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tv   Book Discussion  CSPAN  December 29, 2013 4:30pm-4:56pm EST

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eyes and with your brain, do you feel those three books in your heart. and so i think that it's probably something i try to emulate from an, plus fitness pierced and i, ma'am. >> following up on footnotes, could you address what is the process that you follow to undertake some another scope? you just dive into the 17 tens of the archives? how do you keep track of what you are finding in the archives and have you committed on paper? >> this crowd really wants to hear about my process i'm sure. 17,000 tons. well, i'll be very sustained. i don't just dive in. that would be a prescription for wandering into the woods and never wondering now. my process is to set a date certain when i will stop researching. and i can fix that date because
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the contract tells me with a manuscript is due. and i can count backwards and they know roughly how long it will take me to write and i know roughly how long it will take me to outline the research i've gotten that leaves me with x amount of months to do the research and then i try to be smart about where and doing the research. so when my case, i spent a lot of time at the national archives, library of congress and carl, pennsylvania, which is a fabulous archive. a key with the british national archive is and probably a couple dozen other places. and then you've got to do with the secondary material. i mention the 60,000 votes. you feel obliged to release waved a hand over a good portion of the end in many cases to get down into them because there's fabulous works there. i put it all and every piece of
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information that i come up with goes into a word file. the word files are kept in my own filing system. i deal with the documents when it comes time to write and then i write and extrude or the detailed outline. i use outlining software, which is the greatest invention since the pile. and i build an outline and yelling for this third and final volume is about 700,000 words long. it's more than twice as long as the book sells. but it acts not only as a roadmap to tell me where in going when i sit down to write, but also tells the world information has come aware different files it is. so then i'm ready to write and i said don have a better old newspaper of manic type really fast. i write about a thousand words a day. morsels newspaperman, that's about equivalent to typical day
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stories that any reporter can knock out. 270,000 word book for this third and final volume is. i tell myself it's only 270 day stories. that is less than a year of writing. so that's how i do it. instead the afternoons -- i write until my brain turns to mush around noon. i spent the afternoon at 18 and reading back through what i have read them but in the morning and preparing for the next these writing, which consists of taking a segment to the outline and further refining it and agreed upon last time after dinner and that's it. i put it away and i usually don't miss it but again until we are the final editing of the book in the next thing you know you've got a book. that's it, we're out of time. thank you so much.
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[applause] joining us now is professor robert proctor. he is a professor of these great science that inferred and this
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is his most recent book. "golden holocaust". professor proctor, when mercy rights invented? >> it depends which part of the cigarette you think is essential. it can be thought of as the nicotine delivery device in which case they go way back. you can think of it as a small cigar, which in case they go even further back. or tobacco wrapped in paper in which case it begins in spain in the 17th century with poisons and growing tobacco scrap and ways into oldies papers in smoky nose. it doesn't do much until the 19th century when the middle east runs out of pipe tobacco,
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so they start rolling tobacco in the old ammunition pieces of paper and start smoking them. it is mainly in 19th century phenomenon, gets going really digging the 18th use, 1860s and exposed at the invention of mechanized rolling tobacco. where instead of having these girls and women both occur at, and they could rule 200, 500 per day, suddenly the machines could draw 100,000 per day. as a result, you get this program of basically having to dispose of a massive surplus of cigarettes. these are produced in such an enormous quantity. the price traps dramatically. tobacco goes from luxury to a common, ordinary consumer good and they become about a 10th the price they were before and massmarketing finishes the job.
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>> how many people in the world smoke today? >> it is about a billion and a half out of 7 billion. the chinese are the biggest smokers. they spoke about 2.4 trillion cigarettes every year. they smoke over 40% of the world cigarettes. in the states, we smoked 350 billion cigarettes every year and that is down from the peak of 1982, which was 630 billion. >> what percentage of americans thought like >> it is one in five still, of course it is lower in certain areas like the california area is lower. it is hired of the poorer areas. tobacco, especially cigarettes has become something poor people do much more than rich people, which inverts the hierarchy 100 years ago.
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>> wended u.s. cigarette smoking peek at first percentage? >> percentage of people to smoke in the 1960s and 70s. depends which each group you're talking about. the peak for teenagers wasn't until 1997. also, different peaks to pain which time in history. if you talk about per capita consumption, that peaks in 1964. total consumption speaks in 1982. total production peaks in the 97 because a lot of them are exported. >> of output or cigarettes talked about as dangerous? >> it already goes back hundreds and hundreds of years. king james the first talks about it being a half up on some tv i am harmful to the body. the first cancers identified in the 18 century.
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the visible areas of the mouth. tom, throw, sure to be causing cancer in the 18th century. through cancers more socialistic hours on president grant when he dies for throat cancer is attributed to his fondness for cigars. the real evidence that cigarette or killing masses of people just in the united states is not until the 1940s and 50s. the early strong evidence comes from germany. hitler hated cigarettes. there is a struggle within the party about cigarettes. they also produce some really great science. first epidemiology showing smokers were more like you to die of cancer, especially lung cancer. then come the center of gravity shifts over the night dates in britain in the 1950s u.k. scientists doing several
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different types of research to show that causes mass death. either animal experiments, showing the towers from extracted smoke. pathology where people look at how the people who die from auto accidents and find the smokers already have precancerous tumors. epidemiology shows smokers get lung cancer. people find chemical carcinogens in the smoke. outgrowing come even earlier than carbon monoxide and especially the polycentric hydrocarbons that were killing workers were found in the 50s. the major cause of lung cancer in later heart disease. >> are these contained?
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is it the burning of the nicotine? >> it is mainly the burning. the heavy metals that caused cancer at their regard this weather per or not. the cadmium, nickel, the arsenic, which is a middleweight and maybe the radioactive polonium. most people don't know cigarettes are the main way we are exposed to radioactive isotopes. an average smoker will get the equivalent of hundreds of chest x-rays a year just in their smoking. that is mainly from the pesticide or fertilizers put on tobacco. they put fertilizers are on the plan does contain uranium. led to polonium. the same poison that killed a russian spy in london a few years ago was also present in cigarette mouth. that was discovered in the
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60s. >> what to cigarettes have to do with the marshall plan? >> welcome rethink of the marshall plan as an effort to rebuild europe. but most people don't know us for every $2 in food center would be europe, there is 1 dollar tobacco. the marshall plan can be seen as an effort by the american tobacco co. means to the blonde virginia american bio. he will tobacco peer was interesting about this is actually a senator, the father of pat robertson, training and willis roberts and from virginia that to the council that was planning how funds would be spent. even though the french and europeans had not wanted, had not listed tobacco in what they wanted as part of that plan, tobacco is included by the seven senators in order to promote the
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sale of european tobacco abroad. >> professor proctor, you have some ads in your work. he was a lucky strike at. do you inhale? >> right. what most people don't realize is prior to cigarette, savers using turkish tobacco, tobacco smoke was not inhaled by smokers. in fact, almost one -- no lung cancer. 142 cases of one cancer known worldwide in the medical literature prior to 1900. that is because tobaccos of christianly didn't inhale. today in the united states alone we have 160,001 cancer deaths every year. it's by far the most important cancer. the lung cancer epidemic is entirely the result of the making of cigarettes which were designed to be inhaled.
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that's what i consider the cigarette not to be inherently dangerous. it is dangerous by design. it's design to be a big disk, which is why they keep the nicotine and precisely manipulated levels. it is designed to be inhalable i'm not as because of the low ph of the smoke. what that does is create the lung cancer in the latter part heart disease epidemic. it is not inherently dangerous. as dangerous by design. >> or cigarettes more dangerous than the filter? >> if anything, filters make them more dangerous. they are probably about the same hazard. for a couple of reasons they are more dangerous. one is with the filter does is it actually produces the size of the particles of smoke. so that makes them smaller and inhaled more deeply into the logs where they're harder to diagnose. the tumors produced it harder to
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treat. by reducing the particle side, they're more dangerous. they're also more dangerous in the sense they actually reassure smokers who think they are smoking a safer product. instead of quitting, a lot of smokers switch to a filtered thinking this offers protection. really, the filters are not even filters. if you think in our quest filters and or if you think speedboats event cards from passing. or if you think cotton candy as a data from the candy because it's puffed up until affair. in other words, filters are a misnomer from the beginning. as we know from one of the secret documents of the industry, filtration is a thermodynamic impossibility. the tragic irony is one of the main companies that refuse to go along with the filter fraud, which was the largest tobacco
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company in the world in the 1950s refuse to go along with filters to where the company said it may eventually of business. be reduced and make a that project. >> professor proctor, when did you get interested? >> a couple different forces. one is personal. three of my four grandparents died of smoking. one of the theme, one cancer, one heart disease. early on my parents were already aware of this being kind of a useless product. that made an impression. professionally, i was involved at harvard teaching social issues of biology in the 1970s with stephen jay gould and recovered and some others. we look at the social causes of health and disease. on the 19th century people die in childbirth or cholera or infectious disease or some
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filthy water. we don't die of those things in the richer part of the world so much. we die from chronic diseases from environmental pollutants and then click tobacco. tobacco causes about a third of all cancers. that was really the gorilla in the room for me at some of the kidnapped various causes of disease and the most easily preventable cause of death in the modern world, the cause responsible for 440,000 deaths in the united states every year. completely preventable. we just allowed as if it's chewing gum or something. i started to write more intensively about this and to find out how we came into this world where this perfect engine of addiction is allowed to be sold and is responsible for so much death and suffering and we do virtually nothing about it.
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>> when you're teaching at harvard and 70 for more peoples up in the classrooms? >> they actually were. i'll never forget a professor coming to give a seminar in a completely closer, no windows. he was sitting there smoking a cigarette nonstop in the classroom. it has to be ubiquitous it is. everyone knew was bad for you. there is smoking everywhere. doc or smoke. doctors recommended that patients smoke. her mother was devised in 1962 to take up smoking facilities the delivery. now we have 400,000 babies born every year in the united states to mothers who smoke during their day. there's this myth that no one smokes anymore. that is mainly because smoking is for the poor, black and. >> when it written out say that?
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>> i was in a photo shoot with the winston man in the 1980s. quite a racist comment. we're not also had its projects come, which was to sell to at homeless. what does that tell you that an industry that treats its customers that way it realizes most of the consumers actually wish they didn't use the product. most smokers wish they didn't smoke. smokers smoke because it's a free choice when in fact it's not like alcohol. only 5% or 10% to drink or addicted. 80% or 90% of people who smoke or take it. for them. libertarian calculus, that's what i call for abolition. he was pokers don't like the
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fact the smoke. it's quite a mutual smoker who's happy about the fact that they started and are now at the dead. >> the chance of an average smoker getting lung cancer are? >> about one in eight. about half of everyone who smokes will die from the habit. each cigarette takes about seven minutes of your life. people have a lot about country myths about smoking. i'll smoke until i get sick. the damage is done. if you drive drunk and make at home, that can kill you. but every cigarette is like the old saying, like a nail in your coffin. so there is a chronic continuous hazard to the body that can be detected in virtually every tissue of the body. there's no other consumer product that kills half the
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users and kills even the way it's used as directed by the manufacturer. there's no other products like this in the modern world. >> what are you seeing around students regarding smoking today is supposed to 10, 20 years ago? >> it's changed a lot at elite universities like stanford where only five or 10% of the students will be smokers of cigarettes. there's also been the recent fad of the hookah pipe with its middle eastern residence. that comes and goes. what is interesting is a lot of kids don't even know if it tobacco. students come up and say wow, hookah is not bad, is that? what do you think is in a quiet they don't even know it's tobacco. there's lots and lots of myths about tobacco. the point of the book is he
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thinking of tobacco, you don't know squat. people don't know about the radio cavity. people of all kinds of myths. a lot of people think is not so bad to get cancer because cancer will be cured in a few years anyway, so big deal. they don't know that their 680 ingredients added to tobacco. everything from ammonia used to freebase the tobacco to give it that extra kick, basically making a form of chronic nicotine to exotic slake rose of a talky or a chocolate which contains theobroma, a bronchodilator or menthol, which makes the poison go down. or secretion from the gland of the savior beaver, which is used as a flavoring from 12 to make 50 pounds in american
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cigarettes. there is a witches brew of ingredients added to this, making it anything but tobacco wrapped in paper. we have a say in that cigarettes are no more tobacco wrapped in paper than "the new york times" is a pine tree. this is one of the most carefully designed small objects on the planet with literally tens of millions of dollars that's gone into the engineering. that is an industry estimate for the secret documents. >> at the no smoking laws, anti-smoking laws the last 10, 20 years made a difference quick >> he made a huge difference. the most important differences they've really given smokers an opportunity to get the monkey off their back. it's also denormalized the habit. i was just watching the famous mike wallace interviews from an 1850s, where philip morris cigarettes with a star and the camera was sitting in on the cigarette. you've got the head of the ku
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klux klan doing an interview with the head of the communist party do an interview. he also does a fascinating interview with margaret sanger, the pioneer of birth control. after this hour-long interview, she says that 80-year-old pioneer birth control to mike wallace, you know, i've never been a smoker and i'm 80 years old. i'm going to take up smoking. that she shows you how basically bought and sold people were this time. that's another theme of this book is basically there's virtually no part of american culture that's been smoke free. thousands and thousands of scientists have been paid to work for the tobacco industry. doctors, physicians can historians. people in my undisciplined. i was hired at stanford for someone who been working quietly for the tobacco industry. every university has people working quietly for the tobacco
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industry of litigation and consulting. i'm calling it the biggest breach of academic integrity since the virtually undiagnosed but mark of modern scholarship. >> professor proctor, how strong is the tobacco lobby today is supposed to previously? >> it is a little bit weaker in the united states than it used to be. they saw a $12 billion advertising budget in the united states. that is directed out to smokers through direct mail. though spent hundreds of dollars per smoker on advertising and marketing and promotion because they've got every smoker and a computer less. but their influence in congress is weaker than it used to be. the tobacco institute is to be the most powerful lobby in washington d.c. the tobacco institute was just a cells grow. you could stand on the roof and throw a rock and hit the white

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