tv QA CSPAN August 30, 2016 7:00pm-8:01pm EDT
dollars sent to protect the u.s. has made an impact. watch "washington journal" beginning live at 7:00 a.m. eastern on wednesday morning. join the discussion. >> tomorrow c-span's road to the white house coverage continues with live remarks from donald trump. outlining his immigration plants. he speaks to voters and supporters in phoenix. that is live. that is live at 9:00 p.m. eastern on c-span. >> this week on q&a, will discuss the book -- about the dynasty that ruled russia for 300 years. >> the book is called, the roman office. 1613-1918.
i want to read you a headline in the daily mail, the london daily mail, you wrote this back in january, the romance, the marrieds are and the 16-year-old mistress was about love letters of the head of state. >> i did not actually write that, that is the headline written by the daily mail, headline writer. buds, i would say that the correspondent is referring to the most outrageous to most explicit correspondent ever written by the head of state. i've to say the correspondent is outrageous that they edited the daily mail and they said we are a tabloid newspaper in england but we cannot print all of this stuff, we are a family newspaper. >> who was it? who is head of the state? it was the czar emperor,
alexander the second, the emperor who liberated first the slaves of russia at exactly the same time as your president lincoln was about to liberate the slaves of america. the two men were correspondent and were assassinated an interesting relationship of that first start. alexander the second was a sympathetic of all of the "the romanovs" of the book. so he sort of laid the foundation of the book, he wanted to bring in a constitution which is really the last chance to bring it in. but he was assassinated the day he was going to bring in that constitution. as for the love life, that is another thing altogether. spee4 it let me ask you, where did you find the love letters. >> guest: they are in the russian archives in moscow. there is an interesting story there, because because of these
love letters have never been worked on by any before. that's because recently they returned to the russian archives. this is how it happened, when ivan the second was assassinated his widow, his mistress who have become his wife left or russia went to live in paris. they took most of the correspondence with her to paris. they remained in in private hands until 1998. in 1998 the letters were bought. because in 1945 the red army had captured when they took berlin, vienna they captured the archives and they took them back to moscow. they wanted to swap in the russians agree. so they got their banking archives which are all very interesting i'm sure. but moscow got these letters and at last we can work at the mall. they are love letters between a 40 something-year-old emperor
and his young schoolgirl, 18-year-old mistress. they started their affair, they're passionate, pregnant, increasingly political, and they are highly uninhibited. their stuff in these letters that i did not even know were invented in the 18 seventies. i in the 1870s. i thought they were invented in the 21st century. you have to read them to see what i'm referring to. >> c-span: the article you wrote and have a racy stuff in it. >> guest: it doesn't have the racy stuff in it because some of it is very racy even by the standards of 2016. >> c-span: how long was alexander the second the emperor? spee2 from 1855 - 55-1881. >> c-span: how was he assassinated? >> guest: it was a tragedy. he brought in reform. he negotiated the complex but he raised expectations in the 1860s
for hypocrisy which he was not willing, this caused a black back last demanding hypocrisy altogether. and these terrorists hunted him like a wild animal. in fact, he believe that because his mistress was there on the day of the assassination attempt he believed she was a guardian angel. there were six attempts to kill him but she cannot save him. when it came to 1881, they had been together for all these years and the bond was thrown in the carriage, he was fine. the carriage was smashed and his dog so please get back in, please and he said no i want to
inspect this wounded man, that's what i do i'm in emperor and it was one more terrace, one more killer and they just threw it bright at his feet and blew his legs to smithereens. he was taken back into the palace where he died on his couch and he became nicholas the second, his grandson. >> c-span: in reading the book i just kept asking how does this man remember all of this. i could probably get inherent find some statistics you would not remember. what technique do you use in order to put this together? i want you to get into how many roman office there were in all. >> guest: writing these books is a challenging nightmare. this is only about 400 years but it is 20 or 21 romanovs princes or empresses and it covers so many years so you can imagine every single on monarch in this
book have their children wives, ministers, and their great poets and composers and all of this has to be mastered. so writing these these books is a very big mental challenge. i literally emerge myself in the subject. for the few years and i only read about the subject. obviously afterwards i cannot wait to read some james elroy thrillers. but during it i concentrate absolutely on it. i just work my way from the beginning rain by rain. with each one i read all the books on the subject, first of all. i get all of the books and journals, articles that have been published in russia and ultimately i go to russia i walk around the palaces, look at the archives, and then when i feel like i have i have enough i move on to the next.
to the next monarch. >> you were here last in 2004 and we did an interview in london in 2013. i want to put up on the screen the number of nonfiction books you have written. the audience can then know the kind of thing you have been involved inches we go back to the first one in 2001, catherine and the great -- stalling, the court of desire which we talked about in 2003. young 2003. young stalling, 2007. jerusalem, the viagra in 2011. we say "the romanovs" and you said a little different. yes the -- it doesn't matter. i want to quote back to 2008 vanity fair article that undoubtedly you remember. in which a friend of yours, who
is she? >> guest: she is a noblest and writer. she is head of the british museum although she is a very important woman in england. she is the daughter of lord off child. >> c-span: he is the best lunch date in london. his gossip is so clever ranging% trees and across all sections of society. did you find that to be a compliment? >> guest: i don't know. what you think? i'm not sure that is a compliment. >> c-span: are you a gossip? >> guest: i think all human affairs, all human politics is about human relationships. you can call that gossip if you like. i'm not terribly interested in gossip and how important on the world stage, but if you look at the books for example, and all of them they have studies of power and how power has an effect on personality and the
effect of personality on power. the interesting thing is whether you're talking about a court with chamberlains and ladies in waiting, or whether you are talking about the office of the president of the united states or the prime minister of england, elected official, power works in a similar way. it emanates from the person who has been elected who has the power. whether whether it is a bomb or prudence. i am a student to the way that works. i'm fascinated by the way that happens. so i am hoping that this book, you can read an entertainment a lot of shocking murders and arrests. you can look at it as an explanation of how russia works today or you can look upon it as a study of human nature and power. you can call that gossip. but really read p diddly and i will give you an example, in 1881 when i ivan the second was
person -- assassinated. reform reform really ended until 1917. so personality, again and again in russian history just as in american history, look at trump. look at the clintons. again and again personality is decisive and power. my books concentrate on personal. >> c-span: who was your waiver it personality, not your favorite leader but the one you had the most fun researching. >> guest: he is a misunderstood character. i wanted to look at him in a political sense as well is in a colorful character. >> c-span: when was he the upper? >> guest: until 1725 he died. and that was in 1682 cents he
was a child so incredibly long rain. i feel like it's breathtaking. it was two of the greatest men and it was captain the great. add to the most talented individuals in the whole transport story but both of them died at 52. now i am 50 so there's another statistic i remember. think of all they achieved in their lives and they died at 52. >> c-span: let's start with peter the great. why was he called the great? >> guest: he achieved so much. he modernized russia, he brought in modern military, modern technology, experts, western forms of government, and they could defeat the greatest military power in europe of that
day. sweden. he founded st. petersburg a new northern capital, modern city to the north. he conquered the baltic and he created the baltic fleet which made russia -- for the first time. he did all of this for the force of his personality. despite all of the rational reasons and the sweetest methods of government and the modern artillery that he developed for the military and the wonderful ships, despite all of this, modern stuff he was always basically an autocrat. he ruled wherever he was. whatever you said was the government. if he slept of the government slept. when he was drunk, he was drunk, the government was drunk. he was everything. he was the ultimate personal ruler of russia. he was a genius. but he was also a monster. he
took part part in the beheadings of his enemies. he tortured his own son to death. he was fascinated with the human body. dismantling it. i remember when he was in holland and he attended these medical dissections, he was fascinated with the human body. afterwards he said can i bite the body. i want to see how a dead body feels in your teeth. and then he made his entire entourage do the same. after that he bought his own set of surgical tools. some of his entourage had a sore tooth and he insisted on cutting it out himself. so after that if you had a sore arm or a bad tooth, or a sore and you are in his entourage, you made sure you never mentioned it. >> c-span: how many different, he said 21, how many, how many different emperors did you write about?
>> guest: twenty. that actually rule. there there are also many regions, prime ministers, any field marshals, many characters, this book has everyone for tchaikovsky and many fascinating and talented people. was probably the most talented minister the trend -- ever had. >> we talk about -- for many. you go into great detail about him, when did he when did you first pop up in the russian society? >> guest: he first popped up in 1995. i think there is an analysis of him that is been slightly skewed, too much skewed, too much emphasis of whether he's a healer or not. and much more important i think is he represented the authentic
foundation of the trans- trance -- but there he is unmistakable. who was the first emperor he had contact with. >> guest: nicholas the second. >> c-span: and what was his relationship? >> guest: there is no love affair. as was rumored. but alexander and nicholas, both absolutely needed him, first of all there is that healing of a hemophiliac story. it was a tragic story and his parents recognized by his child suffering.
by his pain as he had almost died repeatedly from hemophiliac attacks. but also the immense stress they paid by insisting that he must succeed to the full plenitude of hypocrisy. so this place enormous stress on the child than on himself. >> c-span: what year was nicholas the second? >> guest: this is 19 oh 1904 is when the child was born. and then the next year he remains absolutely key to that right up to his murder in 191916. >> c-span: nicholas the second was the emperor for how long? >> guest: over 20 years. >> c-span: the reason we would talk about it as this is the end of the trans- trance.
[inaudible] he didn't really come totally and politically important or essential since world war i. in world war i, 1915 nicholas decided to become commander-in-chief of the army. he left the the capital in charge of the empress alexander. now music extremely prudish woman. religious, who believed absolutely and sacred hypocrisy of the system and complete disdain for democracy. >> c-span: defined the word autocracy. >> guest: it's just the rule of one man. but sacred autocracy is thinking that you can only be ruled by one man. when nicholas the second left alexander in complete command of politics back in petersburg, she
found herself in this preposterous situation having had for over 20 years complete content for all politics in high society and politicians particular. she found the founders of the business of politics. she knew nobody. she had to turn a self righteous very prudent woman had to turn to the one person she felt might know some people in petersburg. and he only knew the most corrupt and depraved people in st. petersburg. so the irony of irony, the people he center suggested as minister to her were the most depraved and incompetent people in st. petersburg. this was a catastrophe. this book is based on many correspondence between the czars and the private correspondence. there are several thousand letters between nicholas and alexander at that time. a part
of the a fascinating because they're very sexually passionate about each other, they're very close, it also reveals how isolated they were. isolated by their own wishes, by the way. and how much they depended. when you read alexander's letters you rely she was close to being insane. she was unbalanced. when you read the book i think people be amazed just how unstable she was and she would be sending things like >> c-span: there were. >> guest: the time world war i started in 1914, no one like
that's beach. but people cannot face the fact that their responsibility for the misrule and russia belong to the czar and the blamed it on rasputin. they thought if they killed him that would solve the problem. >> c-span: if you go to st. petersburg, and a lot of americans do, where would they find nicholas and alexander living at that time? where did rasputin live? >> guest: they lived outside of st. petersburg. they hated saint petersburg. they lived in a suburban palace and they lived in the alexander palace built by catherine the great for her grandson alexander the first.
>> c-span: was at the winter palace? spee2 the winter palace was in the center of st. petersburg. rasputin lived in a flat in the city. when he came out to see the czar, he would often meet in a small cottage outside the city gate that nobody knew about. it began to printed there's. that little house is still there. nobody gets to see it, but they should. that is where russia was in a way govern. it was just outside the gates. because all of the police and so on control by the minister imperial would would make a record of anyone visiting. but this way they could go without anybody knowing but of course everybody knew anyway. meanwhile also in the city, the use of the palace which many american tourists will visit, that has has a room where rasputin was killed. the wealthiest man in russia, he was a cross-dressing, bisexual interesting character who had studied at the university. him and his friends was a member
of the imperial family. they decided that the only way to save russian save the moniker he was to kill rasputin. they romanticize the killing of respite and in the way that we all knew. that rasputin was going to be poison, he was he was shot but he got up again, it was like a vampire movie, they would put a stake in his heart that finally killed him. but in fact the murder was very different from that. one is that we now know that the british involvement. the british secret service, the early version of it was involved somehow against him. i may have been involved in the assassination. rasputin was widely believed to be against the war which was true. that was about the only sensible quality. but that was a very difficult
thing to do to stay out of the war. nicholas the second was really not strong enough to withstand the pressure to go into the war. he was on the american side, so the british were interested in him being killed. want to keep russia in the war, and to to save the monarchy. without that they would probably leave the war. many people believe the moniker would be destroyed if rasputin continued his dark influence. so somehow british agents were involved in this plot. what really happened was they went into the house, they shot him once but it didn't kill him, he ran outside and someone from behind and fired at him and brought him down with the second shot it was not fatal. and this is interesting, at this
point someone got up with a huge magnum and put it right against rasputin support head, point blank and blew him away. like that. it was not this romantic sort of gothic story the way you see in hollywood movies, it was more like a cold-blooded execution. >> here's the famous picture of rasputin on the screen. what affected this have on him and what exact year was he killed. >> guest: december sixteenth. he he actually they found the body underneath the ice in the river. they threw him under the ice and took a while to find him. and then what's interesting you can see the point-blank shot to the middle of the four head it's an execution shot. you can see if pretty clearly. >> c-span: what impact did it
have? >> guest: it didn't have the impact to anyone expected. instead of strengthening the anarchy and exposed and emasculated the anarchy. revealed that nothing change when rasputin die. nicholas the second was still the same nicholas the second. he did not suddenly start reforming the country are given into a constitutional government government or represent adult government. nothing change. all it showed is the government was hollow. and he was a deeply incompetent ruler. >> c-span: i'm at the end for a few reasons, one nicholas and alexander's assassination and the fact that those who took over. talk to us about the assassination of rasputin, went to to the next step in the process happen. >> c-span: he died in december of 1916, that was literally then two months afterwards.
the irony was this was another revolution, they were all in exile or siberia. in in fact lennon had said just weeks before he said you have missed it, this this revolution is never going to happen in my lifetime. but here it came. it was totally unexpected. and. and yet easily predicted because people started to talk about food shortages in the capital and quickly spread. the troops who are in the city started to fantasize with the rebels. nicholas nicholas was far away at the front. he was right at the front of the headquarters. it took him along time to get back. he was foolish to try to get back in a rush because his train got sidelined, supposedly stopped by workers. and he found himself totally alone in a real race station in the middle of nowhere and he had to ask his generals what to do and his
general said, as one -- and suddenly he was alone in the imperial carriage and he had to sign an application. so then the hemophiliac boy now and his teens and then he spoke to his daughter and he said tell me, is it incurable? the dr. said no. he said how long could a live? of the dr. said he could live a long time time or he could die very young. and then he sort of set, you know what i decided i need to change my plane. i'm going to change and lead it to my brothers michael and keep the child with me. >> c-span: any emperor could say this is where is going next? >> guest: that's a good question. the succession in any government is a measure of its authority of
its system if you like. and up until lazar, paul the first he could report anyone they like. so here's a great successor. >> when he died she was chosen as the successor. >> in russia the state can make or break someone. >> up until then they could choose their own successes. after 1776 no more. the irony is now on days and
since the 1990s and into thousand 16, the president of russia will choose their own successes again so putin wasn't named as yelton for the success so similarly once again despite all the trappings is our can choose his own successes. >> go back to why the whole revolution in 1917, what happened to the last romanoff's? >> that's a terrible story, by the way, i don't take the usual romantic approach to nicholas alexander. the movie view, i don't take it, and i looked at was they were
loving parents and i think when people read in this book but they are really like, i think people will be amazed at how rapidly they go. , the stuff about jews, is pretty shocking. considering. >> and that is next to you and your family. >> well we left russia at that time my mother's family to escape it. >> the family i will say in february 1917, they did they did conduct themselves with immense
grace in facing fear and humiliation were being prisoners of the republican government a provisional government. then then behaved with immense dignity. that's that's why they've been made into saints. at the same time, it is worth remembering as nicholas the second, not advocating his reading books to his children in captivity. he was also reading to his children, and the anti-semitic forgery. the so this gives us a little perspective. but in the end when the ball civics took power in october 1917, lennon 17, lenin and stalin, this was a totally new turn of events and they were endangered for their lives. it was unthinkable that the children could be endangered for their lives. but they had a ruthless
operative and they could take no chances. it is when you look at it that the orders to kill them all including the children came from the top, came from lenin. even though that though that was far too clever to leave it in order. >> never has a crime. >> they were in a house which they have been they were cap there all the windows were painted white.
pistols and rifles some word trunks sophomore psychopaths one be headed a band during a bank robbery during the revolution and they'll started to fire but it all went wrong in redo the because their release was to kill one person nobody is comfortable shooting girls so they've waited aman but then they would switch son nicholas was killed instantly the everybody else was grieving then it was a free-for-all killing some of them but tragically all the girls and children were wearing their own with of romanov diamonds hundreds
had been sewn into their underwear in case they escaped they spent months can you imagine they had billions of pounds and they waved enormous amounts but tragically that made their execution much worse because uh bullets would bounce off the diamond said they did not die so it was like slippery as an ice rink they had to stab them and shoot them and still to of them it took half an hour of mayhem to of the girls were coughing and awake had to be stabbed and shot all over again bit is agony.
>> crew reported on what happened? i remember you talk about being in a room with a dim light bulb that you could not see who had the information? >> several of the assassins or the murders probably wrote memoirs about what they had done in because a literally took three days in three nights without sleep to bury the bodies because they had sulfuric acid and fire to be buried in different places and terrible things done to the girls especially and nicholas but they were so confused about what had happened of this 3c + 3 days they struggled to dispose of the bodies they contradicted themselves in different places there are different
versions of the story and they were kept in these archives. cspan: is this new information? >> guest: there are new aspects but the story is still going on because that is interesting because the bodies were found for they were buried in the family vault. but to of the bodies were missing but then grand duchess maria their bodies were never found. and just bits of skillets and retested in found to be the missing romanov. but back then soleil is of the russian federation
because it is reagin part of the of autocracy nothing was done with these body parts and now we're up to date last year president to to insecurity and the church decided they would test everything again. to exhume of children and tested the two last bodies. as we speak nothing has been announced yet but this has to do with petitions view of history as it comes up next year so we are right there now proposal that is a model something that is happening right now something is about
to happen to his view history is interesting. he regards the two worst czars of russia won the zero men of star one dash romanov czar who is regarded as the great catherine the great has a great russian statesman q perpetrate the comp country by abdicating and gorbachev is our great heroes such impressive modernizer. pcs the emperors of russia at apolitical he judges them by them success npc is
himself as a russian leader of the russian world to be judged in russian history. cspan: talk about anti-semitism and your own family, i think i read those the run either side of stolid that 1. >> stolen did hot some jewish but basically he was russian but stolid and was jewish. cspan: there is a lot of anti-semitism what is the basis? >> estrange rahman ofs was the family fetish of edison
is and then made no sense whatsoever. but they cannot quite decided they wanted to be emperor of a huge multinational multi religion empire with a different religions and faith of the jews and armenians and so on for if they wanted to be a russian czar, nationalistic czar so at this is one of the contradictions they could not quite worked out and is in the end they went for the nationalist russian rulers and they alienated which is why so many of those became the bolsheviks in the revolution.
but it was completely absurd they be guarded the jews the british and the englishman that they were the same that was all of the things that our wrong with the modern world the newspapers, stocky shanes, democracy everything that they hated once someone said about the newspaper he said distrust of bunch of jews. this is a great scene when he stays with his cousin and then was incredibly proud jewish and he had duh big jewish to was the wealthiest man in europe when and literally had him to
introduce him to make kenmore approach you wish and he was horrified and said they have a lot of jewish horse dealers staying here i am horrified i will just not state -- sale word believe that the weekend. >> >> there are many languages they think there are 45. cspan: from the premier standpoint? >> these are the books i would long to write passionately by one to produce books on the subjects based on scholarship and the archives and yet were readable by everybody. cspan: if we saw you in the archive where would it be physically? >> either of palace in
moscow or the soviet archives which is the special 1920's building in moscow walking around a palace where they actual live in jerusalem or walking around the city trying to understand how the different layers of the city were built. cspan: last time you were here we were talking about the archives blair was some inference at that time they would be close but what happened with the archives greg. >> there is a huge tightening of access it is much harder to work there now especially modern it is hard enough with the romanov archives as starting with t3 or a political archive if
they were not open to the public they will not open now. the real dark atmosphere as part of the anti-western and it was never easy to remember the first time restarted to work with catherine the great in dash started to work for the need of gathering of the documents the archivist tried to stop me went upstairs i looked at the papers there was a screaming sound something landed on my hand to let up at the archivist and she just waved at me to let me know was not welcome. cspan: how many hours had spent? >> months. but also walking around
places is important because when i was when writing about catherine the great the villages of the fate and book after book said it was fake but what i went down south to crimea to ukraine i found many of these places they are still there spirit we had talked about you had then to all 15 and all the of homes of the romanov greg. >> pretty much. there are at least 15 palaces be be more i haven't then to every single one but there are thousands if you including the of hunting lodges there are probably hundreds civic they would lead us in. >> did you need a translator
greg. >> it is a working progress but without a translator you cannot do any of the work you can get into all the places and then many of the more in english. but the german who was really english brought up in victoria and wrote a letter that is all in english it is broken english. >> time is running out but i want to show your wife was written how many novels? michelis fearlessly facing politics and life." cspan: you live-in kensington london? you have fairly high a social presence? >> we have just written our
first book together it is a children's book coming out in october. >> i will show you your better have here she is. >> i live in london here in kensington with my husband and my eight children and. >> it always wanted to write and i always did write as a child and then when i got to school to write those short stories is said darling you really should then then it was sent back to me and that was a lot of rejections then
you put them in a drawer. >> it is hilarious. >> she is sent our library talking about all of her lovely book said it is t3 complete work we married 1998. >> how does that work with both of you right to call the time greg. >> actually we work at the same table we didn't have any hopes he would be successful so we had a very small apartment and one table and the desk and free-spending our all-time arguing what type of music to listen to you she wants to listen to celine dion all the time which i could not tolerate i wanted to listen to guns and roses or louder driving music that tells me
keep up the narrative drive with the long books we argued mainly about music now we have our own offices j. gillis into all the sullying deion that she likes. >> barrett is one thing i want to bring up tell us how often did the emperor's eyes and no play with the dwarf? >> it is like the game of throne's like a tea party the dwarfs were key it signified the exceptional is some they wanted people around them that had a lot
of freaks or fools than they had dwarfs there were often like that they were the favorite people but peter the great love to have to or from weddings and giant weddings he was the character of the game of the throngs and was vindictive and had an entourage of women who were lacking at lamb's arms or legs she had fools and they can add a church had to sit on the aids and clocklike a chicken and she had another fool then he was in bed with the ejaculating goat who was the new wife and she would love that she also loved dwarf tossing and if they fight or
refuse to be tossed in verbeek in but if they did she would spoil them with new clothes and food so some of them became incredibly rich by the end of the 1740's but it is an extraordinary story where they are tossed terrible cruelty the empire with great love affairs but also a family where fathers kill sons and wives have has been murdered. >> is a family unlike any other. >> how many of the 20 that you wrote about were assassinated or killed? >> of the 126 were murdered and violently or assassinated so that gives you an idea half of them were killed so one of the thieves is russia is a very
hard country to rule and to be a star is very hard. >> should president petition be called t6? vicki should be many say he is corrupt but russians especially powerful russians say for him wealth is irrelevant everything belongs to him. cspan: who tried the most to get a democracy greg. >> alexander the second was sympathetic. >> modern-day? michelson was flawed great but for what he was a drunk terrible things redundant chechen nine but he opened russia and tried to correct an open up trade at
democracy what did he think printed would do? >> but talk about succession of earlier it is impossible to retire without being murdered it is impossible for president to retire so without agreement he had his entire entourage will not be prosecuted for the war crimes or the vast corruption. so in effect it is virtually impossible to retire that is why he did and that is why pretend collaborated he is czar we will ever give the four retired he said i will never be like gorbachev and the of the country to chaos and hooligans they were be shares and that will never abdicate.
cspan: in this c-span archives they can find another three hours of you talking about stalin and this book "the romanovs" in the year 2016 what is next? >> i have written to novels they are loved stories and thrillers and the trilogy will be lovely. >> next nonfiction greg. >> i am not sure i have signed on to write a history of the world which could be a step too far so that is in the distance. >> what you do when you're not writing and researching? >> i spent time with my wife i love the show me that video that made my whole day it cheered me at after this exhausting to were of america and now the kids are 15.
>> either one interested in writing? >> yes. both of them but to make a living it is very hard not many people get to do that i don't want to support them for any one thing another but we are both of writers if you can be a delightful person to live with. cspan: our guest is simon sebag montefiore even his family is in the book his book "the romanovs" thanks for joining us. >> guest: lovely to be here thanks for having me
all of these votes are very vital to the future of this nation in a time of turmoil and the greatest number of refugees since the end of world war ii. >> every member of this body from every republican and every democrat wants to see less gun violence. >> we must continue to work the work and end the senseless killing everywhere. >> and the resolution to impeach the commissioner. >> house resolution 828, commissioner of the internal