tv Discussion Examines Security Challenges in Latin America CSPAN December 19, 2016 8:32am-10:29am EST
[applause] >> friday night farewell speeches and tributes to several outgoing senators including harry reid, barbara boxer, kelly ayotte, and dan coats. this week in prime time on c-span. >> sunday january 1, in depth will feature live discussion on the presidency of barack obama we are taking phone calls, tweets emails and facebook questions during the program. the panel includes a variety -- april ryan. princeton university professor, author of democracy and black, , how race still enslaves the american soul and pulitzer prize-winning journalist david marinus. watch live from noon to 3 p.m. eastern on sunday on booktv on
c-span2. >> now i discussion concerning security challenges facing latin america, particularly following the death of former cuban president fidel castro. this is almost two hours. okay. well, i think we ought to get started here. looks like the weather perhaps has held a few people back, but we have in my humble opinion a superb group of people to meet with you here today and to talk and update us all on latin america and what the situation looks like and what some of the real challenges are. it's interesting when you go back. i remember about 18 years ago or so when we undertook a massive characters and type effort, a big study on both th the nation, international and regional security concerns.
out of that one of the big studies was on latin america. if you read through that report and the like in 1999, while some things have changed, i was talking to some of our colleagues here earlier, some things have changed. the situation is certainly better in peru, and it is certainly an optimistic potential in colombia and the like. in some ways the situation in venezuela is not even as good as it was then. so many of the thoughts that came out then are applicable today. and that sort of though it is pixel sometimes i guess it's a good idea to review our history and know where we have been so that we can talk about the future. but it anyway enough of that. jonah, let's get started. it's your privilege to introduce our super guest program. are you ready? >> thank you.
make it quick now. >> can i have three minutes? >> you can have as much as you want. >> it will take me more than three minutes to introduce our distinguished panel, but the good news is that we distributed the bios so you can look at this for some on details. first of all, i will follow what the general said. i will introduce first the panel, then i will follow with if you footnotes. after all, i'm trying to be an academic. but so next to the general we have professor margaret hayes, right here, well known but i'll just mention one or two highlights your choose a former
director of the center for atmospheric distant -- defense studies at the national defense university, very distinguished institution. also she was a staff member at the u.s. senate foreign relations committee and had a very distinguished academic experience at the center for naval analysis and also a professor now at georgetown. and she also serves at the johns hopkins university and so forth. and she has a wide range i think of issues that she dealt with over the years, all the way from the security sector reform,
military, civilian relations, all the peace processes, humanitarian issues. these are some of the issues that obviously will come up today. she was educated at indiana university for the ph.d, and northwestern. great institutions. next to her i will call her doctor, diana negroponte, who is also educated at au law school, and also georgetown and elsewhere. the school of economics, et cetera. as i said, they can read your background later, but what is really important, she worked on many of the issues.
mexico, central america and so forth. and i understand maybe it's a secret but she is writing a book on jim baker, with the cold war. i think there are many important lessons to learn we look forward to read the book. next to her is our colleague bruce zagaris. incidentally we have three lawyers so we have to be very careful what we are saying, but in the interest of transparency, also diane is a lawyer. bruce is a lawyer. distinguished lawyer. he is a partner at a law firm, and specializing in international criminal law enforcement aspects. actually, we discussed this subject today and i think he will focus more on international
cooperation for law enforcement and so forth. so he has a wide experience of practice in latin america with individuals, entities and governments, and around the world, is very distinguished, i think scholar, very prolific, and currently is also the editor of the international enforcement log reporter. next to him is another lawyer, but a friend, a true friend, fernando jimenez from spain with whom he had the honor to work on some of this issues related to the challenges in spain but also the interregional i think relations in latin america. and he was a governor, et cetera, but also he's
involved in some legal facilities related to latin america first at the bank, development bank and currently is providing consulting services. so these are the four speakers, but we do have, of course general gray whom a very brief opening remarks, but wait for his last last, closing remarks. but at any rate, colleague, professor don wallace was the chairman of the international institute, professor at georgetown law school and so on, and our colleague for many years, very distinguished background. you can read all about that. so i think we've a terrific panel.
we have also a very knowledgeable audience of scholars, academics, government officials will contribute to our dialogue today, and we are very grateful to them. we are also appreciative to c-span for recording the broadcasting of the discussion because they key is education and to make sure that we are dealing with credible information that at the time when journalists and the media are struggling with fake information, or so-called information propaganda, whatever one wants to call it. so we are grateful again for c-span for bringing this event to the attention of broader audience of the united states
and abroad. now, the purpose of this seminar again is to deal with multiple challenges, security challenges. depends on definition, what does it mean security? again, general gray referred to some, but it goes all the way to organize crime to terrorism. again, all the way from don bosque up to organize groups like the farc and so on. and, obviously, state-sponsored terrorism, terrorism that we are going to deal with and so on. and besides that, obviously you're the question of migration, sometimes called refugees but migration i think
is more appropriate, economic development, the rights of women, and also the interregional link between latin america to africa in terms of narco trafficking, all volunteers, so-called volunteers of quote-unquote fighters of terrorists who are joining the islamic state of the al-qaeda and, obviously, we can go into some of these details. if i may, general, just for transparency and to provide a general context, i would like to mention very humbly that since the 1950s, particularly as the outcome of the so-called cuban revolution under the leadership
of castro, at that time i was a graduate student at columbia university. and then through the cuban missile crisis, one of our distinguished colleagues, dr. ray cline, was deputy cia director. he actually briefed president john kennedy to show the evidence, the photos of the russians involvement at that time in cuba. and subsequently, i was fortunate to work with him on the involvement of the soviet union in latin america, roots of which go back to the 1930s and activities of the cubans, for example, in africa and
elsewhere. so this is one experience in regard to cuba, and i'm sure the issue of cuba is going to be discussed, particularly as a result of the new administration that will have to deal with the cuban relations, american relations. the second experience i would like to mention is argentina, very briefly. all the way from the dirty war between 1976-1983, about seven years, for our young students here who may not be familiar about that, and i think it's important to look at that background in terms of the lessons learned. in other words, the program at that time was refreshing of the rebel or the so-called rebels, terrorists, dissidents that were
conducted by the government, forces at the time, the disappearances, the torture and other practices, and massive violations of human civil rights. and so forth. so i think one is to look at that particular lesson. and then i, on a personal level, a professional academic, i had opportunity to be involved in the investigation of the attack on the jewish center in buenos aires in 1994, attack. 85 people were killed, more than 100 people were injured, but the point is that both the hezbollah and iran were involved. and the story is not over even
two decades later on when the prosecutor, for example, of a few years ago, three years ago or so, or two years ago, was assassinated, alberto. so that particular event is not concluded. the other experience that i think we have to deal with and, of course, the general mentioned is colombia. the bad news is that it was actually a battle for about half a century. the good news is, of course, the president just a few days ago received the nobel peace prize, the conclusion of that terrible war in colombia. so we would have to look at this as well. and finally one more i think experience that we would have to
look at in terms of the relevant implications for security, let's say brazil in terms of the zika at dimmick -- zika epidemic. we had terms to work with them as well. so with that broad i think outline, i would like to begin to discuss the challenges, the security challenges in latin america and ask professor margaret hayes to provide some general overview overview, and e will deal with some specific case studies. would you like to come here herr whatever is more convenient for you.
>> first of all, thank you very much for the invitation to participate in this discussion. because i sometimes fear that the kind of attention, the quality of attention that is given to the latin american region by our government and by our population is way below what needs to be paid. and certainly fear that that may be the case in the incoming administration. i would take a point of difference with you, professor alexander, in perhaps the title of the seminar. i'm not sure that the passing of fidel is going to have much difference, make much difference
in the region. cuba has its own problems. it's going to have to deal very definitely with an underperforming economy, with a new government. and the question comes not right now, but once raul castro passes from the scene, what happens to the internal politics within cuba. but the rest of the hemisphere does suffer from some profound insecurities, many of which were listedlisted, itemized, and thea u.s. multidimensional security declaration which sought to bring attention to the human security side of the security
equation. the rights of personnel, they need for safety in your community and so forth. and so i think the insecurity, or what i call the insecurities of the region are the ones that are going to be of concern in the region and to which we need to pay attention. obviously, drug trafficking is one. transnational organized crime that facilitates drug trafficking, but also the profound and we're seeing more and more, are found corruption in many of the governments, the failure of their legal institutions really to function efficiently, effectively well, the failure of government to exercise the basic tasks of
managing financial sector, providing education, providing health, providing transportation, encouraging good jobs and so forth are the things that really are going to plague the region. and i think the place we need to put a lot of attention is the focus on governance, the world bank many years ago undertook to try to understand why, with all the money that the bank was putting into africa, country didn't develop. and they came out with a very good document. this was a long time ago, 1992, called governance and development. but we haven't gone very much beyond the document. what is government? what is governance?
the procedures, the organization, the rules, regulation, lost that yield good results in the execution of tasks of government, and the economic, efficient, effective employment of national resourc resources. and governance, management in in the public sector, rules that people follow and that effectively limit or promote activities. the services that the state requires. one of the problems of the latin american region is that the crime and violence, the corruption, the impunity is contributing to what i will call
community decay, separation of families. one of the reason there are so many games, and gangs are the family for young people in central america or in the slums of rio, is because their parents, aunts and uncles have left for the united states to get a job when jobs are not available in their country. the central bank of el salvador several years ago did a survey and found that young people, teenagers, main goal as they looked forward was to leave el salvador and go to another country, go to the united states especially in order to get a job, get away from whatever their environment was providing, but this community decay, the
fact that the people don't trust the police, the fact that the police are so ill-prepared, even resourced and trained, the countries are calling in their military without training them in urban operations as we had to learn in the united states. so this trust community decay, family decay contribute to lack of trust in the state, lack of trust in your neighbors and so forth. and is leading to the formation of substitute families, gangs in many of these cities, in particular. the availability of the gang
organization is leading to contributing to drug trafficki trafficking, to profound extortion, across particularly central america. many of you may have seen that 2-penny gang story in the "new york times" i believe, or the "washington post" recently on the extortion that mac the "new york times," yes. describing the activities of the extortion activities of gangs in central america. what governments are not providing, donor institutions are seeking to provide community activities that will provide an alternative life for some of these youth. but you can't, but the
governance themselves, because they are largely ineffective, are not necessarily adopting some of the suggestions that usaid, the development bank and others are suggesting. there have been some good stories on the u.s. border of mexico has had kind of a resurgent. a mayor who took upon himself to really address the problems of local communities coordination and looking out for activities in the different parts of the community, and resolved a good bit of the gang violence in that community. but there are far too few of this kind of activity. he comes of the violence --
because of the violence neither the local elite nor the international community is investing in the region. if you don't have jobs to look for him if a family doesn't have jobs, the parents leave, the kids want to leave in order to join their families. this, i don't know, many, many of you may think back to the time that i served in the foreign relations committee, committee, we had the caribbean basin initiative which was intended to stimulate international investment central america, the caribbean and so forth. there was a time that all your t-shirts were made in haiti, but it was a brief time. and because of violence, because
of lack of good government, the industries have left and they are not going to go back in less countries are going to be able to resolve some of the problems. now, there are some good things that we need to talk about. first of all, the countries are beginning to cooperate amongst each other. central americans have signed the alliance for prosperity in the northern triangle, which is hopefully going to promote the coordination of efforts, particularly economic efforts, but portable control efforts, law enforcement efforts, amongst the three countries, and begin to put down the level of violence, the volume of drugs that moved through the region,
and so forth. i'm reminded that general keane who was the deputy commander of u.s. southern command and the u.s. representative in haiti after the earthquake, as a result of his experience is the new c2 is coordination, collaboration. i think that's a good, it's a good way to think about what these generally poorly integrated countries are beginning to do and beginning to see that they need to do. they are also working on the military side. there is quite a bit of positive collaboration, as we saw in the response to the haiti earthquake. all of a sudden peru and chile are holding long-term enemies,
holding disaster response exercises jointly. that's very positive, but where the military are cooperating much more, other elements of the government, the police, the courts, the border control and so forth, are not doing nearly enough, and we need to see more of that. i think we also need to look at what's going on that's a bad and good. already mentioned venezuela. that's bad. how is venezuela after this current crisis passes, if it ever does, going to put the country back together again? how do you put humpty dumpty back together with a government
has totally undermined the legal tradition, changed all of the laws and so forth? brazil is mentioned. i may brazilian easter so i have a special interest in what's going on in brazil, but the endemic corruption that has occurred in the brazilian government needs to be ended by the very people who are profiting and taking advantage of opportunities for corruption, i.e., the legislators, the politicians and so forth. this is going to be hard. central america is obviously a problem. a weak government, corruption, impunity and so forth. the colombian peace process is a positive.
columbia has one of the stronger governments. unfortunately, that government doesn't do we -- doesn't do very well at getting out of bogotá and the main cities. it has to extend the capacity of the state to remote areas. it was fascinating that the referendum in support of the peace accord was defeated by low turnout in precisely the areas of the country where support for peace and an end to violence with the highest. but they were also the areas of the country where the government reached less well, or not at all. you mentio mentioned argentine s a dirty war, i think that is
something that is passed in argentina. argentina, chile in both countries with military dictatorships that were particularly nasty affably have some of the best chances of reestablish good and effective government. it won't be easy to do. there's a lot of work to be done, but there is positive movement and there is some foundation on which to build in these countries. with respect to argentina specifically, i'll tell a funny story, and i once asked an argentine economist work at the world bank, what do you learn in primary and secondary school
about how democracy, how your government ought to work? what are the responsibilities? what are kind of the rules of the game? this individual kind of chuckled and said, you know, i think we shot all those professors. [laughter] but i think the question is something we all ought to ask as we deal with the region. what do young people, whether they are in good schools or bad schools, learn about how government should perform, what the responsibilities of government are and what the responsibilities of citizens are. so i think without that glue of faith in your government and good performance on the part of your government, it's going to be very hard to deal with the
questions of transnational organized crime, of the gang violence, et cetera. and i think we also need to be quite aware that an awful lot of the moneymaking traffic is moving toward the united states, and in the form of marijuana, cocaine, increasingly from mexico, heroine, and the arms trade goes the opposite direction. so we are contributing part of this. we have for that reason an obligation to participate, to do what we can to help resolve some of these problems. but they are problems that don't just deal with controlling gang violence or transnational
organized crime. they are problems that most profoundly are related to the poor, the ineffective government and rule of law that exists in many of the countries. thank you. >> thank you very much. [applause] >> thank you for providing a thought, i think, think, perspective and really trying to focus on the children, develop education. because in the final analysis, the so-called security challenges that are really the outcome of all the children received the role and we can see it certainly now with the terrible tragedies elsewhere,
such as in syria. so the children in the refugee camps today, tomorrow perhaps they will turn to the gangs simply because -- >> they have no other skill. >> i'm delighted that you tried to focus on the educational point. we are going to move on. obviously we have a lot of issues that we will come back to discussion. i think we move on to our next speaker right here who perhaps can focus on a case study, which you can speak about any other related issue. >> thank you very much, professor alexander, s thank you for inviting me to participate in the panel here today. i am going to return to your theme. challenges and opportunities in
the first castro era. and i'm going to raise it in the context of venezuela. because venezuela has become a cuban security state. cuba provided military intelligence, doctors, nurses in exchange for venezuelan oil. and the existence of the state and the problems that it caused principally for the venezuelan people are a concern not only for the hemisphere but also for us in the united states. so there are four issues i want to raise this afternoon. how does cuba-venezuela, the
so-called single garment single country separate? secondly, what was cuba's role in the creation of this security state in venezuela, and how is it unraveling today? third, what options are there for the venezuelan people themselves to undo repair, the political and most of all the economic situation. and finally what's the role of the international community, including the united states? so i must give you some background. allow me to be very brief because i only have 10 minutes at a really want to focus on the issue. when chavis was elected, hugo chavez was a colonel in the venezuelan army, is elected into office in 1999, he introduces bolivar in socialism.
that is that the state is dedicated to bring about greater equality to transfer wealth from the riches to the poor in housing, and transportation come in medical health, and education so that those who were deprived in previous decades will be able to assert the rights has venezuelan people. he died in 2014, 2013? 2013, and is succeeded by the cuban elected air, a former union leader in the bus company but a man who had been trained politically in havana. he had neither the charisma nor the smarts, any economic basis on which to lead the venezuelan people.
so today we have inflation according to the imf, at 180%. the imf anticipate that with inflation in november last month at 50%, inflation rate for next year will be over 600%. and all of us can recall from our history the impact that in germany, and the lack of support of ordinary venezuelan citizens or trust in their government. in the political realm, a divided opposition decided not to participate in legislative elections, which meant that the shabbos party could take control of the legislature.
and with that control stack the supreme court and the electoral tribunal. the result is that central control, traded by chavez, inherited by nicolas maduro enough face with both political and economic crisis. political crisis is about the opposition, exactly a year ago, december 15, 2015, 1 a two-thirds majority in the national assembly, enabling these diverse opposition parties to unite, unusual but they did, with a demand for a recall referendum or what we would call impeachment of the president. the president resisted. the president used the supreme court to deny that recall
referendum on grounds of fraud. and despite the fact that the opposition succeeded in gaining one point 8 million votes in favor of this recall referendum, the supreme court has denied it. the electoral tribunal has not only denied that referendum but has denied the elections this month for mayors and state governors. in other words, legislative participation and electoral democracy is dead at the moment in venezuela. at the same time, food is very short. medicines are not to be found. the police stack the hospitals, guard the hospital so that any
new medication, antibiotics, anesthesia, bandages can be stolen and resold outside. the venezuelan people are suffering to a degree different from syria, but equivalent in terms of human suffering. violence now has an intentional homicide rate of 90 per 100,000. that is the worst in the world, except for syria. and it compares with 25 years ago when it was only eight to 10 people per 100,000. in other words, the venezuelan state has collapsed. so what does the cuban leadership, the cuban leadership who in 2007 proclaimed we are a single government, we are a
single country, what do they do? subsidize oil enabled the cuban economy to be able to run. but that subsidize oil no longer of rides in the quantity it was used to -- arrives. in 2008 it was 115,000 barrels per day. today it is 55,000 barrels per day. the last venezuelan tanker to dock at the port and unload the venezuelan oil was august. and the cuban leadership has recognized, venezuela can no longer be helpful to us. so it is demanding that it's a doctors and its nurses return,
and it is separating itself from the doomed venezuelan economy and state. when adele died -- fidel died, raul attended the funeral and he sat on rivals left and cried. he then said, we, the venezuelan people, will continue on the dells work. the ball of the socialist revolution will continue. i wonder what with? so as we see cuba separate itself from venezuela and shift towards a reliance on american tourism and international investment, we ask what can and
what are the venezuelan people doing to resolve the situation? and here is a big question. there are those who believe that once again the students should go back into the street to demonstrate. venezuelan workers should go back to demonstrate. and there is this more violent wing among the opposition who would like to bring down the maduro regine through public demonstration. but it risks violence on a huge scale. because the state not only has the national guard, the military and the police, but it also has what they call collectors. young men and women who put on a uniform for the occasion, take other motorbike and/and murder, and violence is widespread and is always deniable.
because they're not part of the state. there is a hope but it is only based on a hope that the venezuelan military, who have a tradition of upholding constitutional law, will not allow this violence to take place, that they will stop them, restrained the police. they will put themselves between the demonstrators and the state to achieve some calm. but the leadership of the military have been co-opted by participation in drug trade. so they are now participants in the transfer of cocaine and heroin and marijuana and meth through venezuelan ports.
so there's no reliability that the senior levels of the military will actually act as at restraining force. there are those on the opposite side in venezuela who believe that discussion, that dialogue is the only way forward. they have been helped by the vatican who in october asked maduro to enter into negotiations with the opposition, to seek a solution. the opposition demanded two things. one was a constitutional right for a recall referendum. the second was the release of political prisoners. those numbers of political prisoners are now in the hundreds. many of them are hauled into jail for only a matter of three or four days, but they are treated in such inhumane ways during those days that when
released, they retreat into the family. they retreat into their homes, fearful of being exposed once again to that brutality. so while you have this moderation when -- moderation wing which has been participating in negotiations, brokered by the former presidents of spain, the dominican republic and panama, those negotiations have gone nowhere. maduro has stalled at each point, such that earlier this week the opposition said it's not worth as remaining at the table. we will not participate in next tuesday meeting. maduro has agreed to keep them at the table, the negotiating table open into a genuine 17t 17th, which conveniently -- january 17, which conveniently is 17 days after the
constitutional deadline for a recall referendum. after that date the vice president will take leadership and they will move towards the next presidential election. in other words, maduro has a way of protecting his regime, even if he has to step aside in which suggest that it is the regime clinging to power. because once it loses the immunity from prosecution as government officials, they are exposed to cases, criminal cases for drug trafficking, for abuse of human rights, and for other international crimes. what is the international community doing? the argentinians have taken the lead. they had said to venezuela, you are no longer acceptable within
the regional grouping of a south american countries. your presidency is suspended, and we are assuming that pro tem. when the venezuelan foreign minister appeared this week in buenos aires to assume her chair, she was not allowed in the room. she was then subjected to a little bit of jostling outside the realm, which maduro said was abuse to her since she ended up on the floor. nobody can quite see the floor or her on the floor, but there's no doubt that there was pressure on your to move away from the room where they were meeting, and she was rejected. nicaragua remains a friend. bolivia remains a friend. but neither country is in a capacity to really support the economy as a goes through this
spiraling downturn. so finally, what should we in the united states, what could president-elect trump do? i would suggest in the same way as he had a telephone call to the president of taiwan, this this is the time for a telephone call to the leadership of venezuelans opposition. it's a tie for stating u.s. support for the opposition, knowing that maduro will use it to say that the united states is in connivance with the opposition. but to state that we stand for something and that the maltreatment of the citizens, the humanitarian crisis is not something that we can tolerate. our secretary of state elect, rex tillerson, knows the situation in venezuela since exxon mobil has had its assets expropriated, its contracts
reneged and, in fact, in 2014 exxon mobil want a suit for damages to the amount of one point $4 billion. so have a secretary of state elect who knows the situation in venezuela, and we have a president-elect who was prepared to change some of the traditional positions of u.s. foreign policy and make telephone calls with wake people up. that is my words, and i look for to questions later. [applause] >> i think you touched on the very important case study. obviously again like margaret, triggers a lot of questions, not
only visibly the situation in the country itself or the inter- american relationships, but globally and particularly iran that developed a base in venezuela for many years during the time of chavez, but anyway we will come back to it now. we are going to move on to bruce zagaris. do you have good news for us? >> i have mixed news. but first, thank you for the invitation. it's an honor and a pleasure to be here. so what i want to do is talk about civil issues. i want to talk about some of the issues of transnational organized crime, arms, drugs, migration. touch on a couple of the geographical issues, and then i
want to focus on the need to build a better hemispheric framework for international enforcement cooperation. it is challenging for the new administration because of the campaign discussion of tougher border walls, some of the derogatory remarks about mexicans, and also about the need to renegotiate nafta, and some of the discussion against free trade. i think at the beginning of the administration it would be good for the new administration to call the leaders together and to sit down and to listen to them and have a dialogue about what's needed in terms of hemispheric
security, and all the other issues. let me now focus on some of the issues starting with arms here we've already heard about the arms problem in the u.s., is clearly a leading source of arms not only in hemisphere, but in the world. there have been two important treaties. the 1997 inter-american 1997 inn convention against the illicit manufacturing and trafficking in firearms ammunition explosives and other related materials, and 20 countries have, 22 latin american and caribbean countries have ratified the u.s. signed in 1997. it was sent to the senate and it's been sitting there. you also have the u.n. arms trade treaty of april 2013.
20 hemispheric countries have signed that. and that treaty by the way pertains to trade and conventional arms trump small arms to battle tanks, combat aircraft, warships. it entered into force on december 24, 2014. the u.s. signed but again the senate has done nothing. drugs are a problem, and one initiative of many countries in the region, including the u.s., is to find ways for non-incarceration treatment of people who just use drugs, including the oas itself has had a project. i think more needs to be done hemispherical in terms of exploring that initiative, and
the u.s. needs to do more with respect to the demand side of drugs. in terms of migration, there has been some good initiatives already. there is a reference to the alliance for prosperity. the u.s. and the countries in central america have had a very broad public education campaign, and also there have been some changes in the laws. so for instance, now if you want to apply for asylum, you don't have to come here to do that. you can do it from those countries. that's an effort to reduce the amount of migration, because that's where a lot of people are kidnapped, killed. but there's also a lot of now
interplay between the cartels. first it was a drugs, now there's a lot of trafficking of persons and all kinds of other crimes. one of the initiatives that was i think useful that was done in the clinton administration was the use of sanctions against both transnational organized crime and against narco kingpins. one thing that could be tried is more effort to get other countries to go along with those sanctions so it's not just unilateral. ..
they transferred their know-how to their friends. guess what, not only disable those countries, but because they know the u.s., they target their criminality back to the u.s., whether it's trafficking in human, stolen or embezzled cars and aircraft, drug trafficking, it better. that the u.s. needs to do more of what is done with haiti. with haiti, it notifies haiti and it helps cd to mitigate and to plan for the persons that it supports. well, looking not a couple of the countries, so because this piano is entitled challenges and
opportunities in the post-castro era, i think i need to say a few words about the u.s. relationship with cuba. one of the biggest problems for the u.s. in the region has been added every regional meeting, the number one question has to do with cuba and the fact that cuba has been isolated. that has changed since december 2014. there has been 11 agreements that have been done between the u.s. and cuba, dealing with everything from narcotics enforcement to migration, to the environment. and even before the new initiative, historically
relations between cuba and the u.s. when they have improved our sometimes presaging improvement. they've had to do with these same issues at the exchange of, exchange of spies, exchange of political prisoners. into very positive developments between the u.s. and cuba is cuba has been in the forefront of dealing with hemispheric security in that cuba has sponsored the talks in columbia. in addition, cuba has been very helpful with respect to haiti and the earthquakes and so forth. cuba has huge to their doctors to give a lot of assistance. with respect -- well, i think
because of the shortage of time, let me turn now to the need for a better hemispheric framework in terms of enforcement. in a year, clearly the most important body has been the organizations of american states. there's been a group called the inter-american juridical community that meets twice a year on laws and policies. there has been in the last 10 or 15 years a new group that they have mysteriously -- basically the attorneys general are ministers of justice and the every other gear and may make recommendations for new agreements and policies that the
problem if it's not entertainment organization. it gets hands-on with the permanent council for its marching orders, for the council to draft for its budget. and so, it really can't do much. some of the other entities having to do with enforcement and the oas are like the american drug abuse control commission or the organization for counterterrorism. what is needed is america's committee on crime problems. this suit via a committee that would have been own institution and be composed of lawyers,
diplomats, criminologists and it would meet every day and it would consider all the threat and some of the solutions, whether they be uniform laws, treaties, different organizations. and this isn't something out of mars. there's been something like this since 1958. the council of europe as the european crime problems. it meets every day and it focuses on the different threats. it has produced over 100 conventions on enforcement, many of which will the u.s. has become a part of. so to be successful, the
enforcement agencies have to network as well as the criminals to pay in order to have successful at enforcement regimes and networks, we need to do more in terms of hemispheric cooperation. thank you. >> thank you very much. [applause] >> will come back to some of the issues you raise. >> thank you, tree into. thank you for inviting me to speak. fidel castro led by a reporter for atlantic fare, he expressed that nothing would happen. taylor quickly to the situation, saying that allah the
institutional mechanisms when it arises. the life of the country would not stop for a single meeting. there is no man anywhere in the world and even less in this country. for many of us come in the so-called castro revolution that began in 1959 has been a permanent threat to the cuban democratic institutions and a continuous detriment to the economic and socioeconomic countries. also, a failure in the prediction of insurrection castro wanted to exploit the majority of latin american countries. died in the hands of the brazilian military. he was combined by diligent services to only accelerate. his relationship didn't produce
any result, the contributed to operation convicts that through many years with repression in the hands of militaries. in the same way, this protectioprotectio n of terrorists only -- good bilateral relationship -- [inaudible] more practical and that they have a significant amount of men and resources which produce a merger among his high ranking commanders. castro managed to succeed thanks to the support of the soviet union and subsequently by a
diplomacy that managed to connect with latin america. in exchange for the context and maintain relations with brazil and ecuador are supporting international organization. now everything has changed, but generally we are characterized by latin america. the extreme left led by hugo chavez has spent authoritarian and also games and spain. furthermore the alliances and stayed such as groups including hezbollah. due to these reasons, castro will not create any significant political turbulence or geopolitical hemispheric.
he watches the past six days ago when no one is talking about fidel anymore. cuba today only has negative influence in the state. the rest of bolivia and the states limit themselves to purely maintaining the same content for human rights. in relation, i would like to take this opportunity to announce their repeat persistence and willful violation of human rights by the national state of bolivia appeared for us has absolutely powered controlled his purposes to carry out the minister of the court and the constitutional court at an event against those who defended. sadly, the demands against these
abuses and the human race are really a study of many times not even processed through its philosophy. the ideological locks have been consolidated. and regards to security, we find ourselves at this point essential american and south american countries is level of security are extremely low and with populations increase. i am referring to specifically to honduras, el salvador and venezuela. we also cannot secure part of mexico and italy, but noting through its qualification and many in argentina also suffered from a lack of security. despite the peace agreements between the colombian government , said his insecurity
in this country cannot be qualified as positive. the nature is not attributable to the groups by two common criminals and knowing for certain by former companies of paramilitaries. concerning criminal organizations, nick cave is known by and large. organized crime hates mexican society. despite thinking that the different government and the minister world bank the national community must have the judicial and executive sanctions of mexico and effective coordination of intelligence. furthermore, it is imperative using the consumption and countries that have high illegal, particularly the united states and european union.
the socio- and political economic countries have immediate consequences such as labor stability and a level of factors that would take into account the security mechanisms. this company found to assist in both sections for professional assistance and also by a beast existing security for the citizens and subsistence. free from sabotage, political strikes or attacks. let us now consider the project as specific. they have government and a
stable political -- [inaudible] china became a member of the american investment corporation with full support of the united states and the european union has increased its economic region. their special attention because of its investment in infrastructure. they will demand top investments in nearly 27 billion to the economics. also our second highest number in a suburb. however, this economic situation situation -- the economic inequalities and threat -- they are the peruvian government decided to purchase and enhance
the agreement for one of the securities response and to confront -- [inaudible] the value would contribute by 2013. chile and colombia have expressed interest in the right. mexico and the isolation, but they don't think what has been happening in latin america but a commercial relations and investment of the countries. likewise, in relation to mexico, we will expect the pragmatic position. it is going to be challenging between mexico in the u.s. after the north american elections we
can dictate a proximity between the two countries. whatever happens in latin america affects the regional security. economic prosperity and stability of the united states as well as spain even the investment in the region. or to other latin america guys make up more than 40% of the united state with the story says 65% of its imports and the descendents of the u.s. population. we have been able to assert these opportunities and colombia, mexico and brazil, but they would never have fluidity without the assurance of our greatest legal security. the european union has just shine a cooperation agreement with the republic of cuba, which substitutes a common decision in
1996. the serious negotiations to create a stable framework of political relationships through dialogue, cooperation with mutual respect and respect of the states having to you. the relationships will sustain the process of modernization of the economy in cuban society through the national forums and threatening human rights rights, democracy against discrimination and achieving the objective for sustaining sanctions closer race back. the initial rapprochement and allows them to be instruments of cooperation and development that
the transition and the island as well as the cuban society as part of the political and multilateral institutions. it is possible that new forms of popular and may appeal not only the difference, but we must be sure that the only thing with the economic resolution is the new diligence in accordance with the rule of law. and the reporter that i cite at the beginning of my speech concluded her interview with castro, asking him the most popular in the streets of cuba. she says about our resolutions. voip and how. whether it's faults? breakfast, lunch and dinner.
i said yet you see what happens when you have too many outfits, lunch and dinner. it's bad for health. [applause] >> thank you very much, ferdinand l. for the very comprehensive lecture at the situation and not in america. the last speaker, of course i would has to call now and therefore the colleague, a lawyer and a professor of law at georgetown law school. would you like to say something about your three colleagues or anything else? >> i'm not going to say anything about my colleagues, many of which i know personally, but i'll say something about what they said.
once again, an extraordinarily rich variety of speakers. i would say with respect to latin america, there's also a variety of conditions and is in many ways overwhelming. every country is different for different prospects. often dependent on personalities . brzezinski, that the leader in peru. others have not had such leaders for gc leader in argentina and begin things change. but growing minority from different countries of course you wouldn't confuse the mexican with a guatemalan, but i'm sure that's relevant to the united states proceeded in the future. the title relates to challenges. we tend to think of challenges that the national security level, terry said, fidel explorative revolution been
killed somewhere. you think it was brought up by professor hayes that the issue that strikes me as latin america or the other when of the u.n. security. i'm involved in the university for peace and coaster reek of 10 annually within a conference in europe that happens on human security. essentially it means that things which national security types as general grant probably thinks about which is really the conditions in the countries. it seems reasonably clear that though much of the difficulties have not america and elsewhere are the failures of countries to get a group themselves. another person i knew was the general counsel of the world inc. who actually persuaded the board, the executive ordered the governance was relative to economic development. it's crucial. lawyers note that because of the rule of law, et cetera.
clearly this is the problem of varying degree in latin countries. we're really quite ignorant of latin america's role. we know about cuba. is that what you call the? and mexico. brazil because it's so big that it doesn't speak spanish. this is a real problem. bruce mentioned international organizations. he mentioned -- he proposed problems, but i think you put your finger on a way that his problems. latin america is not europe. there is no organization comparable to the e.u. its institutions are in trouble. this is a real challenge and it's always been a problem. as a professor he supervised papers. if you reach a number of agreements into each other or two countries, three countries, four countries, it is d.c. and
even the stronger ones don't conquer very much at all. they are all spanish speakers except for brazil. once referred when he introduced ambassador brazil at the waldorf astoria. he says now i want a great spinner speaking neighbor of the south. but then again he lost the election. finally, a word about the incoming administration. undoubtedly, donald trump is putting the cat among the pigeons and will be interesting to see what catty selects and how this looks at the latin american pigeons. i think we have to wait and see what happens. thank you. >> thank you very much. if i may as moderator begin with one question to the audience.
we owe us think about what america would either did the verses dictatorship, for example. and obviously this was to continue not only the question of venezuela, the navy bolivia and some of the others. the other issue that was really mentioned in terms of trafficking narcotics, arms, human trafficking, this is obviously the question is the good news in terms of women and leaders of the country like brazil and also argentina and so
on. can we address this particular issue when we talk about security, security for whom in terms of the gender and so on. the night first of all, i am not sure that the women who have become leaders perhaps with the exception of chile are exemplary. it is the case, however that in their very slowly, gradually more women programming for political office in the legislative ranch and so forth. and i say that is very positive. they are certainly in most of the university system there are
a large number of women who are preparing. that there is still a barrier in this country and there will be slow progress. but i think the women's organizations are gradually exerting themselves particularly in the more developed southern cone countries and so forth. not perhaps in central america, bolivia, better. the increase in rates for women is probably a sign of higher degrees of development and what the americans are following that
pattern. >> i'm not going to focus on the leadership because the three leaders who have mentioned are all very unpopular in their countries. i want to focus on the younger generation. i want to focus about the women who are trained in this stab subject and who are sharing their leadership and for them in their own companies and join a multinational come in its end the charade that skills that, which will enable them to stand shoulder to shoulder with their male colleagues. that is the future. >> in a comment on? >> no. >> i think the statistics are one point, but reality is the other. we can see if the three leaders
in the latin american country has become president, but how many leaders we have in europe also were in this country. statistics talking about men and women is not the right thing. the great thing is that they have equal opportunities to go ahead to the universities, to leave the companies. but not because of that, because they are women because they have opportunities to achieve these goals. this is my position. then, within we have. but things are coming and we will see a different world in 10 years.
they will be time for discussion. >> just a north american a north american price of the spirit eight years old. i was going before the beginning of world war ii. after world war ii with lots of u.s. money, europe rebuilt itself. china has gradually been a little bit freer than it also. india is fine with making roles like that. there are parts of africa for a middle are developing. but i'm not america -- that in america it seems like the same old mass. i've also remember reading many years ago that argentina was one of the top three or four best of countries in the world until 1930 and sent then i won't say
it's been downhill, but it stabilized at about level. i can then see the national character because spain and portugal are both doing reasonably well economically and in terms of both of them in europe. so what is it about latin america that makes it differ? [inaudible] if you see african countries have my american countries, of course there is a difference fortunately good that the former economy corruption, and like non-empowering and equality and still we find this.
i don't see the population mr. spock or for that. the countries frequently from 1986 and they changed this as getting serious now, but it's astonishing. there is a middle class. there is development. of course sometimes use the this is a situation. that's the situation then everybody is trying to help. international organizations dedicate a lot of money or not. the french colony is one of the
worst. he was not colonized by spain or portugal. >> i think some of the countries are doing quite well. chile is a good middle-class stability. even brazil until the problems recently was doing very well and i think resale does a very good case right now because of the operation, there have been so many prosecutions in brazil and it continues. so i think things are changing in terms of accountability in the government. they still have a ways to go, but uruguay has done well. >> i would say the brazilian
prosecution of the petrobras is due and i was many things to harvard law school, where some of the prosecutors trained and tucked back some of the practices that plea bargaining and other practices that didn't exist in brazil at the time. but i often have commented to students and others that we north american's don't appreciate how lucky we were in our founding and that is that the traditions of democratic and participatory government that came particularly from great britain, but then the influence again by the french revolution and others.
those tendencies, those traditions, that history buff and a part of the founding of that american state. and so far they waited a long time before grasping the importance of institutions, education and so forth for building a democratic purchase of the tory government. i go back to my question that i still often mask. what do you learn in argentina, chile, colombia about how government should perform and so forth. i've never seen anyone no-space-on date and dare to that question and we need to understand not more. >> can i say send in because you
mentioned the love. lots of things, we are snobs and we are lucky. my wife is an english woman whose it judged and law professor. i think we tend to dismiss latin america too quickly because we were established by anglo-saxon and the south americans were established by latins which had a revolution 200 years ago. the only thing as countries based on magna carta have an advantage and there is some truth to that. the relevant point is one that touched on by diana and fernando it is changing not just because they want to harvard law school, but probably something different. the truth is i see it as preseason at. the lapses were the judges control proceedings, which
americans then breaks do not like. typically americans, that is changing. it is slowly picking up her approach, the adversary approach. unless discovery is increasingly rich lawyers. i made lots of young black men men men men and their changing profoundly. i think america has had a powerfully beneficial influence on many parts of the world. america has been a model for the world could even before in 1776% to 97 and people take it variously. they come to school here. the truth is the world is changing. one of the things that comes across again and again in our program is the abiding -- two things. the enthusiasm of americans and our inference. i think we really have to get
out of bed and see what's happening in this place isn't hopefully it's happening but i think we really have to focus on now. >> okay. one more. >> thank you i'm ron taylor with george washington university and i'm dizzy after the ignorant about traveling the world and learned everything i don't know. certainly, you all were tremendous early educational expert in legal matters and government matters all ask a different question because you know that so well. one thing that america must influence post-castro latin america. one thing with regard to safety, security, and just the population is the see a pope who is from latin america and that leads me to ask the simple question, what is the role of
faith-based organizations? what is the role of faith and hoping for a better latin america were actually not hoping, but enabling a better latin america because that is a big change. >> von taylor, you raise an interesting question and one that is rarely discussed. the traditional ideology, religion of latin america is catholicism. and it was dominated by a church at the very clear higher e. but that has faded. it is stated because i am a practicing roman catholic, so i'm talking about my own faith. but the abuse of power by the leadership of the catholic church in terms of his land ownership and abuse of human
beings has led for a search alternatives. the protestant religion are now making steady headway particularly in central america because instead see them if you send me word doomed to, they say you will be redeemed. god is a loving god, forgiving god and i am bringing health care, hospital, education, orphanages and old people to help you. thank you for light your various movements are bringing. so there is a shift away, which is accompanied by what was taught about, the growing middle class. a middle class which is not only economically more independent, but psychologically more willing to stand up and say the old religious ways are no longer necessary for my family
enjoyment and i am therefore prepared to be more independent thinker that is having its impact on the political thought. >> one footnote there, while the church is having an influence now ironically askew the. because the church was instrumental in intermediating the fall between the u.s. and cuba, the regime now has allowed the church to do a number of things. for instance, there is something called cuba in green bay, which is an organization that tries to help people learn how to be proprietors because they haven't had that in cuba. and because the church has been relatively diplomatic, the
regime allows these programs to go on. and so, they are doing all kinds of training on a very basic level, but they are also doing some outreach for the indigenous you would think the regime wouldn't like this because they don't want people to say that the state can't do that. but again, there is a lot of people that are indeed in cuba and allowing the church quietly to do some of those programs. i think that's a very interesting development that is ongoing. >> we are going to continue the questions we initially ask about latin america. let's look at some of the contributions of latin america through the security of the
global insurance and now at the time of christmas, and faith around the world, pope friend says provides the leadership that is so related to this volume one was the all around the world. so the spiritual contribution of latin america, which is really extraordinary should be appreciated and recognized. we'll take some more questions to you at the next. >> yeah, hi. i lot about what is happening and not america.
part of the reason is that the media doesn't cover as much as they conjure other regions of the world, conflict or not conflict. it's not always the headline news. now do you believe -- what is your opinion that at this point they advanced the technology particularly internet, facebook, whatever you want to call it, that much of what you're saying is going to be more exposed in d.c. and he and i am echoing in any particular direction? >> okay, some of our panelists have other obligations. we are very great old tu for comment. thank you. >> okay, i'm sorry about this.
restate the question one more time. >> i just wanted to know whether the advance -- technological advances, internet and so on opens up the world more and the situation is not america. positive remake it is. >> i think what america is very much part of the internet revolution for good and for bad. but it does have access to media here. they know what is going on in the united states, unlike the coverage in our country that don't cover. i said i'd have to subscribe to minors papers in the best when i'm not in america is the
financial design. i think the well educated class is very much aware of what is going on and i would say the one thing that is not addressed in the degree that i believe it ought to be our studies about united state studies as we do latin american studies at our university. it is hard to find a program in latin america universities that no-caps-on the history, the politics, the functioning of institutions in the united states. this is something that is sorely
lacking. but headline, they know and they had been various lowly our programs and classes that are working on addressing this lack of rain and following of u.s. history and functioning. >> okay, thank you very much. we have time for one more question. >> hi, my name is caitlin from the brookings institution. kind of a loaded question, but i wanted your thoughts on whether or not president-elect trample back any of the warming towards cuba and if he does, what you think he would do about the results of the policies would be. >> i'm not sure that he knows
yet. we don't know. >> he has made a couple of comments that have sad unless cuba against a better deal than he is going to change things. but other than not, you know, nothing has been said. we don't even have yet secretary of state or assistant secretary of state for inter-american affairs, so you really don't know. i would say that the u.s. just as i mentioned in terms of lot in american the house had a much better reception from a number of governments because no longer does the u.s. have to confront
the fact that it's isolating cuba. in addition, a lot of the organizations that have grown-up as an alternative to the oas, like all the, have been as a result of the policy of cuba and the relationship between cuba, nicaragua, venezuela, bolivia and with normalization that will no longer be as much of a threat. in addition, i think probably the biggest thing is mr. trump is a businessman and increasingly in this country, whether it be agriculture grew up in the midwest or the tourist industry, americans want to do business with cuba.
and so, also there is no longer the big political majority and florida. if anti-cuba, pretty much split. so there's no longer a political it annotates, which is to always drive a lot of u.s. policy towards cuba. so i would say that normalization has a lot of advantages. and even though mr. trump is that like a lot of the political economic human rights policies in cuba, they will probably improve with normalization because that will take the pressure off of either the current or there will be a new machine in 2018.
>> once again, we'll wrap it up. we are already over time. well done, yonah. on behalf of the potomac institute and all of us, i want to thank this panel. you have just been great and we hope to get back that in america similar. i am the eternal optimist of course and i just wanted to say that i've been in all the latin america countries and spent considerable time in a number of different capacities. latin america people are good people. some are just like in this country and we need to remember that and a number of the latin america countries like resilient in the lake. i had the dubious distinction some years ago just before the balkans war donna camp lejeune,
my division trained both teams from england. we had a big that going on as to who was going to rain. the point i want to make us a comment in some reference here to the military side. don't underestimate the military side and military relationships. these relationships are long-standing. there are many, many young officers from latin america who are trained in harvard school of the score from the lake and the relationships are what you would expect. it's not just all military. it's a personal people kind of thing. even on latin american countries have marine corps is and the lake except cuba. the relationships they are you just can't explain.
they are there forever. these kind of thinking that goes into this is much more than just military and the like. we have a great opportunity to make things better. i think in terms of policy and the lake and what to do with demonstration, he's picking people who understand what is going on. he's picking people who are very, very knowledgeable about not america, for example and the kind of challenges they face in so i'd. we need to be a basic here. we need to go forward and we need to understand it's a little bit of a different culture and maybe the american people would be wise in learning about other cultures and other processes in the lake. on for treatment of wounded is a
good example. 20 years ago when i was still on to duty and the commandant, i had never sent women marines on security duty is not america or in the mideast simply because the people they are didn't treat women the way they should be. if you want to get in trouble with me, just reader grows with other than dignity. that is changing over time. >> just a comment on when the argentine army began to take within antigo the army, one of the generals commented that the thing to note is the women are infinitely more qualified and prepared them demand because of course this was a new
opportunity for leadership for those women who have not had opportunities. day of education for leadership. >> if we have women make their contributions. when you talk about women doing like an infantry or something like that, that's why java line. we will talk about that another time. the points i want to make is the young people, the aleutians that the young people are hoping to change, that is going on in this country and it's going on all over the world. i think we have some great opportunities here, but our policy has to be consistent. our policies towards latin america have not been consistent in the fifth years or so i've been fooling around with the topic. without commit thank you very much. have a great holiday season and a super new year and come back.