tv The Plots Against Hitler CSPAN November 19, 2016 9:00am-9:51am EST
george borjas discussed his research on the impact of immigration on the u.s. economy. bain capital co-founder, edward conard, argued how income inequality has contributed to economic growth. and columbia university law professor tim wu explained the way society has been affected by advertising. in the coming weeks on "after words," editor at large for the guardian, gary younge, on his investigate of violence in america. former senate majority leader george mitchell explores the potential for peace between israel and palestine. also coming up, harvard business school professor eugene soltis explores the motivation of white collar criminals. ..
the movement was established in 1938 by an officer from the german secret service. and the goal was to prevent the drifting of germany and europe to the second world war. when the war began the goal was to stop the war as soon as possible by eliminating the nazi regime and take the government and make peace. at least where they believed.
so this was a story with the conspirator. some of them very bold and creative this is a story of a very tragic failure. what i'm doing in the book is telling the story. the story is very interesting. and then besides telling the story i try to do teams or points. the motives what drives people in the peak of their career highly successful people to risk their lives in such a way as to conspire against the nazi regime. did they do it only because germany was about to use -- lose the war or did they do it
out of humanitarian reasons. there is a very big debate about that. as importantly how a secret conspiracy works. that's a major theme in this book. we are surrounded by fancy conspiracies. nothing more. but some conspiracies are real. and i think it's interesting to take a real conspiracy. i actually walks in reality. the resistance movement through the experience was led by one person he was a chief of the army general staff. until he was kicked up by hitler in 1938.
or the drifting of germany. the civilian leader walked along . it was a conservative male of the city or reside against the persecution. so this was the pair that led the resistance. the people that actually plant that each of the movements activity. there were three military leaders one after another. an officer from the german secret service. it was in beauty between 1938 to around 1942. it was kind of drifting to the margins the successor an officer .
creative men which speaks about that. in the last one did anyone watch the tom cruise movie. he doesn't like that. in the movie. a very romantic officer. a very educated man he is the most famous figure of the regime. if he tried in july 1944 to smuggle it into the headquarters the bomb exploded but hitler didn't die. the leader of the resistance stage it. they were able to occupy terrorist for a few hours with military forces and arrest all of the police in the city.
there was a strategy. it was crushed around midnight. the two leaders were shot in the movement was crushed. in 20 of july 1944. about the second it was less known but several of the most creative and interesting attempts. it was a member of the classic family. they were generals nobleman. even before it was established in 1871. a very conservative family. when they joined the army in the late 1920s he drifted
off of the regime viewed to several massacres it was known as the night. and especially the persecution of the jews. and it became anti- nazi almost officially. but then they made a crucial decision not to leave the army. they consulted with some of their friends. if you want to resist the regime stay in the army. if you want to participate you need to be armed. they remained in the army. after the second world war began they participated in the
war. he was carried by a enthusiasm for a short while. he famously said all of my doubts are despaired now. after a stunning victory full of hope we look in the future. but did the piece even come. and when the war in the east began. it was appointed with senior operations officer one of the main german protects kids it was again horrified. in the beginning he tried to focus. he took his friends and officers below him and he went together to the leader of the army and try to convince them
to go and force them to cancel it. to stop then massacre. we are 1941. if we don't succeed in persuading them to fly immediately to hitler and to bring about that. the german people will assume that they will not forget for centuries. they will be responsible. but you and i as well your wife and my wife. the old woman who just went into the store over there. the man riding his bicycle over there. in the little boy playing with the ball. think about what i just said. they continued.
and they made contact with the resistance. they volunteered to be the spirit. to rescue this monger. the attempts to do that. the idea was rather simple but in practice it was complicated. in russia the security of hitler well not do that. it's a new environment. it's a difficult environment. it's a hostile environment. and you know hitler may fear the russians but certainly not
his own officers. they fought about several ideas. the first was to put the bomb in hitler's car. it was not practical. the second idea was to shoot him through a shooting squad. they wanted him to cooperate. and then to the people decided that the only way to do that was through bomb. did anyone dream like that. people say it's very good. the plastic explosives and molded them into a square that could fit into a quattro.
and then viewing hitler he came to one of his officers and try to do that favor. i've a friend i want to give him this good alcohol. would you be so kind as to fetch and bring it to headquarters. according the testimony i waited until hitler have dismissed the officers and was about to board the plane. looking at that. i read the order to go ahead. with the help of the key and press out hard.
they boarded the plane. they were carried to the other members of his party escorted by a number of fighter planes. fate had to take its course. where i called in berlin and gave them the second cold war it's underway. after waiting more than two hours we received the shattering news that hitler and his plane landed without incident and that he have safely reached headquarters. we could not imagine what have gone wrong. and gave him the cold war for the failure of this destination. afterwards they concerned
about what their next move should be. it was bad enough. but the discovery. imagine the unsuspecting officer. the gift of alcohol and they had been discovering a bomb. they would have that. and he if him the bottom. i discovered the condition of the explosive was unchanged. carefully dismantling the bomb.
they became clear. everything but one small part have walked as expected. have been broken. they had been released instruct form. the detonator had not ignited. and it was very cold inside the plate. -- plane. the decide to do it again. it's what i'd like to call an afternoon in the museum. in this museum there wasn't exposition.
they wanted to see the expedition. it should be someone familiar with it dinner. it was right there. in his plan was to ignite the bomb secretly and then exploit while guiding in the expedition. march the 20th. in the yard of the museum. in the expedition of themselves. it has been set up in the stage. there were sustained with flowers.
it was seasonally among the waters. guarding the place day and night. and then you listen to the speech was very distracted and dreamy. then they started to take hitler into the museum but hitler instead of listening to the explanation just ran to the outside. in what started to ignite would take 20 minutes. for the bomb to explode. so he just flushed it into the toilet. so he writes. the opportunity for this. the fewest of those at least ten minutes longer if it was cold. his life was saved by last-minute change. the sophisticated security they listen to the broadcast
of the ceremony in russia and stopped watching the end. when he heard the announcer declared that he hitler have left the armory he understood that the plane could not had been completed. but he didn't give up. along with his successor. the third and finer military leader. he started to send suicide bombers. recorders of the assistance went into find the nazi officers to make preliminary conversations with them and then try to tempt them to volunteer to the resistance. and people seemed really strongly anti- nazi were recruited as suicide bombers. there wasn't a political german officer. and they have not experienced the change that in their life
in ukraine. and i'm really from the book. the former russian army base ask them where in the operation which they explained as anti- jewish measure to rick's bricks views that. after a few days 2,003,000 people were made to stand in long lines. to be killed one by one. they began a manhunt. a woman literally begged for their life but nothing they could do for them. it was my own description. they were duty-bound. and they were there. a religious life change of power.
the conspirators only to eight and a bed. but also to be the edge. the only thing they could fail to do. was to assess and help load themselves. in 1943. it was on the front. it arranged meeting. they asked the young men whether he was ready to kill hitler. yes. each was done. there was a new design of winter uniforms at the time. hitler wanted to see that. and what better. what is better than a combat officer with medals of bravery blonde and tall and they
organize that as an agent of their resistance. and then they were pointed away. but then the model was destroyed. it took a few months. they were recalled they remain neutralized to the end of the war. this time they did it for family connections. they took a young boy the land owner. one of the founders of the german resistance. and testified it was january 1944. when i received that. the agents of the resistance. telling me to report the duty. i met him in his apartment. he got straight to the point
by telling me luck. everything is in place. but we need to volunteer. are you willing to do it. he explained to them. it would have to be a sort site with them. they took those in berlin who proceeded to go there. the usual warmhearted manner and offered me a drink. we discussed the plan. give me 24 hours to think about it. i went on to brief my father. his father was one of the founders of the german resistance. now we face the decision whether to sacrifice their own son. to seek his father's advice. it was a conspiracy. he wants put his life on the line. as a the resistance aged but
would they agree to sacrifice. the father and son. according to the testimony his father paused for a moment and then advised him to go for it. if he failed to respond to sense a challenge you would never be happy again. i think you would never be happy again as well. people fall differently at the time. again the show was canceled. the last serious intent. with a very good sharpshooter. and he usually carried it. and he have a gun.
officers were allowed to carry guns. and he volunteered he would be shorting them in a moment. they were talking for the conversation you can finish this war. you can fizz dish it into one moment. he was so convincing that you just couldn't say no. and he volunteered. he was about to enter the room. carrying the gun in the pocket. then the officer grabbed him by the hands and said today no entry. in the attempt failed again. the irony of history is that most of the leaders of the resistance were there by the nazi. all of the suicide bombers stayed alive. after the war.
that was one of the true ironies. now in the last part i want to speak about not only why do they do it but to make a long story short it was a mix of the three. to save germany from destruction . in to stop the crimes. i want to speak about a different aspect of the question. the charisma and leadership. how people are influenced by leaders very charismatic way to sacrifice their life in the descriptions of this which all testify to those she was the secretary who wrote the secret order.
and testified after the war with the credible gift of connecting with you. yet something how do i put it they exercise a very strong immediate influence with their ability to convince. you trusted him. if you look at. given the book. you will see a middle age german uniform man. you wouldn't see any charisma. this is just another sign how difficult it is to transfer the power across space and time. a person would be very charismatic.
they would be ridiculous in another setting. let's say if we stuck to harvard. what is it all about. and i think it's about several things. so is the element that we cannot reconstruct the way people dress, the way people look. the voice expression i think that is what they talked about. they tried to convey something that was very clear for her but was not clear to anyone who not been there. but that is only one aspect of charisma. another aspect is your character. who deeply cared about the officer. he asked about the domestic war.
and in the very german army this is very rare. it is still not enough. i think the final key point of revolution you saw that your problems for your audience. usually some kind of contradiction that you're trying to solve. you fear the answer if it speaks with you about something you don't really care about. you will not listen. and needs to be something that you already think about that you cannot find the right words. and there is the charismatic leader. for officers who belong to the german resistance movement.
sizing your government in wartime. how can one be an anti- nazi and still be a patriotic german. how can one do that with military values. in these people cared a lot about the army. and what they've seen. the press corps failed. and when you see his letter you see that one day he sent to his son. a letter praising the military values just the next day he talked while of these. one is to resort to action very means. lifted throw away everything we learned from our forefathers about the honor of
the german soldier and once all property, families in the honor of our class. he also said why are skills matter when they are being used in the service like this. and for this dilemma for his people into main ways. first of all his behavior. is behavior. they lead by example. in his example was very controversial bold viewing it. it was to fight hitler and fight the soviet army. he was a dedicated officer. he did his duty at the front.
and he gave to all of his meant example. it's possible. it's like walking into very demeaning jobs. it's not easy to live and lead by example like this. the second thing is more value and more integrity to all of these people. so if you are a german patriot and a nationalist even. you have to uphold the country and the moral integrity of the country if the country would be occupied. because morality they have that. whether just gauge that. they knew it wouldn't gain anything. regardless of who is in power.
and the press corps towards its people. it must take place with what it's made. even if it does not succeed. it must be attempted. it is not practical but to prove to the world and before history. that they take their life on the line. in the third issue which i find the most interesting and the conversations he took of the concept of an enemy that every soldier new it's clear that they are the enemy. it defines hitler as an extension of the enemy it's actually there. and every soldier knows what needs to fight the enemy. he took the soldier values is
the biggest danger to the nation. no matter how you look at it and talk about it. you must perish. we have no choice. and after they failed. they told their friends he is about to take his own life to make a suicide. and he said i don't want to let the enemy and the pleasure of taking their life. and it is the nazi -- nazi regime. and i think this dilemma in the way they led the other he said in his last speech before he opened a hand grenade on himself now he said the nazis well all fall upon us.
i'm convinced now is much as ever that we have have done the right thing. and i believe that hitler will be the archenemy not only of germany but of the entire war. in a few hours time i will answer for both my actions and the things i neglected to do. an officer of the eastern part. i have to take responsibility for some war crimes. i think he said i came with a clear conscience standby all i've done against hitler. just as god once promised abraham that he would sprayer them. for our sake you will not destroy germany. they cannot complain about the death.
i think it's relatively found. bribed the general. he left some new people participate in his crimes that they knew they don't have any reason to overtake him. he gave a lot of start with the presence. the people who resisted where a very small minority to be clear. and when they took place in july 1944. the army questioned them even before that. so i think hitler did much better than other dictators who anchored 70 people they don't anchor too many people. my memory serves the german army has taken a personal oath.
>> from the top. to the bottom they were very disturbed. they felt duty-bound. it was an oath. what they said. with the execution. nobody is been duty-bound to being duty-bound to keep the oath any longer. they actually set explicitly in the speech with that nation. you said that they have stopped those.
do they want to stop the holocaust too. we have not only statements about it which are plenty but in 1944. they gave orders to the district they have immediately after. of the government ministers was to occupy the concentration camps. and can find the guards. and release of the prisoners. is there a religious element in the belief of the conspirators and how did they fight each other. there was a very strong religious element. almost all of them were deeply religious men and women. even socially which
participated in the conspiracy became more and more religious gradually. i would say even the commoners took part. it is a kind of religion. in order to resist the modern state you need something higher than the state. i think god is a that is a very good choice. it was usually by the family connections. this is how the resistance actually compared.
so normal friendly connections transform into authorities. it has to begin with friends or family. that's how we usually work. there also recruiters. but they stuck with people. it was just a massacre. the reason that there were so many there. was not because they resisted hitler. it was because the founders were there. and the people tended to be from their own class. >> are there any more questions quacks quacks.
>> there was a civilian wing into the movement. it was very important. what these people did was negotiate with the western arabs. even the postmaster was named. and then devising the constitution. they were very much involved in the military planning as well. it is a very good question. they very wisely subjected his army to the political asylum. so there are trying to re-
shatter the army in the way that will prevent the future. this is extremely effective. the only problem is it involves for example the promotion. they are so talented in making that. you want people who are lawyers even if you're stupid. you do want information to float too much inside the army. you want to know everything. so an army which is corporal is very bad in the conventional way. and i think they invaded syria right at the moment when his army was the least concerned for such a war. it can be a tragedy and a disaster.
>> how did you personally get started in this direction of study and research. >> i looked for subjects in high school term paper and i wanted to walk on the rise of national socialism but i saw some sony people wrote about some he thinks and then i encountered the story of the resistance. in several books. and at the time if anybody had read of the classic book. they treated them very shabby. as people had tried that. it was unfair. of course my view became more complicated. it was a same question in high
school. all of the historians they mismanaged the resistance. what if they manage that better. >> was that just the ending of the german resistance. the military leader. they had staged it. they declare the new government and gave orders to arrest all of them throughout germany. they came into the open. they beckoned them. i was sure at the same night. and the other arrested them in
one case at least entirely. that they were able to find. the diaries of them included code names but they were very clumsy. my favorite example they were the chief of police. in one of the diaries they are consistently mentioned. is it dark down. i would be able to break these codes. it was not difficult to find the and very few were able to survive. one of them was in there. it was one of the reasons we know so much and all the suicide bombers which never sought to remain.
>> it sounds like the military high-ranking officials in the concentration camps did you also know about that death camp. certainly people in high rank and the people and the leaders of the army did not know that. less with that. it was really under the jurisdiction. in the russian army. and sometimes soldiers were in here actively. it was condemned by some historians that a few days before fourth of july before that happened children for