tv Scientific Research on the August 2017 Eclipse CSPAN October 3, 2017 5:00am-6:25am EDT
finish the hearing before 1030 in the morning. we know we will be inspired by our witnesses today to harness the enthusiasm for the clips that we saw when people came together so my husband is a math teacher so he really is excited with whole generation of students that are interested and you translate that into a stem career we're starting to hear from the witnesses today and now what will recognize the ranking member , the gentleman from california for his opening statement.
>> the ??? is exciting on august 21st i went to the science center in sacramento but was great is the number of kids that were out there with their glasses and amateur astronomers and that generation of scientists encouraging those to visit those hero scientist but she was one of the most enthusiastic people i have seen. the african have this enthusiasm and excitement i will keep my comments short.
>> i now recognize the chairman of the full committee. >>. >> than to witness a rare even of a solar eclipse. it was a profound experience for anyone fortunate enough to be in the path of totality exceeding its -- exciting even witnessing a partial eclipse. it has evaded previous generations inspiring a whole new group to study the universe and beyond the 1878 eclipse inspired thomas edison taking a trip to wyoming to measure the sun's corona. the experiment failed but inspired him to think of white and transmission of power but then the next year
he invented the label. who knows what this eclipse will inspire but it has already has enthusiasm for astrophysics and astrophysics -- with sen education lessons and citizen science engaging millions of americans. hearing from a panel of witnesses. looking forward to seeing those photos and videos what scientific studies can come and hearing what is next for solar science. what is to discover more of the universe around us. to turn enthusiasm for the great american eclipse that lasts far beyond the two minutes of totality.
i yield back. >>. >> madam chairman, i like to start by thanking our colleagues in witnesses coming forward in this interesting hearing something that struck me is the level of excitement generated all across the united states it brought us together but also the of web traffic skyrocketed seven times higher than the previous record the online viewing audience compared to the super bowl. even netflix loss 10% of the day's viewership and schools across the country inc. the clips into their teaching programs note telling how it
captured their fascination and how they thoroughly enjoyed to explain including to my grandchildren though little cereal boxes that we made but a rare curb an wonderful event. as an inspiration to our youth and the way it was like a space mission brought into our own backyard. i am excited of the 2024 eclipse that could be more impressive because the path of totality troubles right across my home state of
texas. thank you for your testimony and i look forward to that. i yield back. >> i will now introduce our witnesses the first witness is the acting assistant director for physical science foundation and the assistant director of the observatory with the baseline array of radio telescopes for with the jet propulsion and laboratory from university of california los angeles and from the university of maryland. the second witness today. [laughter] is associate administrator
previously served as a professor at the university of michigan working on several science missions like the messenger spacecraft and also having his ph.d. in physics from switzerland. the third witness is the executive vice president for research and astronomy a group of institutions astronomical observatories including the national optical observatory and the jim and i observatory serving as one that devises nasa on the development of the james webb space
telescope repair receiving her undergraduate degree from m.i.t. and also our fourth witness dr. penn astronomer at the national solar observatory in arizona. he works on the eclipse experiment. to specifically working in high eight --- hawaii with instrumental requirements has his degree from caltech in astronomy and also from the university of ye. our last witness is the director of public observing at the planetarium in chicago.
weld developing shows and programs she also leads the telescope and observatory area. has her degree in physics and astronomy from university of illinois and masters of education degree and i now recognize that our first witness for his testimony. >> thank you. chairman and ranking members and members of the subcommittee i.m. the assistant director for mathematical director at the national science foundation figures for the opportunity to testify today and will focus on the so-called research efforts and a large scale of reach associated so august 21st is an expedite -- an exciting day with the
total solar eclipse the first in the continental united states since 1979. so those from around the world gathered across a the country for this extraordinary event. the total solar eclipse also might wusses blocked for over two minutes organ through south carolina with a 70 myall why pass -- a 70-mile wide path. so the sun is the basis for life on earth to with the magnetic field to affect the power grid amba
communication system and the fundamental importance to sponsor a broader way of research. interactive development of sunspots to recapture on technology so during the eclipse so the nsf our atmosphere research in partnership with the smithsonian flew aboard the gulfstream five research collecting infrared data there are not results yet but they will be here over the next year. so researchers then general study the behavior of the
sun like the solar storms coming toward earth so the network group of six silver monitoring telescopes' provides full time monitoring of the sun and is this based forecasting models. >> so first i want to say it is delivered by a factor of a thousand by the high school teacher in the random citizens in amateur astronomers. so one experiments that had an experiment of identical telescopes along the path of
totality high-school groups and universities. so we were pleased to be in wyoming this of full increase in population for one day you will hear more about this later but with the american astronomical society including a program with 31 projects in 21 states. as far as the future goes the new centerpiece will be complete in hawaii. and give researchers a close-up view of the solar corona without having to wait for a solar eclipse be enhanced understanding will
undoubtedly contribute to better predictions of the other in the future -- solar weather in the future in the attempt of wonder and curiosity with that basic research will revolutionize the future and we're looking forward to the next eclipse and 2024 and also 2023 so you have day six much rehearsal and we enjoy the support of the public will dash a public for their ongoing support to serve the people of the united states. >> madam chair and members of the subcommittee as day mission director with thousands of volunteers in partners' employees make that eclipse the biggest
media event in the modern history of nasa you explain the experience and to say that monday august reversed across the continental u.s. almost a first time in a century but 45,000 feet over the pacific ocean in the aircraft got fitted with science experiments for before during and after the event. look. look. incredible. do you see that just before?
working with the nasa team over three years to keep focused on priorities with public engagement set to accomplish these we could not do it alone the entire agency rallied for with major functions and defense the eclipse was the biggest our reach in modern nasa history working with partners to be engaged across 14 states nearly 7,000 libraries it to museums and planetariums and science centers and national parks and baseball stadiums. more than 50 million across national -- the nasa platforms these numbers exceed previous records.
it was clear not only professionals were moved but a mitscher's alike. this is what nasa science does for us every day. so now from the various assets 11 are focused on this event as well as the aircraft and like a not help myself launching next year their probe traveling closer to the sun bin any time before hoping to expand the probe of. really bad is the rosetta's stone to understand all stars in the universe. and then to take advantage of the unique opportunities those that were selected that measure is the hall to the atmosphere and later the
testify to the solar eclipse. they witnessed the total solar eclipse as day disappeared from the sky they scrambled as much data as possible from the crowd of. the sun's corona is the source of the solar storm for go that refers to the effect of the solar system. we live inside the atmosphere of an active star. in 1859a monster solar storm stunned the world those telegraph systems worldwide emitting sparks that not only short - - shocked the operators beset the paper on fire.
it is sobering to imagine that disruption of that type of storm with today's infrastructure with the gps satellite. that is why with us a critical national imperative. into studied the sun after a corona. and then the national solar observatory but when completed in in 2020 to use the most powerful telescope. to have the sun's corona and magnetic field so let me return to the of a solar
eclipse that is a unique opportunity to public engagement. and focusing efforts at the safety. and with a social media campaign with a variety of content including a monthly web cast. so is though to be participating in the solar our reach events. the first is in wyoming all these years of effort to prepare a tiny community of to the people. and though will call sheriff's office said 185,000 people descended the
second event in salem or again focused on high school students and to train a dozen students all of whom are minorities in the stem field to be ambassadors for science and to lead programs for the community. looking to the future another solar eclipse will sweep the country from texas to mean that we're planning to engage students in the of underrepresented groups well in advance to prepare a new set of students than for my colleague to develop the ambitious program to combine public engagement with science and i would like to share a video of several young people in his program. >> when alexis from the
reservation school in northern montana. taking a road trip with their science teacher to study the eclipse. >> is an amazing opportunity this is real life science to help them to be exposed what opportunities there are in the future. >>. >> we were trying to get pictures. >> when the moment finally arrived at darkness descended and then it revealed itself. the toll solar eclipse. and then before they knew it , it was over. these remote kids the two minutes in 27 seconds will stay with them for a lifetime.
>>. >> these young people help us to gather those eclipse data ever recorded and now i turn it over to you dr. penn to describe his program i appreciate your attention. >> dr. penn?. >> madam chair members of the subcommittee things for the invitation to speak about citizen's cape experiment crying tears of joy the students from the high-school it was raining in nebraska but jack and the students were eager to collect data it speaking
with the radio and tv reporters from the program. the media coverage coverage across the nation finding decade students -- citizen's cape students not known for scoring a touchdown with doing a stem project but even then we have a gap in the understanding and opens up a window to allow us to study the inner corona in the "citizen kane" experiment is designed to take advantage of that opportunity from the data that fills the gap of our understanding of the corona. so with the north and south poles through the of then magnetic structures like sitting across the table
watching your daughter drink a milkshake through the invisible straw. we can measure the velocity of the solar wind. but that has implications and is critical be understand it. on the day of the eclipse they had enormous success 62 images collected of the corona into a we're joined to show those eclipse models to take data on that 50 hard-line inez stadium of 5,000 cheering fans. and then to capture images with their telescope on the left you can see the of corona to be filtered on the of a right ashley enhanced that brings out details you cannot see with your i.
each shows the of solar atmosphere more than a million miles across. b just a two minutes you don't see a lot of changes during that short period of time but when combined allows us to see changes of 93 minutes of time. so put together to collect 45,000 images of the corona that day but in four weeks could only process 300 to show today. if the moon is that the 7:00 position you concede those moving away from the sun and 20,000 miles per hour which is pretty slow the now 5:00 you can see it quicker that is from the south pole of the sun traveling 200,000 miles per hour per pro even just 1 percent
analyzed now we get a new view of the solar corona we have not seen before. i will close to sit total solar eclipse is been a humbling experience teaches us we're smart enough to predict when developer and to the next eclipse is visible april 8, 2024 but if we go further to figure out went is it visible from dallas texas we can predict what 57:00 p.m. on saturday june 30th, 2345. mark your calendars. it is a humbling experience teaches us we have no control and that we are little people sitting on the big rock watching the show it doesn't matter your nationality or a george under, total solar eclipse
is a moving and human experience i've afford to enjoying the next total solar eclipse with all of you in 2024 and in answering your questions. >> thank you for this opportunity to testify august 21st, and millions of people gathered with friends and family say and strangers with the tens of thousands so no matter the size of the group with that astronomical spectacle. and those efforts of public impeachment those organizations as the astronomical society of the pacific helps institutions and groups talk to each other.
serving as a clearing house for the content to help the media and the public and the educators. university of missouri columbia about many audience engagement lead -- levels. to organize those students with the path of totality wanted to enjoy the sight of the partial eclipse. reaching millions across the country. we had several goals. increase the capacity of organizations around the chicago area, make the residence in the region aware of what is happening to empower them with the school -- the skills and tools what they need as a trusted source of information bin to get them
interested in the universe even if not previously? and to bring chicago together. our e events were free and open to everyone. in addition we brought that outreach program at 2,300 people in southern illinois. we are honored to be asked to a system planning to facilitate those events with international attention. in to distribute free of charge 250,000 safe eclipse viewing glasses including 10,000 given to schools to help students watch the eclipse during the school day. the chicago public blubbery system held activities that
dozens of branches. the parks help defense and the of botanic garden, and wonder works children's museum had opportunities that will come thousands more. even those who did not but the block party held attracted 60,000 people which is 10 times the of highest number ever recorded at 10 percent of the annual attendance for perot it was a cross section of a diverse population those that never interacted previously. the number people directly impacted were to be over half a million. the next logical step is what's next? this kind of effort is what institutions
already do. you already are better connected with the universe. the public interest to scale of burt's upward to welcome more people and she responded with a busy as and that was staggering. in addition the planetarium hopes this incredible experience will lead to financial am program support for its us to continue to provide to the public. support to communicate with each other with the small programs to have been packed and high quality science activities that low or no cost to the underserved populations. we hope that making science
engaging to all have to strengthen communities socially, culturally and economically after all be shyest -- share a sky above our heads and everybody deserves the opportunity to engage with it. >> i now recognize myself for questions. first of all, it is to thank all of you with your universal experience i loved watching the plane. i really enjoy it having the of bird's-eye view and how all of the communication before he and to get everybody participating, and have a large group event.
>> so it is worse than the normal traffic. but it is a great sign of the engagement. so how do we captured this in to stem science? that was a wonderful point that some it is a teaching moment going forward for those that have. >> we are committed to continuing the discussion and engagement of these types with a focus on telling the of story whether the discovery of put it elsewhere or the earth or
everything in between to focus. on those dumb activities are through a series of collaborations' with those activities across the country to focus on both sides of the of population but also to carry the message for word pro where even for those that were represented. >> i appreciate the comments from the indian reservation and how you are engaging them. but two of my students were to do young women we tried
to focus on science. we have civic maybe address how you were able to engage. now we have the in spiral benin active in trying to get mile per women engaged. asking the of the bill witnesses how we may do some of that step we are fortunate the government has given us about in teaching the young people and giving them of passengers themselves? is a fabulous way to engage in people and stop and stand in the leadership roles.
to be engaged in this type of activity. and then to try to expand those things as well. and then to have the young people engaged in been intellectually and emotionally. >> one of the projects and then to teach teen store young people. one of the goals is the increasing the capacity for their own opportunities. it was a great test but we hope to do more of it with other partners and museums with those we have now worked with before to reach other audiences. teams and that is important
as well. >> thinks all of you again it was an incredible and i cannot think -- thank you enough with that enthusiasm going forward. >> i hate to it mitt it unfortunately i was not in the country the day of the eclipse and neighbors said his plans were driving down from chicago so you didn't know where they go or see it with a weather forecast but then it was just something raising the excitement and i
remember from my childhood it wasn't anything like a total eclipse. i remember that. it is a great that it isn't too long we will have an opportunity. to be aware of the long term interest activities because you capture attention and people's interest of the zero do you keep that going? >> make sure people are aware there are other things
to learn. >> this is what the planetarium has done. the goal in the future nattily broadly those that were in the team program area so try to hook them get them involved in real science per go not just to have people beg give them other opportunities to come back to the planetarium and explore resources to go in more depth. so we have ways for kids to be involved taking reels of money in the data and potentially recovering
pieces of meteorite from the floors of lake michigan in this is the way to reach people not just broadly but to focus on the fact that science's best engaged when real. >> anybody else?. >> we designed of funding for the emperor and stations you can't keep your telescopes' the day after but it is a group but we have a working group that would like to follow up with 19 projects. so if you were excited and now excited about stem? >> what is it you expect to
without implications and also for those for those that were mentioned but also the new of solar to make predictions and used operational lead by the air force and know what so this gave the said chance to test the model against noaa to see if with a predicted was close to the truth or not to enable us to do better in the future. >> i yield back. >> i recognize myself. i am sitting in for the subcommittee chairman. and closer than we have
never been to the sun with that technological advancements, what do we go. >> this is the they were trying to pay your out? it is not clear that really are for erecting the sexology but what is a space. >> that is either very hot on the front or in the back at room temperature. and then the high a temperature solar panel but
>> do you have any good predictive models for this? what are we currently doing, one big topic today's infrastructu infrastructure, the electric grid whether it be man-made or some natural disasters have been like this, if you can answer this i could appreciate it one of the activities that took place yesterday when we are preparing for this discussion.
it's real, it's gonna happen sooner or later. so what are we doing to prepare put for that? a lot of people are thinking about it. every year there's people who get together that include people who are interested in trying to mitigate, prepare, how to set up infrastructure so it's more robust, how to prepare satellite so we know if an event is going to happen what can we do to part-time to make sure they're not quite severely damaged. many groups are in the government were working collaboratively together noah, fema, the air force, all of these groups have been talking actively about this. the subjects that's on people's minds. >> i like to hear from anybody else has anything?
>> for the last three years under the national science and technology council there's been a group called operation research task force. they have the weather plan back in late 2015. that involved doctor hamel said nasa and nsf, fema, department of energy. so understanding how to predict solar storms and then understanding is your response and how does you public utilities respond. given the probability of a solar storm, what should they do? one of the things we've been doing recently is working on establishing benchmarks for the level of solar activity that will cause us to recommend certain actions of the government. it's good to see different agencies working.
in the course of my daily life i wouldn't interact with fema's i think it's good that we have that opportunity through this task force. >> thank you, my time is expired. been active with fema here lately too. we had hurricane harvey down there. i appreciate your testimony. >> thank you. thank you char witnesses. in from oregon, so this is a very big deal in our state the estimates for about a million people, we only a four-minute 4 million people living in oregon. so it was really important for state it was awe-inspiring. we had families from all over the world traveling to my home state, they hosted a big event, we had thousands of people for viewing, they hosted exhibits
the university had research projects that they initiated on the coast. a team of students from osu lost a balloon from the research vessel. to capture live video of the eclipse. this investigated the high altitude temperature so that was exciting. the ocean observatory initiatives used instruments to study how zoo plankton responded. an hour before the sky went dark they started their nighttime feeding, the ocean temperature barely moved even at totality. an amazing experience. from i felt that i was at 99% my own neighborhood, the temperature drops significantly and that was the first thing everybody could feel, as the sky
began to turn dark we saw the wavy lines. it was an amazing experience. i wanted to ask you about citizen k. i saw how many sites you had across oregon. what a great way to capture so much as the clips moved across the country. i read and heard a bit about your funding challenges along the way. can you talk about the importance of the federal funding from nsf and i know that was a big part. but as we set budget priorities here is important have another example of where flight girl funding made a difference. >> we started out in 2016 by getting a grant to do some student training. so miles was one of the students
we packed up students with telescopes and sent them to indonesia to get on the job training. when they returned we had summer programs and they did research the most are partly they ran training workshops for 2017 volunteers across the country. not only took the burden off me to train 68 teams but empowered them to learn about physics and have the experience of the eclipse. building instrumentation funding was a challenge but looking back i'm amazed at the cooperation from we had people donating telescopes amounts and other major corporate sponsors and the national science foundation the quick we had about 30 sites to raise up to 16 sites total.
was a challenge but a great honor to be involved, color maker you may not have heard of him, they make food dye, the ceo is an astronomer and he read about the program. >> that's a wonderful example of partnerships. i know from your background you had an important role in bringing the experience to the public. talk about outrage and the level of participation, how did you reach audiences and groups not typically engaged? >> we started working with libraries to bring telescopes to them and teach folks how to use them. then they were able to use them on the eclipse. we intend to keep that going forward and reach more libraries and other institution schools.
we worked with other institutions including the botanic garden and arboretum to teach their staff about science related to the eclipse but also tried to connect with their audiences such as seeing the eclipse shadow through the leaves of trees. >> i'm on the education committee and i had a concern that some schools were planning to close because there concerned that they went protect students eyes. we need to prepare ahead for the next eclipse this is a great learning opportunity for students. we'll get the glasses. that's a serious concern in oregon. i would also follow up on some leading theories about the outstanding questions is wise it so much hotter than the surface of what are we hoping to learn
and what are these experiments conducted and how will they advance our understanding? >> looking at images of different temperatures, we've had a short network of a few sites. the acceleration of wins. >> as i yield back, in 1979 at the time of the eclipse, abc news report said about the world on august 21, 2017, made the shadow of the moon fall on the world of peace. >> thank you madam chair.
i have short questions. she would call this the great american eclipse? what will we call the next one? >> good question. >> is like saying this is my favorite child. >> i worried about it too. i don't know. i don't have a good idea for this moment. >> i voice been concerned is it just accidental? we look at the sky and the disc of the moon looks the same size to us as the disk of the sun. if you look at the picture if the moon were bigger smaller the eclipse with the way it does. is it accidental verse or something bigger driving this?
>> the earth is falling down in its rotation due to the forces of the moon. the moon loose further away. i was curious about your question because the moon loose away at 7 centimeters per year. well when will it be too far away to net ever have a total solar eclipse and its hundreds of millions of years. so we have some time you. >> if you go into theories of why humans appeared on earth at a certain time you can probably come up with something but i don't think their scientific reason the moon and sun happen to be the same angular size right now. >> i think will recommend that we have a hearing coming up alone but you back. pgh so, solar pro, how long will it survive?
is it can be going for two minutes and 48 seconds? >> no, i'm not i think you'll make several orbits and gather data on both. >> hopefully it will survive longer, it's cranking down so the first time in place by is closer to venus in the mercury and then really taken the close part to its 9.8 solar radii. >> when you are on the airplane we didn't have your glasses on. do not need the glasses wanted set totality? >> i brought my glasses for this purpose.
once totality has been achieved you can take off the glasses and then you have a fantastic view. you need these classes when any piece of sun is exposed. i'm so sorry that you only saw 99% eclipse. >> but it's really great if you can get into the path of totality. the difference between 99% to 100 is the difference between day and night. even that tiny piece of the sun is a million times brighter than the krona. once you have the last bit disappear behind the moon everything changes. i hope for 2024 you make the track to the totality line. >> doctor hamel is struck with the notion that we gave out
4.3 million classes that 51% intended. >> does that mean we have a hundred 61 million people that can expect i damage? >> no. we could share glasses. the amount of the leads up to totality when you must have these classes takes over an hour. see put them on any see it being chipped away by the moon and then you take them off and hang out with your family and friends in a few minutes later he put it back on again. there's a great deal of sharing that goes on. there's other ways to experience the eclipse. cereal boxes a good way to do it and that can teach kids about optics and how a pinhole can act like a telescope.
all of us involved in outreach shared other ways of enjoying the eclipse. one of the lessons we learned is that we need to be more rigorous and ensuring that there are many millions of classes available in the 2024 event. i share my own experience. i work with a teacher in virginia as she was training 500 fellow teachers that day. they ordered their classes from amazon and when this came about they couldn't be sure their glasses were safe, we brainstormed on the other ways the teachers could experience eclipse. we'll take the lesson to heart because in 2024 the eclipses and april in schools will be in session.
we want to make sure everybody can experience eclipse and experience it safely. >> thank you madam chair. i wanted to about the days leading up to the eclipse. another is a lot of confusion about the glasses and amazon issued a recall in some of these classes that were out there in the marketplace. can you talk about the efforts that your agencies made to help spread information about the glasses? as far as the general public is concerned were having this meeting today but in 2024 they want to know about what to use again. is there any lesson that you can talk about?
>> we funded the american astronomical society to create a webpage of resources. that webpage had instructions on what you should or shouldn't do. if you know where to go but i think the lesson for that is that we need to be more aggressive about marketing that webpage and information and do more pushing out to the public rather than waiting for people to stumble across it because it showed up on their browser. >> is a public institution we directed people to that webpage as a trusted source of information. we also got her glasses from one of the trusted manufacturers. for those still concerned,
definitely pushing the other ways it wasn't necessary to have the glasses there were other ways that it was perfectly safe. so getting the messages across. >> what you think about lessons learned? what steps you took to make sure you were getting them correctly and trying to get the information out to the public. this or something else we can do to prepare better? >> get the word out sooner. it was hectic at the end, maybe the last two or three weeks, people were concerned every day. definitely working with partners and media several months ahead.
>> it's important to recognize that not everybody is getting them the same way. my children if they ever see me it's on instagram which i don't hang out there so basically it's looking at all the communication channels. what help with the classes of people practicing upfront and then it was clear is days ahead that these glasses were not safe. and thank god for the companies replacing them. so using all communication channels relevant to making sure we don't take it for granted.
>> i myself had the pleasure of watching the eclipse with students and their families at the joliet library viewing parting in my district. but my panelist i was encouraged to see people from every walk of life taken an interest in science because of the eclipse. i'm a scientist i like numbers. a few weeks ago i became aware of a nasa funded research project led by doctor john miller to actually quantify who viewed the eclipse, how people prepared for, gathered information for when and how they viewed it, and in the months and weeks following, the effect that it had on their scientific engagement literacy. seems like it was fact-based public engagement that nasa should be engaged in.
i was thrilled to see the report. i would like to enter into the wreck a preliminary version of the report. it's entitled americans in their 2017 solar eclipse. with that out of the way, one of the ways that on to mention is just to capture a sentence from his report during the two months prior to the eclipse adults try to improve their understanding of the coming event. in trying to understand that you understand doctor miller has an aggressive program with expanding and looking at things like social media to quantify this. if any of you have specific familiarity with that i'd be happy to hear comments on.
>> so it was we were really excited about it, but the coverage that we managed to get altogether, not just one source. also of course a lot of studies are ongoing. i'm glad that you're looking at the initial report i will make sure that we draw your attention to the final report once it's been completed. we feel it's absolutely crucial for the social sciences to make sure outreach efforts are targeted and up-to-date as things are changing. >> is always nice to see government doing this job well. to get to scientific things, how much overlap is between preparation and litigation for
the events and impairments caused by potential nuclear attacks? is the separate medication or are there enough similarities to what you have to protect? the time structure and intensity are very different. >> i can say a few words about that which i learned about listening to my fema collects, they have lots of plans on the shelf and when they start thinking about what is going to be the results of a space weather event to go to the shelf and say here's the kind of thing that we have that looks like a space weather event. so an emp pulse i mentioned is one of the things they say looks like a safe weather event. within my organization, and sf, we don't engage in that
activity. but they take a starting point what they already have. so they say what's different than a solar event that another event we study. >> so one of the major differences between the two is the geographic extent of the event. the real worry about the solar event of the type that was outlined earlier is that it will be regional in nature. what happened in an electrical system would overload. far less is a local thing like lightning or pulse, their similarities relative to the physics locally. but there's real differences related to the geographic event and overall extent of the damage that could occur from it. >> and all nuclear events are not created equal.
wanted to encourage you to share your planning on that. neither the two events are low probability events. dealing with low probability high damage events this something that our democracy does not do well. i'm encouraged to see that you're thinking about part of that problem. >> thank you. again thank her witnesses for the great experience you provided for students and people across the country, i was seeing the web activity in heaven that captured and now the information you have going forward is exciting to see it in action. i believe we only have about nine minutes.