commissioners and died in 1879.
a right here at the end of the chapter john jones's life bridge two year as in the midst of slavery, raise the legal citizenship, his role in shaping and influencing events in this turbulent period was a significant one. illinois, known as the land of lincoln but few know the story of william -- billy the barber, lincoln's black barber, had some amount of influence on lincoln particularly in his views on race. here again in the chapter lincoln and the negro, this one written by robert lucas, on the screen here. late one evening in the fall of
1831 outside the evening of new salem, carrying an ax on his shoulder. stories here just not telling straight history. the tall man learned he was a barber, nearly out of money and heading for springfield introduced the young negro to his boardinghouse, the rutledge tavern and obtained him for anything's work. in this way a close friendship was born between the two, but although he resumed his journey to springfield, the french were later reunited. and continue, lincoln spent much of his spare time at the barbershop where there was always a crowd. he picked up a client, lincoln's
actions as president recognizing the independence of haiti and offer of free passage for any negro who wished to go and live there. keep in mind lincoln actually supported pollinization. something that they covered in the chapter. and indeed there is no doubt lincoln's interest was aroused by fleur ville at stirring account. in spite of objections by the state department lincoln received the haitian minister for for all the honors accorded in the other diplomats, in 1868 the illinois state journal, only two men in springfield understood lincoln. they pick out these marginal
moments of history, absolutely central figures. and the way history is gone. and also in the life -- a chapter titled violence known for carrying out international campaign against lynching. and locally condemning racial prejudice in chicago, working with social reformer and jane addams. in chapter 11, a chapter in business, a black banker. they also cover small-time
entrepreneurs like ernie henderson, an owner of ernie's chicken shack in indiana. this is the restaurant where thomas -- two bubbles and later sons to have some experience on the south side, this is the site for ernie's chicken shack and wba workers go out and interview ernie anderson and chicken shack is a typical development on the south side, the best one being founded by ernie henderson and generally supposed to be the scene of an episode in richard wright's novel and play native son. you know that richard wright from his wba documents live the few blocks north of the chicken shack on indiana so this was just down the street. mr. anderson has indicated the genesis and progress of his
venture, quote, i started my business in 1930, got the idea from a number of successful barbecue establishments, more people eat fried chicken and barbecue. i naturally thought it would be a wise investment. i started in the basement, cook the chicken myself, advertise the best fried chicken in town and later had the name copyrighted. dyson had to hire a boy to delivered chicken on his bicycle and in four months i had quite a trade. business got better and better, hired a cashier, and hired a delivery car. in 1933 i bought will hold building. not the typical business you might hear about. the wba going out and getting these stories. they also tell the story of some folks in the room might remember a practice, colored taxicab drivers under the impetus of
competition have developed the kind of zoning system without legal sanctions. the usual fee is $0.10 for any ride between 31st and 67th, if a passenger wishes to leave the parkway is $0.15. enterprising drivers carry a number of writers picked up at various points and deliver them at different destinations. difficult to summarize, eliminating chapters, and housing, a chapter dedicated to the chicago defender in the press in illinois and chicago. fascinating chapter called the slave market start off talking about a different modern slave market. the money to withstand wading down in the downtown loop, domestic jobs working for white
women. two chapters on religion, one called churches and another call than churches. one of the most interesting that mentioned earlier is the jab to what is africa to me? a title taken from heritage which was a decision made by audubon calm who is familiar with his work. they tell the story in this chapter what is africa to me? black nationalism. portraits of the nation of islam, they have the story of marcus garvey's one and only business to chicago. marcus garvey came to chicago in 1920. i have never seen a historical marker for it. maybe someday.
the united negro improvement association found fertile soil in chicago. in 1930 membership is said to have totaled 77,500 while branches flyers in st. louis, springfield, md. cairo and other localities. william wallace, later a state senator gave up a thriving bakery business to head the chicago movement. he founded the negro world's as a house organ for the you and i a which obtained a circulation of 75,000 or more. in the negro world. garvey attached prominent leaders as w. e. b. du bois and robert pitts, founder of the chicago defender. he had a potent weapon in his own newspaper and was killed in the t