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tv   Discussion Examines Security Challenges in Latin America  CSPAN  December 16, 2016 12:00pm-2:01pm EST

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decisions. there's a whole line of people who contribute to this. it is very well thought out. the recommendations the doj makes as well as in the white house and the president. i think when you're talking about clemency and pardon see, it's a very individual individual decision. i think will be hard to craft system for blanket commutation of a group of people. we look at the situations where people were held accountable for their behavior. this is not a blanket approval for what got them there in the first place, but how have they handled themselves while incarcerated. what what length of sentence did they receive. is it a sense they would likely receive today and how we look at these type of offensive and just being very careful about how we review these matters. i have a great deal of respect to josh use a tremendous asset
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of yours at the department of justice and he works with us and we are happy to have him there. >> we are happy to have his help as well. >> as well as all the members of the media who work with us. i think it's an important role that you play. i still believe that as we look at how we have tried to look at the entire criminal justice system and make it more fair, the focus has been on giving prosecutors at this aggression that they need to provide individual accountability for people and give them the tools and flexibility to make sure people are held accountable but that it's consistent in their role of the offense. that carries forward and how we review clemency and pardons. >> what is your relationship like with obama? do you speak to him on a regular basis? >> take us behind the scene. you are both lawyers so you're both very smart people who graduated harvard law school. tell us about that.
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>> what i can tell you is it is very gratifying to work for president who is thoughtful, who considers issues deeply, who cares deeply about the human and personal side of every issue that i have presented before him. : what difference will make in the lives of people. i've watched him hold meetings on policing issues with community members, with a law-enforcement leaders,
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leaders, with elected officials. and everyone in the room has a chance to speak and felt listened to, and everyone's voice was taken into account in the final version of work that we all turn to later. so i think that has been a tremendous asset certainly to me as a cabinet member. i think it is something the american people have benefited from a greatly. that you can never have someone who cared too much. but is also want to make the hard decisions and to look at policy and say not just why is this how we done before for years but why are we doing it this way? is it the right way to do this and is it the right thing to do? >> i was just going to say, you talk about the independence of the justice department. justice department took a pretty big role in the 2016th election -- >> more than you would like to the fbi director discuss the investigation into one of the candidates, hillary clinton,
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weeks before the election. do you think he impacted the election? >> i will have to leave that to the analyst and the pundits to review because there's a lot of study going on on a whole host of factors in this election because so many things that i think people viewed from a statistical advantage point, for example, turned out to be different. and so there will be a lot of discussion about that, a lot of analysis about that. i am not in a position to say at this point what weighs in one way or the other. so i will let people analyze that. what i can say about the whole matter is that throughout the consideration of the investigation that was under discussion, took great steps to try to make sure that the independent team of career prosecutors and agents were able to do their work freely, without any interference from anyone really and just make their recommendations. we reported those out. and so there are times i think when people will try to be more
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transparent than we often are about that and provide more information about that so people can understand the process and how that worked out i think it's also been played out in the public discourse to a great degree so i will leave that for the analysts to decide as a. >> do you wish he had not said anything or do you have any thoughts about that? >> i think we have to look and see what have we learned from that in terms of handling these matters going forward. >> is there any after-action reports that justice department is doing and how that was handled? whether it impacted the election is up for debate but is in report on just how everything went down? >> i wouldn't go into what we're doing in terms of reports or writings or discussions. i don't do that in general so i won't comment on that for this matter as well. what i can say is the focus has been and always was and will continue to be on making sure that it's the work of the department, and that' that the e
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there who work on these matters are the ones who are going to be giving us information we need to make the final decisions. >> we will get the hook and a couple of minutes. talk about kind of, what has surprised you most about this job? a career prosecutor, someone someone who's been around this line of work for a long time, what is been the most surprising thing? >> i'm not sure so sure that, i think we did you expected it all come right? >> no. there's no way you can anticipate everything that happens in the day of the life of an attorney general. every day is so different. but everything is so incredibly rewarding. the people dedicate to work with, from the intelligence community, from the law enforcement agencies that are part of the department, from the local law enforcement agencies that we work with so closely. what i would say is, i wouldn't say it's a surprise. the most gratifying has been is to see even though i was a u.s. attorney and field but to see the larger role of the
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department in the lives of the american people. that's been tremendously gratifying, to be able to go out to the west coast and talk to local law enforcement officers who are on human trafficking task force with the fbi, for example, at talk about the grant money we give them and hear them say what a difference it has made in the human trafficking victims they been able to rescue. to hear that and to see that has been wonderful. doctor prosecutors across the country from different officers who have different issues and priorities, maybe that my old office and to hear and see the same dedication has been just incredibly gratifying. to be able to talk to local law enforcement agencies and provide them with body cameras, for example, and hear them say what a difference it has made in policing on the streets in how they interact with civilians, and watch them interact with the
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young people, to talk to a police department about setting up a youth advisory council and then come back to them several months later and say, and they say we did that and it has helped us or it is change the way in which we police and we now know the kids and we have a positive relationship with more of the youth. to see that kind of work going on just me tremendous faith in this country, and the american people, and people who care about these issues. and as the attorney general to be able to see the results of the policies you put in place has been outstanding. >> what is after you focus on the left him and is a virginia, but what's next for you? will you be staying in washington? can you give us any preview about where you will be? taking a big vacation somewhere? turning your phone off? >> at this point we are committed to running through the tape as the president has asked us.
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we still have a host of things we're working on and we're looking to resolve in the weeks ahead. we are confident we can, that we can do that. and continuing raising the important issues that we've been working on. like so many people i will be decompressing for a while after the administration is over, and then deciding where to go and what to do. one of the benefits also a being of the attorney general is seeing the tremendous variety of commitment out there in the field, and knowing that i'll be able to continue working on the issues that are important to me. >> what is the single think of the decompression, are you going to turn your blackberry often not answer everyday? >> i'm not going to encourage the destruction of property. >> especially not company property. >> not before january 20. so i can't encourage a bad, that sort of thing. i will just be decompressing and having some quiet time and then
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deciding what to do next. but when i left the administration before, before i ended up staying in new york, was able to work on a number of things that were of great importance to me in terms of public service. and there's so many wonderful things that people can do and i'm looking for to exploi explat as well speak with great. take it so much, attorney general, for sharing your unique story and thoughts about the accomplishments and what is left to come at the doj. thank all of you for joining us here in our audience and our live stream and c-span. and thank you once again to bank of america for your tremendous partnership of the playbook series and we hope to see you again tomorrow afternoon back here for our last playbook event of the year where we have cocktails with currencies sean fraser. thank you so much. [applause] [inaudible conversations]
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>> asked that if it's come to the close we go live to a discussion on security issues in latin america. expected topics include the threat of organized crime, terrorism, migration and economic development. a panel will look at current and future trends as well as regional and global policy implications. from the potomac institute for policy studies, life, june c-span2, and it should start in just a moment. [inaudible conversations]
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>> once again where life at the potomac institute for policy studies for a discussion on security issues in latin america. with topics including threat of organized crime, terrorism and immigration among others. this should start just a moment. live coverage here on c-span2. [inaudible conversations]
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[inaudible conversations] [inaudible conversations] >> it appears it's going to be a couple of minutes before this discussion on security issues in latin america gets underway.
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>> okay. well, i think we ought to get started here. looks like the weather perhaps has held a few people back, but we have come in my humble opinion, a superb group of people to meet with you here today, and to talk and update as all on latin america and what the situation looks like and what some of the real challenges are. it's interesting interesting, wo back, i remember about 18 years ago or so when we undertook a massive counterterrorism type effort, a big study on both the national and international and the regional security concerns and the like. and out of that one of the big studies was on latin america. and if you read through that report and the like in 1999, while some things have changed,
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i was talking to some of our colleagues here earlier, some things have changed. the situation is certainly better in peru, and it has certainly optimistic potential in columbia and the like. in some ways the situation in venezuela is not even as good as it was then. so many of the thoughts that came out then are applicable today. that sort of the way it is. so sometimes i guess it's a good idea to review our history and know where we have been so we can talk about the future. but at any rate enough of that. jonahyonah, let's get started. it's your privilege to introduce our super guest program. are you ready? >> make it quick now. >> can i have three minutes? okay. well, it will take th me more tn three minutes to introduce our
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distinguished panel panel, but e good news is about we distributed the bios so you can look at this for some details. first of all, i will follow what the general said. i will introduce first the panel, then i will follow with a few footnotes. after all, i'm trying trying to be an academic. but so next to the general we have professor margaret, well-known but i just will mention one or two highlights. she's a former director of the center for defense studies at the national defense university, very distinguished institution.
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also she was a staff member u.s. senate foreign relations committee and had a very distinguished academic experience as, at the center for naval analysis, and also a professor now at georgetown, and she also served at the johns hopkins university, and so forth. and she has a wide range i think of issues that she dealt with over the years, all the way from the security sector reform, military civilian relations, the peace processes, humanitarian issue. these are some of the issues that obviously will come up today. she was educated in indiana
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university with a ph.d, and northwestern, great institution. next to her i will call her doctor negroponte, who was also educated at au law school, and also georgetown and elsewhere, the school of economics, et cetera as i said they can read your background later, but what is really important, she worked on many of the issues. mexico, central america and so forth. and i understand maybe it's a secret but she is writing a book on jim baker, with the cold war with i think there are many important lessons to learn.
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we look forward to read the book. next to her is our colleague -- incidentally we have three lawyers so we have to be very careful what we are saying, but in the interest of transparency, also diana is a lawyer. bruce is a lawyer, a distinguished lawyer, a partner at a law firm, and specializing in international criminal law, enforcement aspects actually we discussed his subject today and i think he will focus more on international cooperation of law enforcement and so forth. so he has a wide experience of practice in latin america with individuals, entities and governments, and around the
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world, is very distinguished i think scholar, very prolific, and currently is also the editor of the international enforcement law reporter. next to him is another lawyer, but a friend, a close friend from spain, with whom we have the honor to work on some of the issues related to the challenges in spain but also i think the relations in latin america. and he was a governor, et cetera, but also he's involved in some legal related to latin america, first the latin america bank, development bank, and currently is providing
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consulting services. so these are the four speakers, but we do have of course general gray who made very brief opening remarks, but wait for his closing remarks. but at any rate, professor wallace was the chairman of the international law institute. professor at georgetown law school and so on, and our colleague for many years, very distinguished background. you can read all about it. so i think we have a terrific panel. we have also a very knowledgeable audience of scholars, academics, government officials will contribute to our
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dialogue today, and we are very grateful to them. we are also appreciative to susan for recording -- to c-span for recording the broadcasting of our discussion because to make sure that we're dealing with credible information that at the time when journalists and the media are struggling with fake information, so-called information propaganda, whatever one wants to call it. so we are grateful again for c-span for bringing this event to the attention of audiences across united states and the world. now, the purpose of this seminar again is to deal with multiple challenges, security challenges,
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depends on definition, what does it mean security? again, general gray referred to somesome, but it goes all the wy from organized crime to terrorism. again all the way to organized groups like the farc and so on. and, obviously, state-sponsored terrorism, terrorism that we are going to deal with and so on here and besides that, obviously you will have a question of migration, sometimes called refugees but migration i think is more appropriate. economic development, humanitarian issues, and also the interregional links between latin america to africa in terms
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of narco trafficking, all volunteers, so-called volunteers of quote-unquote fighters or terrorists who are joining the islamic state of al-qaeda and, obviously, we can go into some of these details. if i may, general, just for transparency and to provide a general context, i would like to mention very humbly that since the 1950s, particularly as the outcome of the so-called cuban revolution under the leadership of castro, at that time i was a graduate school at colombia university, and then 30 cuban missile crisis, one of our
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distinguished colleagues, doctor ray cline, was deputy cia director. he actually briefed our president john kennedy to show the evidence, the sort of russians involvement at that time in cuba. and subsequently i was fortunate to work with him on the involvement of the soviet union in latin america, roots of which go back to the 1930s. and activities of the cubans, for example, in africa and elsewhere. so this was one experience in regard to cuba and i'm sure that each of cuba is going to be discussed, particularly as a result of the new administration
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that will have to deal with the cuban relations, american relations. the second experience i would like to mention is argentina, very briefly. all the way from the dirty war between 1976-1983, about seven years, for our young i think students here who may not be familiar about that. and i think it's important to look at that background in terms of the lessons learned. in other words, the program at the time was the so-called rebels of terrorists dissidents that were conducted by the government, forces at the time, the disappearances, the torture, and other practices and massive
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violations of human civil rights. and so forth. so i think why is a look at that particular lesson, and then i, on a personal level, a professional academic, i had opportunity to be involved in the investigation of the attack on the jewish center in buenos aires in 1994, the so-called -- attack. 85 people were killed, more than 100 people were injured, but the point is both the hezbollah and iran were involved. and the story is not over even two decades right along with the prosecutor, for example, a few years ago, three years ago or so, or two years ago was
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assassinated, alberto. so that particular event is not concluded. the other experience that i think we have to deal with and, of course, the general mentioned is a the colombia. the bad news is that it was actually a battle for about half a century. the good news is, of course the president sent as just a few days ago, received the peace prize, the conclusion of that terrible war in colombia. ..
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with that, it's a broad broad outline, i would like to begin to discuss the challenges, the security challenges in latin america and asked them to provide some general overview. would you like to come here or whatever is more convenient for you. okay. >> first of all, thank you very much for the invitation to participate in this discussion because, i sometimes fear that
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the kind of attention, the quality of attention that is given to the latin american region by our government and by our population is way below what needs to be paid. certainly i fear that may be the case in the incoming administration. i would take a point of difference with you, professor alexander, and perhaps with the title of the seminar. i am not sure that the passing of fidel castro will have much difference, make much difference in the region. cuba has its own problems, it is going to have to deal very definitely with an underperforming economy, with a
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new government, and the question comes, not right now, but once raul castro castro passes from the scene. what happens to the internal politics within cuba. the rest of the hemisphere does suffer from some profound insecurities, many of which were listed, itemized in the 2003 multidimensional security declaration which sought to bring attention to the human security side of the security equation. the rights of personnel, the need for safety and community and so forth. i think the insecurity, or what
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i call the insecurities of the region are the ones that are going to be of concern in the region and to which we need to pay attention. obviously, drug trafficking is one transnational organized crime that facilitates drug trafficking, but also the profound, and we are seeing more and more profound corruption in many of the governments, the failure of their legal institutions really to function efficiently, effectively well, the failure of government to exercise the basic tasks of managing financial sector, providing education and health and transportation, encouraging
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good jobs and so forth are the things that really are going to plague the region. i think the place we need to put a lot of attention is the focus on governance, the world bank many years ago undertook to try to understand why, with all the money that the bank was putting into africa, countries didn't develop. they came out with a very good document, this was a long time ago, 1992 called governments and development, but we haven't gone very much beyond the document there. what is government? what is governance? the procedures, the organization, the rules, regulation, laws that yield good results in the execution of tasks of government
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in the economic efficient employment of national resources , and governance, management in the public sector, rules that people followed and effectively limit or promote activities. the services that the state requires. one of the problems of the latin american region is that the crime and violence, the corruption, the impunity is contributing to what i will call community decay, separation of families. one of the reason there are so many gangs and gangs are the family for young people in central america or in the slums
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of rio, it's because their parents, their aunts and uncles have left for the united states to get a job when jobs are not available in their country. the central bank of el salvador, several years ago did a survey and found that young people, teenagers main goal as they looked forward was to leave el salvador and go to another country, go to the united states, especially in order to get a job, get away from whatever their environment was providing, but this community decay, the fact that the people don't trust the police, the fact that the police are so ill-prepared, even resourced and
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trained, the countries are calling in the military, without training them in urban operations as we had to learn in the united states. this trust decay, family decay contributes to lack of trust in the state, lack of trust in your neighbors and so forth and is leading to the formation of substitute families, gangs in many of these cities, in particular the availability of the gang organization is leading to contributing to drug trafficking, to profound extortion, particularly central
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america, many of you have seen the 2-penny gang story in the new york times or the washington post recently on the extortion, describing the activities, the extortion activities of gangs in central america. but governments are not providing, donor institutions are seeking to provide community activities that will provide an alternative life for some of these youth but the governance themselves, because they are largely ineffective are not necessarily adopting some of the suggestions that usaid, the
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development bank and others are suggesting. there have been some good stories on the u.s. border of mexico has had kind of a resurgent, a mayor who took it upon himself, really addressed the problems of local community coordination and looking out for activities in the different parts of the community, and resolved a good bit of the gang violence in that community, but they are far too few of this kind of activity. because of the violence, neither the local elite nor the international community is investing in the region. if you don't have jobs and the
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family doesn't have jobs, the parents leave, the kids want to leave in order to join their families, i don't know many of you may think back to the time that i served in the foreign relations community, we had the caribbean basin initiative which was intended to stimulate international investment in central america, the caribbean and so forth. there was a time that all your t-shirts were made in haiti, but it was a brief time and because of violence, because of lack of good government, the industry's have left, and they're not going to go back unless countries are going to be able to resolve some of their problems.
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there are some good things that we need to talk about. first of all, the countries are beginning to cooperate amongst each other, central americans have signed the alliance for prosperity in the northern triangle which is hopefully going to promote the coordination of efforts, particularly economic economic efforts, but border control efforts, law enforcement efforts amongst the three countries and begin to put down the level of violence, the volume of drugs that move through the regions and so forth. i'm reminded that general keane who was the u.s. southern command in the u.s.
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representative in haiti after the earthquake, as a result of his experience, the new c2 is coordination, collaboration. i think that's a good way to think about what these generally poorly integrated countries are beginning to do and beginning to see that they need to do. they are also working on the military side, there is quite a bit of collaboration as we saw in response to the haiti earthquake, all the sudden peru and chile are holding long-term enemies, they are holding disaster response exercises jointly, that is very positive. where the militaries are cooperating much more, other
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areas of government, the police, the courts, the border control are not doing nearly enough and we need to see more of that. i think we also need to look at what's going on that's bad and what's good. i already mentioned venezuela. how are they after -- how are they going to put the country back together again, how do you put humpty humpty back together again when the government has totally undermined the legal tradition and change the laws and so forth.
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i have special interest in what's going on in brazil, but the endemic corruption that has occurred in the brazilian government needs to be ended by the very people who are profiting and taking advantage of opportunities of corruption, i.e. the legislators, the politicians and so forth. this is going to be hard. central america is obviously a problem. we government, corruption, impunity and so forth. the colombian peace process is a positive. columbia has one of the stronger governments, unfortunately that government doesn't do very well getting out of the main cities. it has to extend the capacity of
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the state to remote areas. it was fascinating that the referendum in support of the peace accord was defeated by low turnout in precisely the areas of the country where support for peace and an end of violence were the highest. there were also the areas of the country where the government reached less well or not at all. you mentioned argentina and its dirty work, but i think that is something that has passed in argentina. argentina, chile, both country with military dictatorship that were particularly nasty probably have some of the best chances to
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reestablish good and effective government. it won't be easy to do. there is a lot of work to be done, but there is positive movement and there is some foundation on which to build in these countries, with respect to argentina specifically, i will tell a funny story and that is i once asked an argentine economist working at the world bank ,-comma what do you learn in primary and secondary school about how democracy, how your government ought to work. what are the responsibilities ,-comma what are the rules? in this individual chuckled and
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said you know, i think we shot all those professors, but i think the question is something we all ought to ask as we do with the region. what do young people, whether they're in good schools are bad schools ,-comma what do they learn about how government should perform, what the the responsibilities of government are and what the responsibilities of citizens are. i think, without that glue of faith in your government and good performance on the part of your government, it's going to be very hard to deal with the questions of transnational organized crime, of gang violence, and et cetera. i think we also need to be quite
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aware that, an an awful lot of the moneymaking traffic is moving toward the united states. in the form of marijuana and cocaine, increasingly, heroin and the arms trade goes the opposite direction. we are contributing part to this we have, for that reason, an obligation to participate to do what we can. they are problems that don't just deal with controlling gang violence or transnational organized crime. they are problems that most profoundly are related to the poor, the ineffective government
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and rule of law that exists in many of the countries. thank you very much. >> thank you for providing, trying to focus on the children to develop education because in the final space in the children, we can see what's happening with the terrible tragedies elsewhere , the children in refugee camps today, they turn
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to the gang because of this. >> because they have no other skill. >> i'm delighted, we are going to move on obviously there are lots of issues but we will come back to a discussion, i think we move on to our next speaker right here, you can speak about any related issue. >> thank you very much and thank you for it to be participating in the panel. today i am going to return to your theme. challenges an opportunity in the castro era, i'm going to raise this in the context of venezuela it has become a cuban security.
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we do cuban provided military intelligence. doctors, nurses and the existence of the state and the problem it causes for the venezuelan people. how does cuba and venezuela, how does a single country separate and what was there long creation
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of this security state, how is it unraveling today. third, what options are there for the venezuelan people themselves to undo repair in the political and economic situation, and what's the role of the international community including the united states? i must give you some background and allow me to be very brief because i only have ten minutes and i really want to focus on the issue. when chavez was elected, this is who go chavez, when he is elected into office in 1999, he introduces socialism. that is that the state is dedicated to bring about greater equality to trumps farewell from the richest to the poor in housing, and transportation, and
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medical help and education so that those who were deprived in previous decades will be able to assert their rights as venezuelan people. he died in 2014 and is succeeded by the cuban selected air nicholas, a former union leader in the bus company, but a but a man who had been trained politically in havana. he had neither the charisma nor the smarts nor any economic basis on which to lead the venezuelan people. so today, we have inflation according to the imf at 180%.
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the imf anticipate that with inflation in november of last month at 58%, the inflation rate for next year will be over 600%, and all of us can recall from our history the impact that that had in germany and the republic and the lack of support of ordinary venezuelan citizens or trust in their government. in the political round, a divided opposition decided not to participate in legislature elections which meant that the chavez party could take control of the legislature and with that control stack the supreme court and the electoral tribunal. the result is that central
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control, created by chavez, inherited and now faced with both political and economic crisis. political crisis is that the opposition, exactly a year ago december 15, 2015 wanted to third majorities in the national assembly, enabling these diverse parties to unite, unusual, but they did with the demand for a recall referendum or what will we would call in peach. the president resisted, the president used the supreme court to deny that referendum on grounds of fraud and despite the fact that the opposition to succeeded in getting 1.8 million 8 million votes in favor of this
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recall referendum, the supreme court has denied it. the electoral tribunal has not only denied that referendum, but has denied the elections this month for mayors and state governments. in other words, legislative participation and electoral democracy is dead in venezuela. food is very short. , medicines are not too be found they guard the hospital so that any new medication and antibiotics, anesthesia can be stolen and resold outside. the venezuelan people are
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suffering to a degree different from syria but equivalent in terms of human suffering. violence now has an intentional homicide rate of 90. 100,000 which is the worst in the world except for syria and it compares to several years ago when it was only eight to ten people. 100,000. in other words, the venezuelan state has collapsed. what does the cuban leadership who declared we are a single government, a single, it savored them in 2,007,007 because subsidized oil enabled the cuban
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economy to be able to run. that subsidized oil no longer arrives in the quantity it was used to. in 2008 it was 115,000 barrels. day. today it is 55000 barrels. day. the last venezuelan tanker to dock at the port and unload oil was august and the cuban leadership has recognized, venezuela can no longer be helpful to us so it is demanding its doctors and nurses return and it is separating itself from the doomed venezuelan economy and state. when fidel castro died, raul
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attended the funeral and he sat on raul's laughed and cried. he then said, we, the the venezuelan people will continue on his work. the socialist revolution will continue. i wonder what with. as we see cuba separate itself from venezuela and shift towards a reliance on american tourism and international investment, we ask what can and what are the venezuelan people doing to resolve the situation. here is a big question. there are those who believe that once again the students should
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go back into the street to demonstrate come out venezuelan should go back to demonstrate and there is this more violent wing among the opposition who would like to bring down the regime through public demonstration. it risks violence on a huge scale because they not only have the national guard, the military military and the police, but it also has young men and women who put on a uniform for the occasion and take out their motorbike and/and murder and violence is widespread. there is a hope, they will not
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allow this violence to take place, they will stop them and restrain the police and they are trying to achieve some, but the leadership have become corrupted by participation in drug trade so they are now participants in the transport of cocaine and heroin on heroin and marijuana and meth. there's no guarantee that the senior levels were actually work with restraint. there are those who believe
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discussion and dialogue is the only way forward. they have been helped by the vatican to enter into negotiations with the opposition they demanded two things. one was the constitution know right for referendum and the second was release of prisoners. those numbers are now in the hundreds. many of them were hauled into jail for only three or four days but they are treated in such inhumane ways that when release, they we retreat to the family and their homes, fearful of being exposed once again to that brutality. while you have this moderation
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wing which has, since october 20 been participating in negotiations, brokered by former presidents in the republican panama, those negotiations have gone nowhere. they have stalled at each point such that earlier this week the opposition said it's not worth us remaining at the table. we will not participate in next tuesday they've agreed to keep the table open until january which conveniently is seven days after the constitutional deadline for recall referendum. after that date it will take leadership and move toward the
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next presidential election. in other words, they have a way of protecting the regime even if he has to step aside which suggest it's the regime clinging to power because once it loses the immunity from prosecution from government officials, they are exposed to cases, criminal cases for drug trafficking, for abuse of human rights and for other international crime. what is the international community doing? the argentinians have taken the lead. they have said to venezuela, you are no longer acceptable in the grouping of south american country. your presidency is suspended and we are assuming that.
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when the foreign minister appeared this week in buens aires to resume, she was not allowed in the room. no one can see the floor or her on the floor but there's no doubt there is pressure on her to move away from the room where she was meeting and she was rejected. nicaragua remains a friend. bolivia remains a friend, but neither country is in a capacity to support the economy as it goes through the spiraling downturn. so finally, what should we, in the united states ,-comma what could president-elect trump do? i would suggest that in the same
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way he had a telephone call, the president, this is the time for a leadership call to the venezuelan opposition. it's the time for stating u.s. support to the opposition knowing that they will use it to say the united states is conniving with the opposition, but to state that we stand for something and that the maltreatment of citizens, the humanitarian crisis is not something that we can tolerate. our secretary of state of act knows the situation, they have reneged and they won a suit for damages to the amount of $1.4 billion.
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we have a president-elect and we need to wake people up. that is my word and i look forward to questions later. [applause] >> i think you touched on a very important case. obviously, there are questions not only visibly or in the country itself, but globally and
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iran develop the base in venezuela for many years, but any rate we will come back to it now and will move on. you have good news for us? >> i have mixed news but first, thank you for the invitation. it's an honor and pleasure to be here. but i want to do is talk about several issues. i want talk about some of the issues of transnational organized crime, arms, drugs, migration and touch on the geographical issues and then focus on the need to build a better hemispheric framework for international enforcement cooperation.
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it is challenging for the new administration because of the campaign discussion of tougher border walls and some of the derogatory remarks of mexicans and the need to re- negotiate nafta and some of the discussion about free trade. i think, at the beginning of the administration it would be good for the new administration to call the leaders together and to sit down and listen to them and have a dialogue about what is needed in terms of hemispheric security and all the other issues. let me now focus on some of the issues starting with arms. we have already heard about the arms problem in the u.s. the
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u.s. is clearly the leading source of arms not only in the hemisphere, but in the world. there have been two important treaties, the 1997 inter-american convention against the illicit manufacturing and trafficking and firearms ammunition explosives and other related materials and 20 countries, 22 latin american and caribbean countries have ratified the u.s. signed in 1997. it was sent to the senate and has been sitting there. you also have the un arms trade treaty of april 2013. twenty hemisphere countries have signed that. that treaty, by the way pertains to trade in conventional arms from small arms to battle tanks,
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combat air craft, it entered into force on december 24, 2014. the u.s. signed, but again the senate has done nothing. drugs are problem. one initiative of many countries in the region, including the u.s. is to find ways for non- incarceration treatment of people who just use drugs. including the oas itself. i think more needs to be done atmospherically in terms of exploring that initiative and the u.s. needs to do more with respect to the demand side of drugs. in terms of migration, there has
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been some good initiatives already. there is a reference to the alliance for prosperity, the u.s. and the countries in central america have had a very broad public education campaign, and also there have been changes in the laws. for instance, now if you want to apply for asylum, you don't have to come here to do that. you can do that from those countries. that is an effort to reduce the amount of migration because that's where a lot of people are kidnapped, killed, but there's also a lot of interplay between the cartel. first it was drugs, but now there are a lot of trafficking of persons, and all kinds of
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other crimes. one of the initiatives that was useful, that was done in the clinton administration was the use of sanctions against both transnational organized crime and against kingpins. one thing that could be tried as more effort to get other countries to go along with those sanctions so that it's not just unilateral. okay, let me quickly, while one other thing i want to say about migration, first of all it's a problem in the hemisphere, the fact that the u.s. hasn't had comprehensive immigration policy for the longest time.
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another problem with respect to security has been that there has been a lot of deportation of hardened criminals and it has happened in most cases without any notice and without any planning. when you dump 200 or thousand hardened criminals on fragile states that have no capacity to deal with them ,-comma what happens is these criminals who haven't even been in these countries for most of their lives, they end up doing more violence and they transfer their know-how to their friends, and guess what, not only does it destabilize those countries, but because they know the u.s., they
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often target their criminality back to the u.s. whether it's trafficking humans, stolen or embezzled cars in aircraft, drug trafficking, et cetera. the u.s. needs to do more of what it's done with haiti. with haiti, it notified haiti and it helped 80 mitigate and plan for the persons at the ports. well, looking at a couple of the countries, because this panel is entitled challenges and opportunities in a post- castro era, i think i need to say a few words about the u.s. relationship with cuba. one of the biggest problems for
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the u.s. in the region has been that at every regional meeting the number one question has to do with cuba and the fact that cuba has been isolated. that has changed since december december 17, 2014. there has been 11 agreements that have been gone before the u.s. and cuba dealing with everything from narcotics enforcement to migration and the environment. even before the new initiative, historically relations between cuba and the u.s., when they have improved her some sometimes they've had to do with the same issues where they've had to do with exchange of hijackers and
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spies and exchange of political prisoners so in two very positive developments between the u.s. and cuba, cuba has been in the forefront of dealing with security in that cuba has sponsored the talks in columbia. in addition, cuba has been very helpful with respect to haiti and the earthquakes and so forth. cuba has used their doctors to give a lot of assistance. with respect, well, i think because of the shortage of time, let me turn now to the need for better hemispheric framework in terms of enforcement.
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here, clearly the most important body has been the organization of american states. there has been a group called the inter-american committee that meets twice a year to make recommendations on laws and policies, there has been, in the past ten or 15 years a new group , basically the attorneys general are ministers of justice, they meet every other year and they make recommendations for new agreements and policies and they have done a lot of good work, but the problem is it's not an organic organization. it depends on the permanent
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council for its marching orders, for the council to draft, for its budget and so, it really can't do much. some of the other entities having to do with enforcement in the oas are more organic like the inter-american drug abuse control commission or the organization for counterterrorism. what is needed is in america's committee on crime problems. this would be a committee that would have its own institution and would be composed of lawyers, diplomats, criminologists and it would meet every day and it would consider all the threats and some of the solutions, whether their uniform
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laws, treaties, different organizations and this isn't something out of mars, there has been something like this since 1958. the council of europe has a european committee on crime problems and that's what it does. it meets every day and it focuses on the different threats it has produced over 100 conventions on enforcement, many of which the u.s. has become a part of. so, too be successful, the enforcement agencies have to network as well as the criminale successful enforcement regimes
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and networks, we need to do more in terms of hemispheric cooperation. thank you. [applause] >> thank you very much. we will move on for another few minutes please. >> thank you for inviting me to speak at the seminar. in the interview with fidel castro with the reporter from vanity fair he had expressed that after his death nothing would happen. the country, the party and the government would quickly of adapt to the situation saying that all the mechanisms exist to confront the situation when it arises. the life of the country will not stall for a single minute. there is no in dispensable man anywhere in this world and even
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less in this country. for many of us, the so-called castrol revolution that began in 1959 has been a permanent threat to cuban democratic institutions in the detriment to the development of this country. also, a permanent failure that castro wanted to export to the majority of latin american country. it died in the hands of the military. [inaudible] his relationship with argentina didn't produce any political results, but contributed to conduct of oppression. [inaudible]
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in the same way, this only foiled cuba spain relations with spain always being a country to maintain good relationships with cuba. his support of. [inaudible] was also not beneficial. fidel castro managed, thanks to the support of the soviet union and by promising that managed to connect with the left in latin america. he maintained relationship with ecuador.
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[inaudible] now everything has changed, the extreme left is anti-american and against the government of spain. furthermore, in discussing alliances. [inaudible] due to these reasons, the death of fidel castro were not create any significant turbulence. he wasn't was laid to rest only six days ago and no one is talking about him anymore. the rest of olivia in the states
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limit themselves to purely maintaining that they are contents for human rights. in relation to bolivia, i would like to take this opportunity to denounce their their violation of human rights. they have absolute power and control of these weapons and they carry out. [inaudible] sadly, the demands against this abuse and they are rarely studied or processed. the evolution has been
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consolidated before the dictator's passing. in regard to the security, we find ourselves at this point in time with central american countries that are low and populations increase. i am referring specifically to places in el salvador and venezuela. we cannot deem secure a large part of mexican territory. they have not improved their qualification insecurity and many in argentina also suffer from a lack of security and poor police protection. the peace agreements cannot be qualified as positive. they are not attributable to these groups.
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[inaudible] the case in mexico, organized crime has hit mexican society. despite the actions taken by different governments and at their mercy, the international committee must support the judicial actions. furthermore, it is imperative to reduce the consumption in countries that have high illegal levels. [inaudible] the social and political countries
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free from -- political strikes, or attacks against property or persons. let us now consider the project in specific countries. is changing, peru have governments of the center right and colombia. china, who became a member of the bank and the american investment corporation with full support of the united states and the european union, among others, has increased its
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economic and strategic presence in the season. peru needs special attention. railroad projects to boost the government will demand total investment of nearly 20 billion. also, experts hit their second highest number in october. however, this economic situation does not -- [inaudible] -- the inequalities subsist. they are the reason that the peruvian government decided to purchase -- to enhance its forces and equipment for the border security, disaster confront. we suppose that the prime
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contractor -- peru's plan of building -- but 2030. mexico. the protectionism and isolation are -- but i don't think we expect a pragmatic position. it going to be challenged into the close relationship between mexico and the u.s. after the north american elections the proximity between the two country us. what happens in latin america affects the regional security, economic stability and stability of the united states, as well as spain.
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given its investment in the region. all together latin american groups make up 40% of the american experts and 55% of its imports and -- 17% of the u.s. population. we have been able to -- there are many contractual opportunity ies in colombia, mexico or -- without the assurance of greater legal security. the european union just signed a -- with the run of cuba -- the republic of cuba. this includes the removal of the blockade and negotiations to create a stable framework of political relationships through dialogue -- with the basis of --
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and the respect of the state. their relationships will be related to sustain the process of modernization of society with the end of strengthening human rights, democracy, the fight against discrimination or sustainable -- their exists an essential close call for respect for human rights. united states. it's to be expected that the initial -- between cuba and the united states continues to advance and allows them to be instrumental for cooperation of serious -- [inaudible] -- in the island is a well that ensure that the cuban society be part of the political and multily lateral solutions. not new to the castro but we
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must by sure is the new -- in accordance with the rule of law. and the report -- at the beginning of my speech, concluding her interviewed with castro, asking him -- he said he hadn't. and that's she -- she did. what are they trying for the revolution? education? sports and health. what are its faults? breakfast, lunch and dinner. castro said, yes, you see what happens when you have too many breakfasts, lunches and dinners. it's bad for your health. [applause] >> thank you all very much, fernando, for the very
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comprehensive lecture on the situation in latin mrs.. the last three speakers, as all of us know are lawyers. of course, i would have to call now on our colleague who is a lawyer and a professor of law. don, would you like to say something about your college or anything else? >> i'm not going to say anything about my colleagues, many of whom i know personally but i'll say something about what they said. once again, has given us an extraordinarily rich variety of speakers. i would say that with respect to latin america, which i include central america, the caribbean, also a numerous variety of conditions and overwhelming. every country is different with
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different prospects, often depending on personalities. the good leader in peru, other countries have not had such leaders bull you see the change in argentina. one thing what not mentioned was the greg minorities in -- growing minorities in the united states. but i'm sure that is relevant to how the united states will proceed in the fewer, at least i hope so. i know the title relates to challenges. we tend to think of challenges at the national security level, terrorism, fidel's hope for revolution, which resulted in the guevara being killed. but the human security. i'm involved with thant for
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peace in costa rica, and we run a con conference on human security. that means the things which national security types such as general gray that not all military types thinks be which are the kips in the country. so much of the difficulties in latin america are the failures countries to get a grip on themselves. another person i knew was the general counsel of the world bank whoa actually persuaded the board, executive board, that governance was relevant to economic development. and it's crucial. lawyers know that. we think of legal institutions, rule of law, and clearly this is a problem of varying degrees in latin countries which makes it difficult for american and ignorant of latin america, cuba and mexico, but not too much
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else. brazil, because it's so big but doesn't speak spanish, it's different. this is a real problem. bruce mentioned international organizations. the european -- he proposed that the american committee on criminal problems but you put four finger on the problem. latin america is not europe. there's no organization cable to the eu, although it's in trouble. its institutions are in trouble. so i think this is a real challenge and it's always been a problem. as a professor i have supervised papers. ifoff knew the number of regional agreements that latins have entered into with each other, two, three, four countries, it's dizzying and most of them come to nothing. even the stronger ones, they didn't come to very much at all. the nationalism is abiding. they're all spanish speakers, except for brazil, the governor tom dewey objects referred to
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ambassador brazil, i want to introduce a great spanish speaking neighbor of the south. then again he lost the election. finally, word about the incoming administration. undoubtedly, donald trump is putting the cat among the pigeons pigeons and it will be interesting to see what cat he selects and how this cat looks at the latin american pigeons. i think we have to wait and see what happens. thank you. >> thank you. very much. [applause] >> if i may, the moderator, begin with one question and then we'll turn it to the audience. always speak about the latin america, russia, i think, whatever, democracy versus rick dictatorship, for example, and
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obviously this will continue not only the question of venezuela but maybe brazil and others, but the other usual that was really mentioned in terms of trafficking narcotics on human trafficking in terms of women and this is obviously the very bad news. the question is, the way of good news in terms of women, -- of the countries like brazil and -- it's changing now but before and also argentina and so on. can we address this particular issue when we talk about security? security for whom? in terms of the gender and into on. would you like to begin?
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>> yeah. i'm first of all i'm not sure that the women who have become leaders perhaps with the exception of michelle in chile are exemplary. it is the case, however, that in their very slowly, gradually, more women are running for political office, legislative branch and so forth, and i think that is very, very positive. they're certainly in most of the university systems, there are a large number of women who are preparing, but there's still a barrier, as there is in this country, and there will be slow
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progress, but i think the women's organizations are very -- are gradually exerting themselves, particularly in the more developed countries in the southern cone countries, and so forth. not perhaps in central america, bolivia, et cetera, where i think the increasing rights for women is probably a sign of higher degrees of development for the latin americans are following that pattern. >> very briefly. i'm not going focus on the leadership because three leaders you have mention are all very unpopular in their open countries. i want to focus on -- yes. i want to focus on the younger generation. i want to focus on the women who
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are trained in the stem subjects and who are showing their leadership in forming their own companies, joining international national companies and showing the skill set which will enable them to stand shoulder-to-shoulder with their male colleagues. that's the future. >> ruth, any comment on that? >> no. >> okay. >> i don't see -- i think statistics are one point, but reality is the other. we can see that these things that three leaders in latin american country, women, has become precedent but how many leaders in europe or this country. statistics talking about men and women, is not the right thing.
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the right thing is to see if they have the equal opportunities to go ahead, to become leaderships, to live in their cities, to lead the companies, but not because of that, because they are women or women because i -- because they have the opportunities to achieve these goals. this is my position. in my family, we have a lot of -- everybody has work. men, women, we have -- but the things are coming. and we will see a different world in ten years. >> all right. a little bit of time for discussion. pat murphy, wait for the mic, please. >> prejudice. i'm 78 years old, born before
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the beginning of world war ii. after world war ii, with lots of u.s. money, europe rebuilt itself and japan did, too. china has gradually industrialized and is probably a little bit freer than used to be, also. india is finally making moves like that. i've even heard there are parts of africa where the word middle class are developing. but in latin america seems like the same old mess. i've heard that mexico's developing a slightly bigger middle class than it's had in the past, and also remember reading many years ago, of course, that argentina was one of the top three or four best off countries in the world until peron came along and that was 1930. it was downhill and has stabilized at a low level. can't seep assays because the national character but that's are from spain and portugal and they're both doing well
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economically, and in terms of them in democracies in europe. so what is it about latin america that makes it different? >> just to finish. part of this is the colonization. if you see african countries and see latin american countries, there's a different. fortunately, fortunately. but the formal -- of the colony, like corruption, not empowering -- inequality, still we have this, still we find that. don't see the population is responsible for that. they have improved a lot. i visit lattin american countries from -- frequently from 1986.
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they will tell you that they changed is astonishing. i'm not going to give fears now because i don't have the figures, but it's astonishing. there is a middle class. there is a government. of course, sometimes it's anarchist. but that's the situation, and everybody is trying to help. international organizations are dedicating a lot of money for that. but there is countries like i think former french colony is one of the worst, the worst not colonized by spain or portugal. >> i think that some of the countries are doing quite well. chile, good middle class a lot
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of stability. even brazil, until the problems recently, was doing very well, and i think brazil is a very good case right now because of the operation -- there have been so many prosecutions in brazil, and it continues. so, i think -- things are changing in terms of accountability in the government. they still have a ways to go but i think uruguay has done well. so, i don't think it's all -- >> i would say that the brazilian -- the brazilian of the petro gas owes thanks to harvard law school where some prosecutors trained and took
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back the practices of prebargaining and other practices that didn't exist in brazil at the time. often have commented to students and others that we, north americans, don't appreciate how lucky we were in our founding, and that is that with the traditions of democratic and participatory government that came, particularly from great britain, but then the influence again by the french revolution and others, those tendencies, the practice digs, wasn't part of the founding of latin american states, and so for a
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very long -- they waited a longer time before grasping the importance of institutions, education and so forth for building a democratic participatory government. go back to my question i still often ask, what do you learn in school in brazil, argentina, chile, colombia, about how government should perform and so forth, and we don't. >> we need to understand that more. >> let me say something about the law. there's a kind of -- we are snobs. we're lucky. my wife is an english woman who is a judge, i'm a law professor, and i think we tend to dismiss
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latin america too quickly because we were established by angelo sack sack sans and those in latin america dirk in america, countries based on magna carte have an advantage and the relevant point is the one touched on by diana and fernando. it's changing not because the went to harvard law school, but the truth is -- its changing. just as a lawyer i see this. the lastins have a system rather like the french where the judges control proceedings, which americans and brits do not like, particularly americans, but it's changing you. go to latin america to chile, mexico, they're picking up our
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adversary approach. i feel sore for them because of -- rhythm lawyers. i met lots of lastins, younge men and women, and they're taking profoundly. america hases a an influence on many parts of the worlds. america has been the merchandisele -- model for the world and boom take it sear youly. even though the lastins call is gringo, they come here. one thing that comes across again and again, i this abiding -- two thing. the human of americans and our ignorance, and i think we really have to get out of that and see what is actually heaping in these places -- happening in these places and happening where more and more people go abroad but we have to focus on that. >> okay. take questions, one more. >> thank you. my name is ron tiller, with
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george washington university and enthusiastically ignorant about traveling the world and learning everything i don't know. i think that's right. certainly you all were tremendously educational an expert in legal matters and governance matters so i'll ask you a different question because you know that so well. one thing latin america -- this may influence post castro latin america. one thing, latin america in regard to safety, security, and well-being, particularly among just the population, sees that it's different in the world today. they say a -- from latin america and leads know ask the question. what is the role of faith-based organizations, what's the role of fate in hoping for a better latin america, or actually not hoping but enabling a better latin america? because that's a big change. >> professor alexander.
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>> ron keller, you raise a very interesting question and one that is rarely discussed. the traditional ideology, religion, of latin american, is catholicism, and it was dominated by a church with a very clear high-archy -- hierarchy. i'm a practicing roman catholic so i'm talking about my own faith. but the abuse of power by the leadership of the catholic church in terms of its land ownership and abuse of human beings, has led for a search for alternatives. and the protestant religions are now making steady headway, particularfully central america, because, instead of saying, if you sin you are doomed to hell,
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they say you will be redeemed. god is a loving god, 0 forgiving god, and i am bringing health care, hospitals, education, orphanages and people to help you. so with -- thank you for what your various movements are bringing there. so, there's a shift away, which is accompanied but what we talked about, the growing middle class. a middle class which is not only economically more independent, but psychologically more willing to stand up and say, the old religious ways are no longer necessary for my family's enjoyment, and i'm, therefore, prepared to be more independent thinker, and that is having its impact also on the political thought. thank you. >> in one footnote there, where
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the church is having an influence now, ironically, is cuba. because the church was instrumental in enter -- intermediating the thaw between united states and cuba, and the church alid a number of things. there's something which is an organization that tries to help people learn how to be proprietors, because they haven't had that in cuba. and because the church has been relatively diplomatic, the regime allows these programs to go on, and so they're doing all kinds of training, on a very basic level, but they're also doing some programs -- some
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outreach for the indigenous, and you would think the regime wouldn't like that's bus they don't want people to say the state can do that. but again, there is a lot of people that are in need in cuba, and so they're allowing the church quietly to do something of those programs. so, i think that's a very interesting development that -- ongoing. >> we're going to continue just a short note about the questions that -- initially asked about latin america. let's look at some of contributions of latin america to the security in the world of the global interests and to advance the cause of justice, and now at the time a time of christmas, and christmas spirit,
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of-around the world, the pope francis provides the leadership that is so necessary to this when we see all the atrocities around the world and inhumanity of man to man, the spiritual contribution of latin america, which is very, very extraordinary, should be appreciated and recognized. now, we'll take some more questions. you, next, and then concluding remarks. >> hi. i want -- a lot of us are -- happening in latin america, and part of the reason is that the media doesn't cover it as much as they cover other regions over the world. conflict or no conflict elm just dent -- it's not always in the

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