tv The Life of Jimmy Carter CSPAN September 3, 2014 1:10am-2:16am EDT
virginia have the union. tyler actually served in the provision of confederate congress and actually urges the confederate capture of d.c. after the defeat, the in indefeasible run. tyler, his wife of course live behind. married woman 30 years his junior, left hind a forest. and eventually run the blockade and return to live with a mother reluctantly in the city of new york. after lincoln's assassination a crowd of people will show up at the tyler residents and a man the confederate flag that hangs over mental. while it looks like a confederate flag, but it was actually designed to in years before the war by her sister. and the mob was mistaken. in a mollusk other house, attempted to define or former. the other presidents was a the face of challenges for their opposition.
millard fillmore had his house vandalized because it did not display warning signs for the president. he felt terrible about the presence murder, but he was actually on vacation. franklin pierce displayed no signs of morning, and he had an angry mob come to this house in trenton and purity comes out and gives a speech in talks about how lazar match theirs despite his political disagreement. you very much joined them in sympathizing with the murder of the president, just on the eve of his triumph in the civil war. appeared poised to be able to reunite the country, to reconstruct the country, to bring it back together, many the only person who could have done separately taken away, very suddenly taken away, the first presidential assassination. now i should probably stop for questions. ten minutes of questions. let's do it. >> can you tell, looking at the
modern trend of our former presidents and how they conduct themselves and their research you have done, before presence during civil war, talk a little bit of what you perceive to be the best way to conduct yourself and anything that stuck out and surprise you and how the five former presidents conducted themselves. >> a great question. actually wrote an op-ed in the "washington post" about the nature of the post presidency. george h. w. bush, and the gang is like 90 years old jumping and of airplanes. whereas the u.s.s. george is still the bush has been sent to the persian gulf in response to the possibility of another war to increased american involvement. george w. bush you initiated the conflict just says, must try to criticize my successor. i think the model for the post presidency is to always be available for advice.
during the civil war there was actually a great deal of talk about the former president's coming together have a meeting. five former presidents, and get them together. surely they can, but the solution. pierce will try to initiate the meeting. van buren will end up successfully undermining because he knew that pierce was trying to subvert abraham lincoln and his war policy. so being able to a candidly and confidentially give advice. the thing with the ex-president's the is that they have served in the rule. the standing of a former president of the radical in there out of politics. they see no more political office for themselves and are in the best position to just issue candid vice, confidential advice to the president, the country. so i think the president's either support their successors with modest exceptions during election time, speaking about
funds excellent speech of the democratic convention in 2012. the election time, the partisan corners and come back, stay out of politics largely. other questions? >> are of a race-based? >> well, all of his fangs, i think pierce just has absolutely zero personal qualms of slavery. he just doesn't care. he was upset when new hampshire passed a law preventing / from coming in and answer. the fact he did not care costs slavery. the danger of having a biracial
country. the worst violation of the constitution in history when abraham lincoln used as commander in chief powers to free slaves and the territories and the rebellion. a number of different things about of a him. >> i would like you talk a little bit more if you can. lincoln is elected. did not take office until march. for six months he is still president. seven states received from the union. he does nothing about it. he leaves this problem for lincoln. what is going on there? >> you know, he gets a lot of grief for mystery, but not for the thing that he actually deserves to get grief over. so is da .. issue of .. secession. he is 16,000 troops under his command. arizona, protecting settlers on the frontier. but even all 16,000 together in one place he can't even defeat
south carolina with that number much less the nine south. he charged to compromise his way out of it. crenshaw by a state of virginia after serving as an emissary to the president and the confederate states. so they tried to work it out. he think about it, buchanan compromise in 1820, the compromise that ended the first session standoff in 1833. the final settlement. we have all these compromises. so a lot of hope and compromise and legitimately so happened on his watch. so i think this is sitting in waiting he actually did when can a great service in some ways and not in others. he would have driven the united south out of the union. one of the most important things of lincoln did was to preserve the border states. 's, perhaps, would love to have gone on my side, but i need
kentucky. he cannot win this fight without the border states. missouri, kentucky, maryland, delaware and opted to succeed, the task, with a ben today to accomplish. by waiting and waiting for us out to initiate hostilities he was able to preserve the border states, keep the border states. so i think she really did not have much that he could do. it was not helpful when he kept the secessionists in cabinet or announce that he had no lawful authority to go after stays there were seceding even the recall secession illegal. those things were not helpful, but ultimately he has some new people around him. his attorney general. and he leaves again as well off as almost anyone could have. >> we got rid of lincoln's birthday and washington's birthday at present state. i always hated that because of his two of the subjects of your book, you know, pierce and
buchanan are just lonesome characters to me. i mean, not just our we insulting lincoln and washington by taking away their holiday, but do these men deserve to even be respected the history or should we set up a couple the way that they are not part of the president? i was joking. six share your sentiments. there's a holiday. one of the things i learned about this book, they tend to be reviled. they all have their parts to play. i admired millard fillmore, his willingness to stand up for compromise and sign on popular legislation that destroyed his political career in order to prevent a civil war from happening ten years earlier. the south probably -- the decade of 18501860 really was the population and industrial advantage in the north, increasing to the point where
there are nearly guaranteed to win any sort of civil war. i will come back to you. look, i mean, they guy was a general and the mexican-american war and served with distinction. you can serve his country more or less steadily for decades. john tyler opened up trade with china for the first time, pretty important issue. pretty important part of our economy. so they all have those things that they did right and it wrong. obviously the solution did not stand the test of time, but you can't understand the united states without understanding the civil war. brother killing brother, dividing families. lincoln's own son. brothers and long were killed on the war, dividing families. the civil war that is with us to the state. you can understand america without it and you can understand civil war without understanding five former presidents. so they all have a good and the bad.
my favorite reviews so far on this book is ben that i have no axe to grind with these presidents. represent them as they are let you be the judge. you're certainly welcome to be the decision makers. other questions? >> can you discuss -- just briefly you mentioned tyler and his role within the confederate government and how that may differ -- differentiate it from franklin pierce and his role of being outside and advising. >> yes. both peers and john tyler bofa crew very meddlesome during his presidency. pierce politically so. i make the case in the book. just a continuation of politics by other means. the politics is actually a continuation of war by other means. he think about it, the objective of the war, the length of the war, determined by politics. the political question the administration, enough votes in congress to appropriate money
for the war. so there will work hard to elect opponents to lincoln, including george mcclellan, lincoln's upon in 1964. tyler on the other hand, lancaster of a compromise, trying -- even offers to give for sumpter back to south carolina and ordered to give virginia to stay in the end and get the virginia secession commission to go home. tyler will hear none of this. he is all of his influence. so both of them proved to be problematic. lincoln on the inside than one on the outside. other questions? >> yes. >> as you mentioned and seems to repeat itself. a lot of the antics that preceded lincoln's term, it seems like their is a lot of similar activity going on nowadays, especially how it relates to the economy and how
much we're spending on tournament. and with the interjection of the two-party, can you draw any more parallels? it is just kind of foreshadowing another civil war? >> no, thankfully. but here is the thing. i was a history jackie and very active in politics forever up the opportunity to register myself. a great opporunity to write three books out. history will be worth it for me to read because it is a great story. some of the most amazing stories ever. you would not believe it is somebody wrote in their novel. too good to be real. that is not a good enough reason i write history because the messages from the past resonant with us today and are applicable we can learn from these things. we can remember a matter how divisive and combat of our
politics, remember there was a point when our country went to war with each other and we lost 2 percent of population. two out of every hundred americans, a war that destroyed broad sections of the country, 10,000. and so however bad we think it is, and i like watching tv and hearing, this is the most of my selection ever, the most combative, negative campaign. people's memory goes back about ten years. look at the politics. that scared news. we had a whole host of very serious problems in this country he touched on one of them. $17 trillion in debt that we are passing on to the next generation. maybe a first generation in american history that will be better off than their grandparents and parents. so these are serious issues. remember that america has always found a way out of these problems. the other, we see a series of these lackluster presence who
are not equal to the task in front of them, the solution is to not stand the test of time. from that time comes abraham lincoln who is really the most amazing person of this american civilization. so america is frequently been bereft of the warrants. congress and the president are at all-time lows in popularity. easy independence increasing as a share of the electorate. people are frustrated. so america has regularly been without the that reflected the inherent wisdom, goodness, and integrity of the american people . remember, wherever the republicans are really in danger, this hour of crisis in 1861 we turn to abraham lincoln. absolutely optimistic for the future even as i write about a previous time of lackluster leaders.
thank you so much for coming. [applause] [applause] >> thank you, sir. thanks to everybody. first and foremost, the book sitting at the table. a couple boxes and anything case we run out. taken up to the registered first and get it paid for. then you get start lining appear. last but not least, if you can carefully hold the chair that you are seated upon, place
for themselves a wish to renew a as a went through my a campus soy to prepare for the deletion i wouldn't do work from the addition traders. but had no cause to suspect anything. of was thrilled to see under the leadership ocr listed the schools under investigation but plays compel ocr to publicly busies the names of the schools under investigation and so might experience can be the out where. my partner did not use physical force but in the months and weeks the the up to psychological and emotional abuse. redstarts of as little things a controlled move for the outburst here. will start with the emotional and psychological
abuse. they're not little in research shows they are as deleterious is any broking - - broken bone in the 99% also have economic abuse lawmakers agree we do not have the authority to include emotional and psychological and to have a statute stating as much so please state as much. the expectation should not be we into you have of hospitalization under your belt eum.
this is just over an hour. >> it is up pleasure tonight to introduce randall balmer a professor of arts and sciences at dartmouth college. i have followed his career for a long time. done at a school where my father was a dean. and my brother joe attended the school at the same time. and randy has turned into one of our great modern american historians. one of the things that makes a great is he really minds the resources of presidential office. he has come to my gone through and found very interesting documents that other people had not seen before.
combine with that he has also bind the resources of the archives on the various evangelical organizations that have become involved in politics and in addition to that a talked with his research killed. he is an excellent writer. i have had the privilege of reading many of his books including the one that is just out. i can tell you as much as i have all these subjects in the mile research. if you want to understand the difference the 1970's and 1980's in case you have forgotten there were significant differences. you want to know about the transition to a time when jimmy carter says was president to a
time when ronald reagan was president, if you want to understand the role of billy graham's and american politics, the role of the cherry caldwell and american politics, this is the book for you. i highly recommend it. as i say, i read it personally and found it very fascinating. i think all of you will, to. before you rush out to buy the book you have the privilege of hearing some comments by the author of self. i give you randy bomber. if [applause] [applause] >> thank you for that very kind introduction. it is wonderful to be back here. a lot of work here. the last time i was here when you see him being refurbished. it's been more than three hours this afternoon going to an exhibit at 445. i was utterly and grossed.
scorned a few things that i did not know before going to the present. want to talk a little bit. tell you first of all as to indicated that went to college, a small college in northern illinois sites. was not good enough to give into wheat college. i went to a small school in the early 1970's. it was during my time that that jimmy carter burst onto the national scene. i had grown up as an evangelical . what was so remarkable to me was that he talked unabashedly about being a born-again christian which is the term we used to describe ourselves except we were always coloring would be did that. and the form of a, a kind of
wake-up call. the man who was watching for -- running for president being taken seriously able to talk about his faith in very unabashed and unapologetic terms. and so i began taking notice of that. i followed his terror rather closely. this is all but one point of wanted to write a book. i have to say i have been kind of bring with this idea for probably at least two decades now. over the last decade or so i spent a good bit of time during the research. when my schedule permitted. and i just say that i think i've -- claman's for themselves which maybe is not justified. the first biography, takes his
face seriously as a way of understanding of himself, his conduct, but also the very turbulent religious time in which he did. says 1924. some the first president ever born in the hospital. his mother and he was able to be born in a hospital. the first time in american history. jimmy carter went to a place as cool and he was commissioned to into the navy. a submarine program.
and then in 1953 his father succumbed to his to package a habit. jimmy carter was granted leave to go back and attend his father's bedside. a revelatory moment because he saw what his father's life admit to some many people to the things that he did not know about his father. the time, for example, that he provided money to of families of a combined enclosed to celebrate their daughter's graduation from high school, something they could not afford to do otherwise . the time that he carried people's mortgages when they were too poor for strapped to do so. the times that he had extended credit to various people in the family. and he returned to his posting in schenectady wanting to have a life much more like his father and to do the kinds of things that his father had done in the community.
though center of his decision to leave the navy was rosalynn carter who was not abused by this development. apparently is nearly as i can tell. the cartridge from schenectady new york to georgia was conducted an almost total silence. to a very strong people. jimmy carter, the debate or the arguments. the transition. carter, of course, takes the business, not successful in his first year, less than $200 profit for the carter business interest. then he quickly begins to build this into a growing concern. he also begins to look more broadly and service to the community including servers on the sumter county school board
and then on his 38 protect the october 1st 1962 jerry carter gets out of bed and puts on his sunday trousers rather than his work trousers and goes to america for the georgia state summit without having consulted rosalynn before doing so. when i asked about this says about a year ago pieces, i still can't believe i did that. he would not dream of making such a decision like that today without consulting his wife. times were very different in 1962 than they are now. the election, of course, is contested because of the widespread corruption. i forget the numbers. there were something like for some reason an alphabetical
order to ounces second and third letters. it was really quite a remarkable day. of course he finds out about this. he is morally outraged. i have to say, my favorite book, turning point as bristles been robbed of his election. and he mounts a campaign when 1963. runs for governor 1966. in georgia at the time. beaten by of all people mad expiry notorious. his seriousness wais. did they after lyndon johnson.
the parking lot of his restaurant with an ax handle threatening to. he did not want the desegregated restaurants. he uses this -- the campaign. the vigorous campaigning. in to that campaign. really the fields around planes. just not knowing how to proceed. very often with tears in his eyes. then, of course, carter stapleton, the pentecostal evangelist. he has a recommitment of his life to jesus was does seem to
be very transform if. he speaks of that experience not as a born-again experience which occurred back in 1935 at the crest baptist church, but as a regal to weigh rejuvenation of his faith. on the heels of that jimmy carter goes to mission trips, want to lock haven, pennsylvania with other baptists corner and knocking on doors to tell people about jesus and again in springfield, massachusetts a november of that year of the cuban american pastor from brooklyn to. help me out here to believe this program. again, and very formative moment. at the end of their week together carter asks camino, how it is that he has such a strong belief and how he is so effective in dealing with other
people. ben cruz stills carter that the secret to a life of faith or being a good question is two things, to love god and to love the person in front of you at any given time. and he repeats this many times over the course of his life as being a former the moment for him. he never loses sight of the georgia state house, and in 1970 he launches it another campaign, this time successful. mr. carter and others. he does "as a gracious vote in his campaign. at that time they could not succeed themselves. he endorses maddox and seeks and when some of the segregation in
endorsements. he's uneasy about that even at the time. he tells him at that time, you like my campaign, but you will like my administration. there is some evidence that -- i think it is inconclusive, but there is some evidence that after that campaign carter apologizes to his perry opponent in that campaign, former governor carroll sanders for cars conduct during that campaign. but it was not exactly a sterling moment in the life of jimmy carter, and i think he realizes that and regrets it. he takes office as governor of georgia is january 12th 1971 and famously says the people of georgia the time for racial discrimination is over and this is in part what really estimates in.
there is an article about jerry carter and his inauguration as governor, what he said to the people of georgia. within several weeks time magazine put some on the cover as an example of a new style of government, posters of governor perry not to mention the article carter is the one who was on the cover of time magazine. carter almost immediately begins to think about running for president after being governor of georgia. a few days. he begins looking toward larger rises. george mcgovern's cataclysmic loss to richard nixon and the presidential campaign of 1962 cars as tell with hamilton jordan and others and begins to plot out his rise to the
presidency four years later. at the end of 1973, the beginning of 1974 to remarkable evidence to place within six months of each other. the narrative is going to virgil little bit more toward religion and faith. the thanksgiving weekend in 1973 in chicago, illinois at the wabash ymca to -- evangelicals, they hammer out a document called a chicago declaration of evangelicals social conservatives. this is a remarkable document the strain of evangelicalism that his offered in this document and available on the web of economic data for yourself, it's part of what are called progressive image of
wasn't. takes his mandate from the new testament where jesus talked about having the character to be peacemakers, turn the other cheek. but also historical the the antecedent was evangelicals in the 19th century in the early 20th centuries who were very much concerned about those on the margins of society. in the antebellum time in particular coming out of an event that historians call the second great awakening at the turn of the 19th century there was and evangelicals reform impulse that really did reshape american society over the course of the 19th century. ..
crusades in the early part of the century even with than control. all lotis were motivated and animated by a evangelicals to make the world better place. and what unites these is that they were directed to the margins of society. this is the tradition but most people don't know if it that in the 19th century robust tradition that served to rehabilitate and reform the american society the going to the 20th century as well as william jennings bryant three-time democratic nominee for president very conscious about workers' rights to organize and
issues of this sort. so the people gathering in chicago 1973 trying to rehabilitate the tradition which had fallen away for reasons we can get into leader. and this document contains statements about militarism and the gap between rich and for and the scandal that people went to bet hungry anywhere in the world and equal rights for women which early '70s was something a radical idea with many religious folks. also they sought to address these things but november 73
at is a leader in athens georgia there was any event at university of georgia law school. called what day. is a tradition where the law school invites dignitaries like supreme court justices and attorneys general and the senators and various people to address them at law day. the senator from its juices senator kennedy was the biggest was the governor georgia. jimmy carter. in the morning kennedy gives the keynote address against
richard dixon and carter tresses put it in terms of sinkers to use theologians one he quotes period often since the time of governor a and georgette that since the of a but the second instance was a great and well known theologian bob dylan. tucson that i a.m. marian tories unknown. -- but though lobbyist, the
deck was stacked against the ordinary folks. the corporations and particular could hire a lobbyist and mutually themselves appointed to regulatory agencies was businesses and corporations but how about was unfair. georgia's prison population that he had taken an interest in and overwhelming the those men were pork, could not referred presentation but to have the justice system. he ruled up his presentation but through those populist themes he was beginning to rehearse for his presidential run 1976. of course, the journalists in the audience was speaking
out and he figured hunter thompson from "rolling stone" magazine was simply going out to a the parking lot to refresh whenever dobra virgin was consuming and actually do is go into his car to retrieve his tape recorder because he wanted to record something extraordinary. a politician and telling the truth. later we describe the speech as a bastard of speech he said it was one of the most respectful or remarkable speech he has heard from a politician willing to take on powerful interest and speak the truth. within the six months period you have a remarkable juxtaposition and ideologies and the social concern and the beams that carter sounded 1974.
by the way 40 years ago this month is when he gave this famous address. then he announces his candidacy for presidency december 12th and the month before the gallup organization conducted a poll of interest and presidential candidates and among the of 32 names they listed jimmy carter was not on them that is how dark of a horse he was when he announced his candidacy 1974. of course, he went on to iowa and new hampshire and was able to make a name for himself. was precinct officers the new hampshire with that becomes part of the conversation and in many
ways the signal achievements in 1976 was the fact that on march 90 we george wallace in the florida primary thereby effectively ending george wallace's 10 year for the presidency. vanquishing the segregationist from political dive of the day. and then for having done that in 1976 goes on to the democratic national convention and then into the general election and find a high intel he decides he gives an interview to "playboy" magazine a few weeks before the election and this is the famous interview where he a acknowledged he lusted after
other women other than his own life under the and remarkable. the press picked up on this and made a huge spectacle and carter began to sink and he lost 15 percentage points with the favorability rating after the playboy interview. desk week by that election over gerald ford and cats the presidency. to talk up the presidency itself not to to address specific endeavors or accomplishments but to focus on the religious situation that is quite remarkable so why is it had evangelical voters in great numbers to
than turn against have four years later in 1980. there is a fascinating story try to tell in the book that is often misunderstood. that these evangelicals were exercised over the roe v wade ruling. jerry falwell and others and very often said they are the new abolitionist with the opposition to a portion and evangelicals to slavery and to actually there is a bit of fiction.
segregation in the issue was the rule of the 1954 budget the civil-rights act of 1864 antheil's except for bade racial segregation in order discrimination. the irs was trying to enforce the provision the act of 1864 in issued the opinion any organization that engages in racial segregation and discrimination is not by definition a charitable organization. therefore it has no claims of tax-exempt status. again i can go into details of the case that cannot of mississippi but it was called segregation academies
after the education ruling of 1954. as the irs tried to force the ruling by the way from the district of columbia with the case to an force that provision the irs targeted a fundamentalist school called bob jones university said did not envy it - - shipment of african-americans as a part-time student on the campus of bob jones university and racial mixing did not admit to the student body but still retaining racial policies.
that is what got the attention of people like jerry falwell who said it is easier to open a massage parlor of course, jerry falwell has his own segregation academy and this is what gets him and others motivated. as the architect of the religious right has corroborated is emphatic about this point i was trying to kick these people ever since of goldwater campaign and i tried everything i could think of. school prayer, prayer, abortion, nothing got their attention until the school issue and that is what galvanized them into a
political movement. the second part of the story , the bob dylan case with the evangelical leaders but was also savvy enough to realize he needed day different issue to have grass roots evangelicals from the religious right and in 1978 the answer finally comes to him and particularly in minnesota and iowa something remarkable there are remarkableg three seats up for office. and the governorship rollup for grabs. and in iowa dick clark was the incumbent and going into
the election no poll showed clark ahead by fewer than 10 percentage points during those final. but what happens in iowa and minnesota is pro-life catholics would deflate the church parking lot on the sunday before the election and in iowa clark news is too rare pro-life republican and in minnesota the pro-life republicans capture of three elections. the governorship in both senate seats. all of them on pro-life.
when i was doing research at the university of wyoming in the laramie, the correspondence crackled with excitement. because he realizes he has got his issue to galvanize the new movement of the religious right and uses that to the phone advantage of the 1980 election that goes against carter as the evangelicals who was running for reelection against ronald reagan used commercials are more tenuous than carter's. for whatever reagan's quality was the episodic churchgoer and as governor of california passed most liberal abortion bill and the country but by 1980 came
around to pro-life of them was good enough for falwell and other leaders of the religious right. but carter's faith politically is also compromised by billy graham's. a lot of people do have a lot of respect for billy graham but he repeated the threat out that 80 campaign gives assurance to carter himself or to his aides of his support but then days later he makes phone calls to people like reagan's campaign share offering to do whatever he could. this is all in the book i just give you a little bit. then of course, carter is
defeated it goes back to receive begins to distort his post presidency and i will try to wrap this up quickly to take questions. and we stand here in one glorious manifestation of his post presidential years. and jimmy carter coming from the former president of emory university the only person for whom the presidency was a stepping stone into does capture where jimmy carter has done apparently he is not terribly fond but i do think it has captured. i called the book "redeemer: the life of jimmy carter" for a couple of reasons. in many ways he redeemed the nation after the sins of watergate. i try to impress to the students that they don't
quite cast how low we were as a nation from confidence in ourselves and our confidence in institutions with the presidency and johnson lied about the unknown in nixon lied about pretty much everything. and carter comes along and says several never knowingly lied to the american people again. what a radical idea that the president would not my. we were not used to a sort of thing but also jimmy carter has many faults but i
try to treat them fairly but no one died of a chess seriously questioned is moral core and they're going to read a few short passages from the epilogue from the claims of june 2nd then mr. carter would do here is is baptist country the roads are bracketed by red soil and buildings sporting names like shiloh variant baptist church, and missionary
baptist church and greater good hope baptist church. love jesus no matter what in an end but others did take freeze your savior and to oppose each commandments on the chain link fence for travelers passing through time. those crossing into webster the boyhood home of jimmy carter in the business district in the former seaboard coast with a campaign headquarters in 1976 and known museum.
it is no longer the hub of excitement that it was to learn more about the democratic nominee for president and then carter held that the train station and i have the mother who joined the peace corps and one sister races motorcycles another who was so holy roller preacher in their brother then pausing for dramatic effect i am the only sane one in the family. and then talk about going to church but meeting with him after church because he wants to you give me a book because he cannot find a new copy of the book.
and then goes on to another event. and then to head out of town also known as old plays high way. said the young jim may carter walked as of bordet to sell for pocket money it has been characterized by the insatiable ambition to rise above his circumstances as the country boy as the navy's midshipmen as a respected world beater and humanitarian and carter had referred to martin luther's notion that each of us is responsible to guide with
the ministerial authority actually impeded carter fell to newt the control criticism with the popular understanding to earn salvation protestants are equally susceptible end as i pass it is difficult to escape the impression that carter was driven into almost obsessed by the righteousness. he always believed in the value of work and the farm to sustain profitability it would lead to better opportunities and hard work might wind praise or promotion on the campaign
trail working harder than your opponent to shake more hands would lead to victory. with long hours resolve to read every piece of legislation to ensure success and reelection. it disrupted that calculus the retractable odds the chronic energy dependence and the islamic revolution in iran the political opposition from his own party that simply would not yield to hard work for longer hours. that shattering electoral losses in 1980 not only was the end of his political career by repudiation of the notion that if you just work harder and longer for his efforts would be rewarded.