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tv   BOOK TV  CSPAN  April 3, 2016 7:50pm-9:01pm EDT

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because it tasted bad. and told the nurses and doctors were covey and he would feel better soon so the second time that we needed help so i stayed with a the doctor and the primary buyers so we discussed what the challenges were with a medication that they could prescribe and they discussed to switch him to death the don't a drug that carry a stigma it is the junkie drug heroin addicts take to get off heroin.
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she said it is highly addictive but i was pretty is dawning. -- but he is dying i whispered. [applause] >> the folders shakespeare library created 1932 data big idea that it would have
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been of value to everyone so they collected those materials skier two blocks east of the capital as a gift to the nation. >> they felt it was an international city common was our capital coming through national and international assets. with the first north american van tutors feeder. but mr. folders and he made his fortune and then very quietly acquired this in the collection are nine.
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>> host: we will hear this term so what is that? >> the first folio is 36 plays published by to a shakespeares' friends who knew him. without that book published 1623 the probably wouldn't how those plays it is probably the most eddied in the world and also agree connection to a shakespeare the writer. >> that was put together seven years after his death. >> exactly. >> there are probably 700 copies there are 233 note copies of the book but the
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folger has 82 in its collection in which by far is the largest number in any one place but they collected books because he every topic was different and said to put the of books together so they wanted to get the best version of the plays. >> of the items that are on display? >> this is just the first told anybody can see that we are free and open for the public on holiday. so this is what we do.
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>> we have about 80,000 people come a year and you can also see one of the exhibition's performed if you are a qualified reader you can come into the reading room. >> is the reading room restricted to scholars? >> to people who have a reason to use the collection. and if you need to consult something. and then we bring the materials to you. about 60,000 items with that beautiful high-quality images.
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and for those who into visit us virtually and to make searchable 130,000 pages of the management collection that is hand written material that is hard to decipher what the crowds sourcing initiative then we will teach you how to decipher the right to -- the riding to add to our collection. >> first of all, british shakespeare live and die? >> he was born in the mid 16th century this is what we're celebrating the 400th anniversary of his death and he was well-known. one of the things we have done this here is the documents that connect us
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are the top of people whether it is gossett they have a noted so this year is the attempt to breathe that together. >> we are in the display all right now. with the architecture. >> you were looking at the great hall to put in a large family estate it is actually used for exercise that is why it is long-term leave the windows would be open to the guarded in their would be a painting collection. >> that is what it was designed to look like but after 1932 we realized daylight is not good for rare materials suicided to
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limit the amount of light so that is very different but it is still green and. a city block length. >> which shakespeare have been comfortable in this room? >> yes. he would know exactly what kind of root this is. he did purchase a home in stratford it was quite field see it is home town. but he knocked down some of the bedrooms to create gallery or a great hall. either he did or a member of his family but he would recognize this kind of room. >> host: let's look at the displays.
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>> first i just mentioned with his house in stratford he needed to do a title search with the hearings that he had these are two halves:the document was executed the inside of the agreement with that either side as the identical terms beachside. :is read out loud the other is checked and then it is cut with the wavy line.
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it was an early warning device used when shakespeare decided to check if he had cleared title to the property. said he would have held one of these pieces. >> it is the title to the house? did he sign it? >> he did not need to. . .
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it's so precious to have this ability to show. we have chosen to create this online resource with the permission of our partners. that way we can show 400 these documents in high-quality digital images and actually transcribed them so that you can search them. it is called shakespeare documented, and i think it will be the 1st most important stop for people trying to understand shakespeare's biography. that is going to be one of the surviving kind of legacies of this particular issues. >> what they think about the
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fact that is the largest shakespeare collection in the world. >> feeling a kind of sign. shakespeare's probably one of the most important if not the most important cultural export from great britain, goal phenomenon. there are more films made about shakespeare in india than in the united states and britain combined. so the ability to make the connection with the united states, it's a way of embodying this ongoing relationship between the two countries turns out to be important. we do have regularly diplomatic gathering share at the folger, british ambassadors, the ambassador spouse customarily serves on our board, but it is important because it shows an ongoing cultural connection.
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americans discovered shakespeare in the 18th and 19th century and made this writer their own. he was like someone you could turn to when you were in uncertain times, trying to think about your aspirations for tough decisions that americans are making after the civil war are during civil rights, and there is something about this writer comeau he tells stories, the powerful language that meant that americans felt like they could just grab that and use themselves. and iit themselves. and i think of shakespeare is the kind of uncle that we turn to the we need to have a conversation that we can have a family, with our closest family. there is something good about the fact that shakespeare wasn't american, american, he never came to this country which gives us more latitude. i think this reminds me of mcbeth probably watch the
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house of cards. lady macbeth cards. lady macbeth married to richard the 3rd. or member of congress like senator byrd would quote shakespeare on the floor of the senate. >> host: who was king or queen during shakespeare's life ended that influence them? >> alive during the reign of queen elizabeth and king james the 1st. when those reins happened a scottisha scottish king came and shakespeare had to change his theatrical practice. now there was a mark on the throne. for example, in the play mcbeth there is a perception of kings, and when james watched the performance as we believe he did he would have been seeing his own ancestors in this play and they would have reflected well on him. so shakespeare was aware of his political audience.
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and that is interesting because we live in washington, and washington is a political city. he did not want to offend his noble patrons but he also was such a good storyteller that he could give himself in the territory that might've been uncomfortable for someone who is directly addressing the king of the queen the shakespeare wrote a play called richard the 2nd about a monarch who has to give over his crown to someone who has forced him to be deposed. talk about a controversial idea. he could not suggest that about a sitting monarch and showing the play. shakespeare had a had a way of getting into tricky territory and storytelling. >> let me show you a few
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other items. >> march 27. this may orthis may or after march 27. the people wanted to come and see this after. >> that is why we created shakespeare documented. that is an even more comprehensive record. there are 50 very rare documents so if you go to shakespeare documented you will be able to see all of this material. let me show you another item which i think is very interesting. over here we will have to watch out. this isthis is a page of what many believed to be shakespeare's handwriting. it is called the sir thomas more manuscript, written in something called secretary hand which is a particular type that shakespeare knew. it is also difficult to
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decipher if you have not had experience looking at that type of writing. it is part of a play that we think shakespeare wrote because of the style. ask how much does this particular style resemble the shape or other candidates, but the beautiful passage is so timely. all these people who put their lives on the scene, thescene, the speech asks the question why would you put your family at risk and that when it turns out the staying on land might even be more dangerous. it has this marvelous, powerful passage written by shakespeare on a piecea piece of vellum that is possibly written in his own hand, one of the most
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valuable documents in the world and we are lucky to have it here in the united states. it is never traveled out of the uk and is here. >> you say this document may have been. this is writing exist anywhere? >> that's a really good question. we have confidence that we have six signatures shakespeare. >> in the world. >> in the world. not at the folger. our colleagues and britain have different documents. legal documents that have the signature. what you thinkyou think about that, there are only so many letters and someone signature and when you sign your name may not cited in the same way you were a letter because you do it often. that means that if you want to authenticate a whole page of writing and say was shakespeare's he really only
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have a couple ofa couple of letters to work with for your comparison and for that reason it is tough to establish that athe particular piece of writing is beyond a doubt by william shakespeare, but this is a suggested example. it is stylistically, stylistically, it looks a lot like shakespeare. we tend to think of it as one of those treasures. sir thomas moore was a humanist active in the 16th century. here is the book that we now call utopia. he thought about politics, war. he was someone the shakespeare knew from history, someone he wrote about. >> this is part of a play. the reason why the light is
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so low, for our own books in the books or lending partners we have a book call a light budget that means we will not expose a different item anymore than a certain amount of light and are constantly monitoring how much is around this book. >> in real-time. >> we are with computer readouts that show the average amount of life because this writing which is in a kind of iron ball link is getting sick day if -- is going to fade if you put it under light. we want people to read these pages centuries from now. >> under that particular went on the realities of the bottom. >> put the light right on their. >> we know enough about our collection to say we all know flash photography. when you do eliminate night of it is important for
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people to see. and so as a restitution we are thinking about the trade-offs. >> to blame shakespeare stratford-upon-avon really riled his place? >> we see no reason to doubt he is the man from stratford went to london and became a very, very successful writer. it is really hard to explain the quadruple lightning strike that is william shakespeare. so good at reading human emotions, so well read,'s
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political balancing act, be so successful in the theater when that was the industry that was developing. he was a remarkable figure and i think is outside affect on the world has created a lot of passionate interest. they a lot of information. >> even in the course of assembling years and how letters were transcribed, basic questions such as what is on the back of that, where is come from when those questions, the kind
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that an experienced document person would ask, someone who knows a lot about handwriting, it has led us to take a really long look. the 1st time anyone has looked at all the evidence of wants. we are resource for people who are curious. you'll have to swear health of allegiance. there are plenty of things you can still find. we welcome people francis bacon or queen elizabeth the 1st. inquiry is always good. >> what do you say to folks
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like me who are others who are not terribly dim but have not been able to access shakespeare understand him? >> i would say two things. first is, you can access shakespeare. he may know more about you that you do yourself. there is an editorial in the new york times today about the importance of humanities. one thing, their insights into who we are. he did not write them an obscure treatises. he put them on display. so plays are the oldest interactive art form we have competition. and if you can see one of his place you will see people you recognize. now, 20% to 30% of the language may be understood. join the club.
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his 400 years old, beautifully dense, lots of energetic expression. that 20 percent is fantastic. and you may already know some be a summary phrases are already in our vocabulary. and that is one of the great things about this writer. he somehow managed to get into our bloodstream. once those words became famous onstage people repeat them.them. because of political headline, joe biden has his hamlet moment join the race or not. even though you may not have read hamlet carefully to understand is a heart surgeon decision to make. >> are you a shakespeare scholar? >> i am.
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i've written several books. this is a great place to share. and alabama more of a shakespeare in my career. here we are two blocks east of us capitol. a middle name a shakespeare, the most widely read author on the planet and we can show people why the ideas and characters and stories still matter. >> we will have to be quiet. late medieval renaissance architecture.
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on the far side we have the best of shakespeare, the model of trinity church where he was buried and then a brass plaque. behind that i'd the ashes o mr. and misses folger which is interesting. that makes them the only people who are buried on capitol hill. it is ironic. this was there gift. they chose to have their ashes placed here. >> what goes on in this room and you can access it?
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>> filled with researchers are working with original resource material type universities writing books, but they are digging in. coming up a 400 year's version. you look around. and that person is surfacing from the 4th century dive into the past. the intensity of the connection in the imagination you've got to have. so inspiring, you can't really show it but it's happening.
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>> is that possible? >> you could comfort tour on saturday afternoon. if you really want to handle the collection we would need to get the permission. >> two letters of reference. has to last another for centuries. >> there is a lot. you have some hidden stuff you will show us. >> i have. >> thank you. >> am signing up. this is the keeper of the keys.
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the ball doesvault is a secure space that we need to control very carefully. officer baylor is here. walking is down. >> we're going below ground. >> several floors below ground level. we have a vaulta vault that runs almost the length of a city block. and that is where we keep our rare books and manuscripts. >> were all the manuscripts and rare books collected by the folgers during their lifetime? >> the folgers started the collection but we have been collecting a restitution for around 80 years.
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as a growing and dynamic collection. there is morethere is more to find. we acquired and give it to scholars. we are now at the vault. 1932 bank vault door which is extremely heavy. i don't heavy. i don't think i could certainly was that help. we're going to pass through now. >> usually not open. >> officer baylor just opened up with his keys. i have my own we need to get out. >> garlands been helping us. the whole team. >> writing to the elevator which will take us yet another floor below. let's give everyone the experience.
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>> let me take us to dixie. >> onedixie. >> one of the amazing things about being in the space, it is within several hundred yards walk from the spot will be 95 percent of the documents only in my working life. once you are standing here to contemplate immortality because there is so much you could read. a book that can be so important to me to be 15 yards on the right over the lesson notes there i'll never see it.
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everyone faces that challenge. it is to resist the opportunities for almost all of them. >> i presume there are cameras. >> we control the space bar temperature and humidity. we need to keep them drive. major threat to a book sport to get what. one of the ways we deal with that is by freezing the book it is easier thought out page by page and control have those materials are changing that it is to make
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a quick pile. they have protocols how deal with a particular type of emergency but that is something we actively plan for. >> we did have a week old which was a real threat to our collection. and then we needed to insulate the vault. it turns out there was an underground river going around the area. we received some money from the federal government from the institute for museum studies to help us make that transition. >> what are you going to show us? >> several items that i thought you and your viewers would enjoy.
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>> can you show the cover. >> i can show you the cover. >> this is published in 1623 single volume record and it is important that his friends assembled it is they had a better idea of what he thought was important. in the three types of plays which helps us. this is called the engraving. part of the book. the ben johnson says this is a likeness. person-to-person familiar connections. >> if 82 folios in the collection. >> correct.
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>> some may want to buy one. >> there are very few 1st folios in private hands. it's a valuable book. >> one of the things they realized they can safely take our 1st phone to the all 50 territories. someone proposed marriage successful. someone coming. a great indie rock band.
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>> what else you have? >> let me show you a smaller version of the shakespeare play. single sheet of paper is printed on one side of the other. their son together. folded twice and cut the edges so that you can come through them. this is a smaller format. but half of the place appeared before the 1st folios printed. so that means there are multiple editions real differences.
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>> in the language. >> the language and some of the stage action. there we have is true chronicled history. this is not described as a history but a tragedy. you have to decide what to call it. in one of those it is so different scholars are
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really interested in that is ultimately you want to create editions because people want to read them. they created using this collection. will we found was that we can also share these online we put them into digital form and they are now freely available maybe put a copy in every person's backpack. >> beautifully built play. each little bit work.
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i love the main character. the great improviser. that is what gets her through the tough spots. i love the winners tale, play, plaintiff was written late in his career and is beautiful. meant for adults and it is also story of why people should continue have hope for love and reconciliation even if experience tells us it's probably not going to happen. >> to be up to be, that is the question. what does that mean? >> i struggled with that because i had to read the panel for traveling exhibition. i think what hamlet is saying is come i wake up
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everyday and have to ask myself why do i keep going.i keep going. and that is a question that deserves careful attention. i think any person who has made it to this point in their lives where they can ask the questions as to say what is it that makes me get up and why is it i will keep going when i cani can become a person who doesn't exist anymore. maybe that is about suicide, it is just a thought experiment. but he is really talking himself into keeping going with life and it is interesting because you are hearing a smart person talk himself through and it is almost as if your able to overhear a process that he goes through. >> show us your from the archives.
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>> this is another version but this is in addition that was censored by a jesuit. right here. >> as long as we don't do it for a long time. the right page highlighted. going to carefully a book to another page opening. that's were book will break. if you come here and look at these passages, these have been exposed by the center. this is the end of the play.
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this is a set of speeches, the passages passages here our praise of the new princess elizabeth. queen elizabeth if you are catholic is a controversial figure. so you notice so much of it is perfectly fine. i just can't handle or sanction this particular sanctioned this particular bit. people have been censoring for a long time. >> lewd? >> he plays blue and purple. i think he has laid out some
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of the most challenging pictures of what humanity is capable of law allows and desires. thatthat is what makes him a challenging writer. think the play shows humanity at its worst and really raises basic questions about is there god. the answer is maybe not. it is not the answers you get it makes them powerful. it is the big question comeau why do people love, lead, or follow one another. the things theythat think they want a really not things that they want and where people so successful sometimes and leaving others , why are people so self-defeating.
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so many plays are about the ways in which people set out to fall in love with someone or create this happy marriage union, and the path is rocky because people seem to do the same thing over and over again that puts the beloved object out of reach. shakespeare got that. it is a fascinating thing. he wrote about all kinds of people. you have wars and prostitutes, fantastic kings, criminals. people are turning to donkeys. >> it's really a picture of english renaissance. they really cover the introduction through about the 1730s which is the full emergence which
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includes the part of the world we're standing in now. a copy of cicero, but this copy happened to belonged in the 8th. king henry viii. >> off with their head. >> divorced beheaded guy. >> this copy is one that henry annotated. he says you this book is my principally. just so you know. >> you can access this? >> you can see this online, but if you're a reader who will put many of these documents in your hand is people need to look at the real thing. you can learn so much better
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looking and digital scan. 500 early modern books being a look at the paper and ink. if you are doing the job you face-to-face versus on the telephone we would prefer face-to-face because there is so much more information. the more you work with them the more you get a sense how things are put together. so around a little bit more. that's jump year. this is a copy, queen elizabeth the 1st bible, her bible given to her by matthew parker and it was probably used in her chapel. the readings during those
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celebrations would have come from this book. it has this beautiful red velvet cover. clearly a very expensive book. it has two roses and her identifying marks here, elizabeth regina. you can also see on the side , this has been textured for a think about this book, this is the equivalent of a cathedral. in the sense that it is truman was the complicated. the learning craft that you have to develop as a community to get to the point where you can create a book like this is just tremendous. that's why it's created in this way.
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it is a monument. it's not made out of stone, but it is a fabulously complicated object. have to learn how to handle classical languages. all of that learning goes into creating this beautiful object. >> when you see this beautiful why want to say print, the colors are so so vivid 400 years later. >> a wonderful example of hand colored or hand tinted early modern print. this is analogous the theater you have these figures representing africa figure here, some pretty grisly stuff down here in
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the program is something like the goddess of wisdom on the top what is done here is limited beautiful printing. itprinting. it is a high-quality print and then someone his hand, this is your call and some of this is now well and some of it is not. you can see the cathedral, the three kingdoms here from england, ireland, scotland. >> pretty accurate map. >> and of course the ways in which the atlantic will take
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shape is through exploration mapping. our collection holds a large quantity of items which includes the moment when the elizabethan's and jackson's come to the united states. you have the colonies and jamestown. that is shakespeare's world planting itself in north america. it's a complicated history. part of what was given that. >> was he aware? >> he was. he clearly where the pamphlet about a shipwreck in bermuda. but he makes reference to stories. never visited it. probably probablyit. probably didn't have great information, but when he uses the phrase he is saying
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there is this place that we have not explored, overturning our expectation for what human beings alike and when nature is like, something that is firing his imagination. >> one more from the archives. >> this is a copy of the shooting script. laurence olivier's film 1945. this gives us olivier's note to how he wanted this shot which is interesting because maybe you have seen the film, created during the 2nd world war. the famous frame from oneone of the battle scenes. this was viewed as a piece of propaganda during the 2nd world war because it is so storing.
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so much of this is quoted in support of the idea that england will be triumphant. the library of record. any expression is something that we are interested in collecting. that means even have a klingon translation of hamlet. hamlet has been translated into a lot of different languages. there is one more item i would like to show you.you. so important and perhaps my favorite item in the collection. a modest copy opponents. it is portable. you can you can keep this in your pocket. what is important is it is the copy.
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this particular book and expensive when purchased represents the direct connection between the renaissance lyric tradition and the kind of poetry that whitman and others were creating. this is one of the reasons why the two cultures are connecting and aa reason why this collection is here in washington. >> very much appreciate you sharing this with us and our viewers. visit in any way a public institution? >> we are a public institution. the congressional record, will tell you story. when they want to create this library they bought the property from this parcel
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across from the future supreme court and next to the jefferson building. he learned that the congress was about to take over this whole block for the purposes of another building. he wrote to the library and said i have a collection of shakespeare material that you could not afford to create. it is the best in the world and it is my intention to make a gift to the american people of this collection. and so the library went to congress and said we need to exempt that part of the parcel so that they can build this library, and in the congressional record it says that they have created an institution that is dedicated to the public and it also says that they are doing the work that they can do. so we were born as an institution that serves the nation but what is interesting is they don't
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have federal funding. they created an endowment, but because we are not a college or university can't charge tuition and because we are not a federal institution we don't get federal funds. that means we have to be self-sustaining. but half of our operating budget comes from the endowment. our building was created for a quarter of our employees. >> director of the folger shakespeare library. april 23, join book tv live,
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covering their program of the 400th anniversary, taking your calls saturday april 23. >> when itunei tune in on the weekends usually it is authors sharing new releases. >> watching is the best television for serious readers. >> they can have a longer conversation delve into the subject. >> book tv weekends bringing author after author after author and spotlight the work of fascinating people. >> hello book tv and i am a c-span fan. >> and now a literary tour of long beach california
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with the help of our local cable partner. while in long beach we spoke with jerry ship speak about the contributions of women to the war effort in world war ii. >> rivers learning how and where to put the 700 rivets. rivets, hold it together. >> people mostly i think recognize that we can do it poster and feel that means strong women. nontraditional jobs and you stepped up and took over the jobs that men cannot hold because they were out fighting the war is nostalgia.
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more and more people are identifying with the contribution and knowing that long beach was an important contributor to the success of world war ii. the war changed the economy tremendously. long beach was experiencing a depression, although we were fortunate and discovering oil in 1921. the town was booming. what booming. what was happening also was that we were seeing the development of aviation. through the 1st transcontinental and made history. we had a number of aviators who brought aviation here so when the u.s. army was looking for a place to build
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a plan to produce aircraft as they thought we would need they picked long beach. it was one of the 1st airports to have aa takeoff and landing in different directions which the army loved. some of the fire was opened a couple of things happen in long beach. how much long beach was connected.
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anon people need to work here. brought out of the house. employing 45,000 people a day. and about 40 percent of those people were women trained immediately whenever kind of job they came in to take because a lot of these women have never worked outside the house and it is kind of funny when you look at the materials, they were doing basic explanations of what a screwdriver was and where ranch was, how to use i have a properly in the most important thing was safety because you have a lot of safety regulation, but never told immediately
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to pull it up because it could get caught in machines and several women were scalped. thescalped. the other thing, it could be electrified. we start seeing in the movies women's hair being smooth out and put it to us nude,nude, covering that was supposed to protect you from grease and dirt. it was a safety regulation. a lot of practical training, and the most important learning was having to stand and do repetitive work, dirty work, exhausting work for ten or 12ten or 12 hours. they hired matrons who worked in the restaurant that could be kind of -- and they had women counselors that could help women who had difficulties. a lot of women have problems having stand ten or 12 hours
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for developing a slouch from bending down they are at their shoulders. the rivet gun was interesting because they put it in the promotional material. if you can iron close you can rivet. well, there is not a lot of connection other than the regular iron is heavier than the rivet gun. that is true, but when you connect the rivet gun to tremendous air pressure women became black and blue because the rivet gun was constantly hitting them. this was a new experience for a lot of people. especially women because it was a kind of labor that most women had not been allowed to get into. women were doing everything, wiring, riveting, took like 165,000 rivets to put a plan
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together. they would work on the outside. he would have someone who would drive the rivet and then have someone inside. douglas hired midgets, small so they could put them in the fuselage and be there to push back and flatten out the rivet. we hear more and more. but they did everything. they put engines together. they made sure the fuselage, the bombing equipment the sites for the bombers, that they were accurate. anything youaccurate. anything you can think of that is required to be done in an airplane, the women did it. they were expected to do everything. on that aspect they learned how to do things on jobs
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they would never in their lifetime expect to have the skill four. skilled and repair and doing handiwork. it was a change for these women. the other side was not just rosie the river but the women air service pilots were once those planesplans were manufactured they were then flown off to different locations by women pilots. we have the largest contingencies right here. that was the other aspect that they didn't get to do before the war. didn't know what there wives were doing partially because it was made in the political rhetoric, the women were doing this and helping
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winning the war but there was a negative side to it. there were people who were opposed to women welding the ships. propaganda out they're that the ships are going to sink because they were made by women. women had the fight that kind of propaganda and now there saying what i did was not safe. the airplane was very interesting. one of the reasons the memphis belle was formal around. it was because there was a lot that the b-17 was called lady's airplane. women were producing an unsafe airplane.
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based on the douglas plan in santa monica which is almost identical. a lot of things happen and women were outside the home. they suddenly decided they could be single, independent. they also form the relationships. it had an impact on the soldiers and sailors. there were still young men who were waiting to go off to serve and so it was unlikely that they would not be somebody else. once the war was over propaganda shifted in the magazines and movies. you are expected to go home and give the job to the gis who were returning. after the war just a handful
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of women remained. when the korean war broke out there was an uptick slightly, but it never got back to the amount of women during world war ii. there was some resistance in society and from the employer. there was a preference given to men.men. interesting to watch the movies and the magazine articles. suddenly your places in the home. i think of this period in history is important because people need to understand how war has changed in our society. when world war ii was happening every single person was involved in some aspect. the women were working in the factories.
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we don't have that anymore. very few people even know. so that is a big difference. it did change the role of women. it was the seminal event said we can do it. women can do anything if they are given the opportunity. once they opened the door it was difficult to close. their mothers told them. we
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did all the stuff. a lot of people did not believe it. only open this park we invited a woman who came up to me with a scrapbook, pay stubs from all kinds. she saidshe said was the matter come i didn't think anyone remember what we did. i thought that was a chilling statement because i think there are a lot of people who don't know. they know. they look at the poster. they don't quite understand when they don't understand the sacrifice is amended. it is an important film in history. so important that abusive our population and put us on the map. they became the center of military aviation in california they grow our economy from there. we need to be grateful for the men and women can only give their life that worked on the homefront to do that. ..

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