tv Book Discussion CSPAN August 31, 2014 11:30pm-12:01am EDT
miles. >> it is at least 3 miles i think from june 3 it's at least 3 miles from the southern end of the confederate line. if you look at the map and start just above i think for 60 or 360 comes a modern 360 and trace it all the way down in the trenches that they dug through in the first year or two of the war is considered an honorable to dig up the trench. by 64 four it is a union soldier that remarks if you give them an hour they will dig the trench and if you give them half a day
they will have their logs from the top and everything because it might not be honorable but it's going to save and that's what matters by 64 so changing the warfare. >> it's located where in virginia? >> it is right down out of 295 and so it is off of 360. it is administered by the richmond national battlefield park. >> is there a harbor along the river? >> the name means a tavern or waystation not so much a place where ships come in and to make it even more confusing they have a new and older cold harbor but basically it's just a collection of buildings strategically
placed between where grant was and needed to go. >> the book features a two or on the end part you can drive through some of the sites unfortunately charge right on three c. we don't want any more casualties and to some of some of it has helped with the land that dates all the way back to the 1760s and then one of them turned over recently and in more peaceful times in the the parlor
was smuggled out of the country in 1956 and published widely around the world. the cia recognized the value of the book published the language version and smuggled back into the soviet union where it was sold on the black market and became an underground hit. this is about a half an hour. >> it is a great pleasure today to introduce a distinguished writer. as you have read from his biography heard from his biography he's from ireland but he does speak good english. i am not going to tell you what is on his biography because you can read that. but what we have in the luncheons is a writer that speaks about the recently published book that actually isn't out yet but will be shortly but there are reviews out there and i think it is very interesting to find a subject
that has become intelligence activity. and that is what his book is about and i would like to read a short paragraph to you. there is a website which says there are eight books that you should read this summer and his book is one of them and this is what it says about it. the work of deep historical research that reads a little like the cray this is both the multiple burden slightly sideways biography but a psychological history of the soviet russia, the powerful argument for the book literature , the entry into the pan and of the cia role in shaping culture and in the new
reporting on the agency distribution of the book behind enemy lines they show how both sides in the cold war used literary prestige as a weapon without resorting to the cheap moral equivalency. this is a fascinating story to me. i've never seen another article, another work which actually describes the way that intelligence activities were able to use culture and in this particular case literature as a tool in the cold war. so without further ado i would like for peter to come up and tell you about the potential. [applause] thank you for inviting me. i really appreciate the opportunity to speak to you and into early september 1958,
copies of the russian language edition appeared on the grounds that for a fine addition substantial bound in blue linen it was also very odd because there was no known publisher of him in russian. the novel was banned in the soviet union and its first western publisher who controlled the rights hadn't contracted for the original language edition. the novel was being handed out to the soviet visitors to the vatican pavilion and those handsome covers were soon littering the fairgrounds into some of those that got the book ripped off the heavy cover to make it easier to stuff in their pockets. the visitors who got copy later volunteers understood it was an illicit book best hidden from the kgb minders at the fair in
brussels. the cia working with the dutch intelligence was behind this publication which was printed by a distinguished house in the hague. the agency saw them as an ideal place to distribute the book because the unusually large number of soviet citizens some 16,000 had obtained visas to visit the welfare which took place over six months between april and october, 1958 at a 500-acre site just northwest of central brussels. 42 nations including the usa and the soviet union and for the first time the vatican participated. the agency assumed the dutch publishing house which specialized in the language books was about to get the rights to the russian language version and that this addition
would be passed off as narrowly run. there was a good reason for this belief. he also thought that it would get the rights for the executive but agreed to print this was a very profitable sale even though he knew the whole thing was fishy and almost certainly involved more intelligence tips. the deal wasn't finalized, however, and the addition of expectedly became a high rate of one. about 1100 copies were printed. that sparked immediate speculation about who was behind the printing into the rumors continued for decades. the german magazine noted almost immediately in 1958 that one of the volunteers at the vatican pavilion was, quote, associated with a militant american cultural and propaganda organization that goes under the name of committee for a free
europe. a columnist wondered aloud interested the answer was classified. on november 151958 the cia was first linked to the printing in the national review bulletin in the used letters to supplement for the contenders for national review of the magazine founded by william f. buckley junior. in moscow the national review reported these books were passed from hand to hand as avidly as a copy of fanny hill in a college dormitory. the speculation continued for years some of it quite fanciful that british intelligence forced down the plane was that was carrying the italian publisher for moscow and la six photographs the manuscript that was in his luggage. the only problem is that he had
only once been to moscow and that was before the novel was finished and when he did pick it up in 1956, it was in west berlin and the flights from berlin to travel over. the results speculated that the published as a novel and russian to satisfy the rule of the swedish academy that work must be published in its original language to qualify for the nobel prize in literature. but there is no copy of the library archives and indeed an internal cia accounting of where the books were sent after they were printed in the netherlands showed that none of them went to stockholm. others argued that role was minimal and this was the work of the organizations the agency sponsored. bottom line there was a lot of speculation that very few facts.
i came to the story in 2007 where i was a correspondent for the "washington post." they were to win the nobel prize because i know that was inaccurate. but that the tie i decided to read about a decade they spent writing writing writing at the it deeply ambivalent relationship in the soviet state and the strange even though they only spoke once again on the phone his messy private life he had essentially two families and the states never imprisoned him that they'd strike at him indirectly by putting his mistress in the gulags twice. the hostile reaction to the novel from the state publisher and literary was the decision to
give the manuscript to the young italian who also worked as a scout for the new books. the efforts in conjunction to intimidate stopped the publication to get the book back it's a testament to the artistic freedom. he broke with the italian communist party of which he was the leading them her and financier and was the first publisher of doctor siobhan go that appeared in translation in italy in november, 1957. it was a commercial and critical success held in part by the fact that they abandoned the something that was noted in almost all of the press coverage
of the west. indeed i think there is a case to be made that if they had allowed a small print run and made no fuss at all doctor siobhan go would have drawn an audience in the west end wouldn't have and wouldn't have become the international bestseller that it did because the seals were quite extraordinary and its first year in the united states and 58 into 1959 and sold nearly a million copies. for a book let me tell you that is an impressive. and the publication followed in 1958 in france, germany, britain and the united states but not in the soviet union obviously and not in russia. in october 1958, he won the nobel prize in literature the
kremlin treated to be a a ward the award as an anti-soviet provocation and force them to renounce it. the elderly offers he was now 68 years of age was subject to an extraordinary campaign of vilification and described as a traitor and a judas in the pages by the kremlin leadership. he was driven to the brink of suicide and he died 18 months later and some people, including his son, have said that his treatment contributed to his death. the funeral funeral command extraordinary scene that we described in the book was attended by the huge crowd and in effect was one of the first public demonstrations of the soviet union. at his gravesite people loudly proclaim him a democrat. all of that is essentially from
the story of the creation of the novel. it is a story that is partly about the cia but mostly about doctor siobhan go debate could be because it hadn't been told as a single narrative since robert conquest in 1969. an enormous amount of material has emerged since the end of the cold war including the central committee and other soviet files and the memoirs, diaries and correspondence of the participants in these. my co-author who is from the netherlands and i were introduced by a dutch writer after my post story on the cia appeared. she had previously written about the dutch printing and retired intelligence officer who was involved in that operation spoke to her about the role of the cia
and that was the first official acknowledgment of the agencies participation. it was also slaughtered just this by training and she spoke russian and lived in st. petersburg culture absorb the material about the novel and work in the russian archives. we agree that the back story of the novel was worth telling on its own but we also felt any book should try to bring something fresh and original to the table. the obvious question is the role of the cia. after i returned from moscow i pulled together what had been written about the agency's involvement and the names of those who were suspected of working on the printing and prepared a memo about the potential book that i wanted to write and none of you probably won't be surprised the first
response i got back from the public of all the office was not interested. i interested in the freedom of information act i would like to get nothing if i went that route. i went to a number of officers such as yourself and i would like to remember one of the former cia officers and former journalist for "newsweek" and time who was very helpful to me and died before he could see this book through the good offices of bruce and some other retired officer it was brought to the attention of the historical records division and am one of the meetings it was suggested that i potentially could either look at the documents in the unredacted form of the privileged access but then that would require me to allow the agency to review those parts of the book related to the
operation. that was not in operation i was willing to consider although others have done so and i can see some situations i might but we have chose to get their documents and i was able to tease out many of the critical names we need to do for needed for the story from other public records and all of this is described in our footnote. i'm grateful to the records division and i hope this folding into another part of the agency that will not produce the documents of the possibility of cooperation between the agency and the scholars and on important historical work. the documents were over 50-years-old and well some are held forever come in and he need not be. it goes without saying a history and the story of the officers and operations as part of our broad history entities is to be told and that includes the program that had the translation
of the millions of books that were sent across the curtain. also the books on art history, economics, sociology. it was described by one of its participants as a marshall plan for the mind that deserves a full history. i got been mailed to me in northern virginia in august of 2012. it was a thrilling moment but it was about the enthusiasm of the officers writing about the internal than those and here is the soviet russian division chief writing in july, 1958 frank in and printing application was already underway the humanistic message that every person is entitled to a private life and deserves respect as a human being irrespective of the extent of
his political loyalty or contribution to the state poses a fundamental challenge to the soviet ethics of the sacrifice of the individual to the communist system. there is no call to revolt against the regime in the novel. but the heresy that he preaches political passivity is fundamental. he suggests that the small unimportant people that remain passive to the regime and demand for the active participation in the motion all involvement in the official campaigns are too those favored in the system and further he dares to hand society might function better without these fanatics. i don't know what kind of man knows you saw when you were at the cia but that strikes me as a pretty extraordinary one.
there are many others like this which we suggest the novel about a very close reading at the cia headquarters and we quoted them in the buck and they can now be read in redacted form at cia .gov. the roles of the film and photograph manuscripts were first provided by british intelligence but insisted that there would be no overt american involvement in a printing. in case it could be used by the soviet authorities to hurt him. that warning was followed by another from one of the british translators of george patricof who told the council in munich in a message forwarded to moscow that he'd recently noted in a private conversation with one of his french translators that he didn't want the book published in russian by the u.s. funded
groups were in the united states. he said that this had no anti-american application it was just a matter of personal safety. the ideal option he said to the council that the book be published in a small european country. it turned turned out the one chosen was the netherlands and other options in coded of course switzerland were one of the sweden but they finally settled on the netherlands. i won't go into details of sleeping up to doctor zhivago's publication because i hope some of you actually read the book. but they say the first publisher at the of the agency contracted with was a charming cold warrior who was utterly unreliable when it came to keeping secret and
the consternation of some of the cia headquarters to become a s-sierra of the absurd but that led to the agency to turn. after the nobel prize they decided to give a second edition of doctor zhivago. there were some lessons to be learned from the first. it was involving outsiders was nothing but trouble. the second edition was a miniature paperback on the bible stock paper that came in one and two volumes so it could be easily smuggled inside of a suit or trouser pocket as one cia memo put it. inside the government there was also a strong sense the u.s. shouldn't overplay its hand in the nobel crisis and the treatment of speed that was playing out shocking people including countries friendly to
the soviet union. instead of officials in washington relished what they saw as the propaganda that was entirely manufactured in moscow at the meeting of state department senior staff with john foster dulles he was told the communist treatment of pasternak was one of the worst wonders in embarrassment and damage to them with the brutality. by july, 1959 and eight months after the novell crisis about 9,000 miniature copies have been printed in washington. the russian group in germany essentially said it was behind the printing and that secret basically held until now as it was widely be beefed the edition was the work of the émigres. the agents have had contact with soviet officials and the west.
2,000 copies were set aside to the soviet other communist students at the festival festival of the youth and students for peace and friendship which was held in vienna in late july and early august of 1959. all of the festivities and costs are underwritten by the soviet union and the festival was personally supervised by the head of the kgb alexander who had previously been president of the union of students. they had the cost of sending young americans to the festival basically disrupted by having them debate with the soviet communist counterparts might call the get the post water who was there described it as a college weekend with russians.
among the activities was the distribution of books in many languages. 30,000 in 14 languages including a 1984 and the god that failed. apart from the russian edition doctor zhivago was available in polish, czech, hungarian and chinese at the festival. the novel had been published in taiwan and a year of committees within 50 copies for the 400 strong chinese delegation that proved to be impenetrable. some of the chinese wouldn't talk to the eastern european comrades so they found it somewhat difficult to communicate with them. the soviet delegation arrived from budapest in the convoy of buses and it was a blistering hot day and the windows were
open. the buses were swarmed by émigres who tossed them copies through the windows. it was aware of these and other efforts to distribute the novel indiana yet they proved up to be as harsh with the students who picked up the book as one might suspect. one student writing many years later said by no means bring it home. thank you very much. [applause] we will take as many questions
as you like. it how was pasternak treated today? >> the novel is available. putin doesn't worry so much about literature. it's not on his agenda but what i have to say that i think doctor zhivago and the interest in it has faded. it's no longer on the school curriculum and you can find it in bookstores about my co-author at the state university a state university when she's asked her students have you read doctor zhivago the answer is almost always know. they've read other pieces of russian literature, but zhivago just doesn't seem to be on the radar in the same way.