tv Keynote Address by Sen. Ben Cardin D-MD CSPAN May 15, 2018 7:09pm-8:01pm EDT
william hitchcock on his book, the age of eisenhower, america and the world in the 1950s. >> i call it the disciplined presidency and eisenhower, in the way he carried himself and the man he was, was the discipline manned and a great athlete and when he was young and an organized man in every respect and very methodical but that is how we iran the white house. he was extremely organized. a lot of people especially the young senator, future president john kennedy, criticized eisenhower's starting us for being so disciplined and organized applicable. for eisenhower it meant that when crises came he had a plan and knew how to respond and he knew who to turn to and used to say plans are worthless but planning is everything. you're always thinking what is over the hill and what crisis my abrupt and we should be thinking about it. he was very systematically governed. he met the past every week and congressional leaders every week and he chair the national security council every week and he had his thumb on the
government entrusted the process and believed the federal government could work well if it was the lead. >> q&a, sunday night at 8:00 eastern on his been. >> senate for relations committee been carded on congress' role in imposing tensions against russia. he had the keynote address of a summit hosted by the center for strategic and international studies and following his remarks he is to questions from the audience for this is that the minutes. >> we are absolutely delighted to welcome senator been carded. you have always been incredibly generous to see us and the last time here was a year ago in october 2016 and you gave an
inspirational message about transformational leadership and international affairs with the doctor. my favorite time when your last year was in november, november 17, 2016. it was week after the election and we were hosting a trans electric forum on russia. it could not have been more timely moment and you gave us such an inspirational message about the need for transatlantic values and unity protecting democracy from malign influence. it surprised no one naturally after that you were instrumental in drafting and supporting the counteracting russian hostilities act of 2017 and in january under your leadership the senate foreign relations committee issued a significant
report that i would commend you all to read entitled vitamins asymmetrical's assault on democracy and applications financial security. in the report and gave us practical ideas to help the united states to protect itself from malign influence in you gave us many ideas to give us ideas to restructure our bureaucracy after 911 in order to address this new challenge. senator been carded was elected to the senate in 2006 and served the distinction on the finance committee as well as impairment and public works committee in addition to the senate foreign relations committee is currently ranking member of the entrepreneurial committee. senator cardin is a long and outstanding career in public service serving in the house of representatives from 1987-2006 and prior to that the maryland house of delegates from 1957 ivan 1996. what i most admire is a long-standing commitment and work on the us helsinki commission act he is been a
stalwart member since 1993 and currently serves as a ranking senate democrats. this is about anticorruption, transparency, respect for human rights and dignity which in my mind are the core attributes of american exceptionalism and our greatness. i thank you for always serving as the stalwart and please join me in thanking senator cardin for being here with us mac. >> heather, thank you for that very generous introduction. it's great to be back. i might take a look at some of my notes from november 2016 to see just how things have changed in a short period of time but it is wonderful to be here and also interesting to be invited back so it means i must've done something right and i thank you for your interest. i know you've been through two panels that talked about the economic and political consequences of the sanction
regime imposed and led by the united states globally against russia from its incursion into ukraine. i would certainly comment about that but i will put this in a broader context because i think it's important to understand the purposes of the sanctions and the purposes of using these tools in order to yes, change behavior of russia but also to change but americans correlations in regard to future activities which i think is extremely important to understand. thank you for having me here. the sanctions are part of our smart power arsenal that we use in order to try to advance us national security priorities. on sanctions us leadership is indispensable for two major reasons. first, it is our economy that has the power to enforce the
sanctions. every country in the world wants to do business with the united states and it is our banking system which is the major enabler of international commerce. when we impose sanctions it has a major statement but it is also a second thing in addition to having the economic power from the united states of america and our institutions in economy. it also acts as a major driver for leadership for other countries to act. yes, have been able in many cases through us leadership to get other countries back when we oppose tough new sanctions the international community joined us ultimately it led to the cancellations by iran and they be better off negotiating a nuclear agreement and we'll see what happens to that agreement by tomorrow but at least that was the important step taking through us leadership.
that is why it becomes particularly important. you are talking about four years ago when russia invaded ukraine and annexed crimea. the united states had to act and do something. this was a flagrant violation of everything understanding by russia and its actions on ukraine. congress passed a ukraine freedom support act and that was 2014 and we made it clear that we insisted upon stations being imposed unless russia complied with agreements so it was a pretty simple bill. comply with the agreement and it wasn't thought too much to ask and yet russia today is still not complied with agreements. we were able to get the europeans to work with us and they're much closer to russia in the point of view of their economy so it was extremely important to get europe's
cooperation in dealing with th that. our purpose for using these tools is yes, to change russian behavior but we want and will never recognize russia's annexation of crimea is a part of ukraine but we will make that clear and president trump will make that clear so part of it is to make it clear what our policy is and that's to get russia to stop to interfere with the sovereignty of other countries but it is also to change the calculation. we go back in history as to what was the motivating cost for russia encourage into motorola but they did not pay a price. we could then say what happened in georgia and again history of this and how the georgians responded and all of that played into the international response but russia did not pay and so i paid a heavy price for
excursions into georgia and in ukraine it was different and there was a much stronger statement and we made it clear that that was not acceptable. russia paid a price and we will calculate what impact it has on the economy and what impact it had on politics and we could argue that back and forth but it is clear to me that because we acted it is changing the calculation of bottom opinions on the use of his force as it relates to solving all the problems outside of russia. that is one of its major purposes. let me go back, if i might, about ten years ago and heather mentioned my work on the helsinki commission. ten years ago i got involved in the human rights campaign and i've been involved in human rights ever since i've been in congress of the united states and a young lawyer and he was a young lawyer representing the us
company basically in russia and was being cheated so he was taking on the case and as a russian lawyer he did what he was was doing he did his due diligence and found out that there was a significant russian corruption. he did what any lawyer is supposed to do and reported it to the local authorities and as a result he was imprisoned, tortured, ultimately lost his life. he came to helsinki commission's attention and we decided to do something about it. we took action and i sent an order there and to secretary of state clinton is suggesting that we use the power of this country to go after those who violated international human rights and the way they treated sergey by denying that those individuals the right to visit our country or user banking system and that was during the reset stage
between russia and the united states and the obama and ministration wasn't interested in putting another issue on the plate of their bilateral relations with russia. they did not take action. one of the great things about our democracy as we have an independent congress but we don't have the same dramatic problems that secretary of state or the president have. we took action and senator mccain was my partner and you can have a sangha partner in human rights and senator mccain. we worked together and we passed the surrogate act and it required an evaluation of those responsible for surveys tragedy to be held animal and not be able to visit our country and we passed it. it was signed into law and it took a while but the president ultimately enforced it. as you know, the reaction of vladimir putin was immediate. he took action against adoptions in his own country by foreign
entities and as you know he is always been very much affected by this statute. look at the conversations that took place in trump towers this was an issue of direct interest for mr. putin. it had an impact far beyond the individuals and sanctions do have an effect. it is part of the overall strategy. today we have the global law that applies globally to those who violate human rights. it is working in other countries file our leadership and other countries have passed their own statutes and it is becoming a universal standard. it makes a difference. when we look at sanctions understand that it is part of an overall strategy to get a change in action. heather mentioned the report
that was offered that i offered in january of this year on russia's asymmetric arsenal that is used by mr. putin to accomplish his objectives. that report pointed out that yes, he used military and you already talked about that but he also uses tools such as funding opposition leaders and other countries to try to cause unpredictable results particularly those that are less likely for unification in europe and more likely to have a positive relationship with russia. we saw that he tried to interfere with the expansion of nato by financing a coup in montenegro. we found that he tried to deal with misinformation propaganda in european elections to solve that in germany where he created and tight migrant themes to try to affect angela merkel's
reelection to leadership. we know that he's you cyber liquid he's done in america with cyber attacks and continuing to use cyber attacks and he is urbanized energy resources and uses corruption. here he had he spent his entire life basically in public service and reported to be one of the wealthiest individuals in the world and he depends upon corruption. it fuels his asymmetric arsenal. if you his ability. yes, he takes out his opposition permanently take out his opposition and as we have seen by murderers that have taken place that clearly have the fingerprints of vladimir putin in these efforts. of course, we saw the poisoning in the uk. he had supported the corrupt leader in syria in the war criminal assad and seven years russia has been responsible for helping create the largest
displaced population we have seen since world war ii. why is he doing all of this? what is his objective? it is pretty clear to me his objective is to bring down our democratic way of life and to advance his autocratic corrupt type of regime because if you have autocracies you have a better chance for corruption where he can drive in other countries and he is making progress and just look at what is happening globally. look at three of our nato allies hungary, poland in turkey. with the rise of nationalism and what happened in those countries and we have two eu countries in hungary and poland and he is causing lack of unity in europe and george's aspirations to be a nato partner is very much
affected by russian activity in georgia. he has had greater global influence and look at his activities in syria and other countries around the world. russia which is an economy that is smaller than italy or smaller than south korea for the population is much larger he is demonstrated that russia can have global influence and he can't do it this economy so he doesn't do this asymmetric arsenal. he has been effective. he has clearly impacted politics in the free world and the west was unprepared for this. we are looking at terrorism spread and how we can defend ourselves against terrorism and we were attacked on 911 and what can we do to deal with these groups and we were not prepared for the new warfare on information affecting the minds of those in democratic
countries. we certainly know that the corruption is flourishing today. what do we need to do? you need us leadership. it is vitally important that he did not acknowledge mr. putin's acknowledgment in the 2016 alum elections and the president called him to graduate him on his election but is not free and fair and he has not used the sanctions that congress almost unanimously approved last year against russia and was reluctant to use appropriated funds that the congress made available to counter the russian activities so we had the capacity to deal with misinformation that he is doing and when you compare this to -- and with the mixed signals that ambassador haley on her announcement that there would be
additional sanctions imposed and that the president undermines the un ambassador compare that to europe for the leaders have spoken out against the prime minister's statements about the poisoning in the uk and how the social media is under attack in the united states is way behind. we need to do more. my point is very clear. sanctions are important and you all today are analyzing it. how much of the russia economy was affected by the sanctions? i will leave that to the economists and i'm sure it had an impact but that is not how i judge the effectiveness of the stations. i see unity with europe and the united states into russia we will not that you do this without a price. there is a price and us leadership has been effective in bringing that about. today it's very difficult for us
to evaluate how sections work together against russia because the president has not imposed the stations but we envisioned much stronger sanctions against russia by now and they passed a statute that has mandatory sanctions on the crude oil and mandatory sanctions on foreign financial institutions and has mandatory stations on the vendors of serious human rights abusers in the russian federation and mandatory stations in regards to transactions with intelligence. it has mandatory sanctions in regards to the privatization of state owned access and mandatory stations on transfer of arms and related material in syria. congressman said a year ago this administration has failed to apply these mandatory sanctions and you're evaluating the sections that were opposed in regard to ukraine and there
should have been a much tighter sanctions against russia so it's pretty hard to make a full evaluation but i stand by the point that if you don't stand up to mr. putin he will keep doing what he is doing and he will use his military, he will uses corruption and use misinformation and you cyber, energy, unless we stand up and say no, we will not let you do this. i much prefer to use sanctions then use [inaudible]. it is an effective way to deal with us. ultimately, it is the russian people that are suffering under mr. putin's regime. i say this over and over again that we have so many brave russian leaders who i've had a chance to meet with over the years who told me that the
survey sanction was the most pro- russian bill ever passed by congress made the sanctions are imposed not only to keep us safe but to bring about a change in russia through the russian people. so that their human rights are respected and i hope that the lesson we learned over the last four years is that inconsistent messages to mr. putin undermine the clear message that we are trying to send. to the extent that the sanctions have not brought about the change that we want to see and it's not because they are ineffective but because they are not effective enough. we need to do more. ...
>> the clock is ticking and wew. what struck me about your comment was the incredible role of congress and sanctions. not that the executive branch ever likes to have form policy dictated to a, we know that. you have underscored this because the legislative branch does not implement those sanctions. looking ahead, we had midterm elections, are there other tools that congress can use to help
compel the executive branch to follow the law? >> the one part of the russian policy that i find identical between the obama administration and the trump administration, both trump and obama would prefer congress to stay out of things. there's a general view that foreign policy should be handled by the president and congress should not interfere. that has been universal thought by administration after administration. but we have an advantage, the separation of the branches of government and we need to use that. we do not have to have loyalty to our political leader, because we do have the independence of the legislative branch. even when you have the same party controlling we can act as
an independent body and that can give us strength globally. we did the first in iran, where president obama did not want additional sanctions impose, and congress passed the bill unanimously even though the administration to on it. the obama administration recognized that the laws need to be carried out. secretary clinton did a great job in getting other people to follow us, and the sanctions to bring about the climate for negotiations. the bill we passed last year did some extreme things. with the policy on the government, congresses. so, we took away from the presidency a lot of discretion in imposing and removing sections. so these are mandatory sanctions. yes, recalling the administration people to task. i want to give the trump
administration credit, they been doing a good job identifying individuals for sanctions. they need to do the same thing under the mandatory sanctions on russia. under this statute, they cannot eliminate certain stations without coming to congress. i think we can change the relationship between the executive and legislative branches if we need to, but we need to work together. we are better will were united. we hope the president follows the policies of congress, but there are things we can do. restrict certain funds, we disagreed with the president's policies in certain parts of the world and put restrictions on how those must be construction.
>> mr. pompeo says some very tough for its on russian policy and said he would push back. i know you do not support his nomination as secretary of state, are you feeling better the we will have a more consistent message from the state department now that secretary pompeo is there? >> on russia, i say complementary things about mr. pompeo. i thought his statements were the right statements. his history about the congress and cia director gives us confidence that he understands russia. believes the actions congress has taken should be implemented. >> it will be interesting to see how the state department follows up with that.
another thing we talked about before you arrived, there could be perception in the kremlin, where hitting them with many different sanctions, crimea sanctions, the lewinsky act, we have behavior elsewhere. is there a point where russia feels like no matter what we do they're going to keep it was hard. so i would we change our behavior if we'll never get out from underneath. are you concerned in some ways are sanctioned policies may be reinforcing the view that the kremlin doesn't see a way out? >> i think rush is doing a lot of things wrong. when you attack our country that crosses the line. they attacked us in the pre-elections, that. >> host: any dispute. that is attacking independent
sovereign country. you have to take action. in ukraine they violated the sovereignty of a country. you have to take action. so i do not believe at all that were doing the wrong thing. they're violating basic human national rights. the required our response. that's what the leader of the free world needs to do. doesn't mean we cannot have other bilateral relations, we can work together with north korea and try to resolve their issues, we need to do that. we can have more than one is she going at a time. i recognize that makes it more challenging, we are not the ones that attacked russia, they attacked us. >> the white house is building towards potentially summit meeting with president putin, what would you want to come out of that summit if you could help plan and execute it?
>> i would like to see the president of the united states be very direct to mr. putin as to the conduct that will not be tolerated. we will not tolerate any other credit country trying to interact and interfere with our elections. you can't for an interest cannot mess with our elections. you have to make that clear. secondly, he has to be clear that they made a mistake in ukraine invading the sovereignty of another country. and the agreements need to be complied with. there is a way to eliminate this tension, starting first in the areas of conflict and ultimately resolving crimea to the satisfaction of the
international community. russia might be looking for an offramp. third, russia can play a constructive role in syria. so let's play a constructive role. let's figure out a way we can move forward on a true peace process and let the searing people choose the next leader. russia clearly will have some influence in that. there are some issues i'd like to have a conversation with mr. putin. but, it has to start with a clear statement in understanding in a public way that the whole world knows what he did by attacking our country. it's not isolated. an independent country will not allow another country to attack it without consequences.
>> are we ready for the november other future interference? >> because of the reaction you saw in 2016, mr. putin has taken notice. i think he was testing to see how far he can go. think he was surprised to see the response. since the election he has been much less successful in europe. i think we're much more prepared, we need to deal with social media and know that were prepared on other platforms. elections run at the local level and we have confidence that would be necessary precautions would be taken. we worry about misinformation generated by russia that could influence the term elections. >> president boone was inoculateand aregreater for ano. there were widespread
demonstrations, what is your read on the demonstrations? because there's so many human rights activists, help us on your insights on what you think this is causing's restlessness in russia. >> there very brave people who do this. the russian people want a more open and democratic society. they know what's happening in their country. you're seeing courageous people speaking up for what russians want for the future. and they should be supported. to make it clear that we stand behind their request that the government give them the basic rights they should be able to participate in an election without of your personal safety. you should have equal access to
the democratic state. the elections have never been free and fair. and that's what we should be doing. >> other specific tools we should use with civil's of society? we always had human dimension in russia has been an active enthusiast for the human dimension new tools to use? >> we are all undesirables under russian law. we saw in russia the intimidation of the ngos, now that you seen that occur many countries in europe including some of our nato allies members of the e.u. where they have copied similar laws that are hostile to ngos.
that's unacceptable. we need to speak out as an international community that having access for different points of view is what democratic states are about. you should not demonize international organizations. >> the one set of sanctions that seem to disturb the kremlin the most was that which gave voice to those human rights activist who had a powerful message. we have about ten minutes and i want to bring our audience into the conversation. does anybody of questions? sometimes the microphones are hard to hear so i will repeat the question. >> you mentioned the countries such as hungary, poland and turkey, but what about greece?
we know where country has a lot of power -- free example in macedonia the country aspires to become a nato member while greece boxes and we don't know why. but we know for sure we know it's a dangerous policy. can you tell us, do you think the united states should put more pressure on greece? so that they can become a nato member in july? >> when general spoke to both the senate and the help on
services community he asked what he is concerned about he said the western balkans to your point on the 2016 -- in addition to greece or southern europe. >> in the western balkans, first let me make it clear, there are concerns just about every country in the world including the united states of america we talk about some of the trends our own country that are not healthy, i could do that. but with russia they're doing a direct attempt to not only deal in their own country put to deal and more global way to affect
democratic institutions. that's i put a spotlight on russia. we don't see that from other countries. there have been trends in greece that have been troublesome. the issue in regards to macedonia i would love to see result. to me, this is something that i understand it's a challenge. and i'm not looking at that history so i don't want to but that's an interesting and area where i think they would be well served by that issue. so in regards to serbia, serbia was moving towards immigration in europe and it has slowed down. russia has been partially responsible for that. they recognize that area they can penetrate public opinion and affect the politics of that country. the have been successful in slowing down their interest.
montenegrin was solid and we now have an nato partner and they been over come the issues which is financing the cool. it be helpful for the whole region of bosnia can make greater progress. these were supposed to be temporary i desperately need to get beyond it. so there is significant problems in the region that add to the complexities. russia takes advantages of those problems. they're happy to see those. they don't want to see unity. they were happy with brexit passing. there are indications that russia could have been engaged in that. they're happy to see any matter that makes it less likely for unity in europe. >> i think this is where u.s.
leadership will be very critical. we had a question up front. >> thank you. i'm one of your constituents. the situation with the great comprehensive program of action where my impression is that russia not the european allies in china on a different side than the administration. what you see congress been able to do to maintain that agreement if you think it would be the best thing to do, which is my view. >> i to think it's in our national interest to adhere to the jcpoa as long as iran is in compliance with the agreement. your assumption is correct.
i do believe it's not in the national security interest of the president to have sanctions crack into effect. he'll make the decision tomorrow. so, congress will not take action before tomorrow. the president has made his decision and he will announce it tomorrow. if i were to predict, he will not sign the waiver, which means he is pulling out of the jcpoa. i don't think that will be immediate. i think you'll use it as he has used other strategies that i disagree with to say that you have a little bit of time, lex get it fixed. let's work on it, otherwise we are gone. as soon as he does that iran will use the mechanisms under jcpoa to hold america accountable for its violations. that's very regrettable. iran is the bad guy, not the
united states. iran is doing bad things today outside of that. the better thing would be -- i was listening to the foreign secretary who said what we been saying, let's build on the jcpoa and make it clear iran can never be a nuclear weapon state. let's deal with the weapons and terrorism and impose sanctions. let's build on it not eliminate it. i think the president has made up his mind. congress can do very little. it was an executive agreement. there is no role for congress in regards to the president withdrawing.
>> seems to me that we really lost the ability to ratify treaties and go through that process, as difficult as it is before hand it's a real shortcoming because it reduces the role of congress and the people expressing their wills. you see any hopeful future we can get back to ratify treaties again? >> we have a hard time ratifying treaties that have no contrary see whatsoever. the have no requirements for the united states, it is all one-sided. there is no excuse for not ratifying that. it works against us. these are noncontroversial treaties. bipartisan support and we cannot get two thirds of the vote that the senate requires. i find that frustrating. you are right, it would have been better to have the iran nuclear deal is a treaty. then it doesn't change from one
administration to the next. for the consideration i worked with senator corker to pass the review acts. so congress had a role. that's because the president was doing things become to take away the powers of congress. the review statute worked from the point of view we had a more open process. gives a stronger agreement. the american people understood it better. i think it did do its work but we don't have the stability from one administration to the next because i don't think anyone envisioned once it was signed and executed and enforced that the next administration, even if it was a republican administration would pull out of it. so you're right, we would be better off ratifying treaties.
but in the short term it's like a happen. it will require a different standard. >> it is time to let you go back to congress. we wish we could keep you here but, you are a needed message of u.s. leadership of values, bipartisanship and unity. that is the best medicine we can have at the end of a long day. [applause] [inaudible conversation] [inaudible conversation] [inaudible conversation]
[inaudible conversation] [inaudible conversation] >> a message is clear, we don't want anybody to interfere with the mueller investigation. we don't want congress the president interfere, we won't for cooperation for everyone. our message is clear, just cooperate. think the global community and americans want mr. miller to have access to the information he needs. >> do believe that the country georgia can come close to -- >> i have also is supported george's aspirations of being
nato's partner. obviously they still have problems in the territories. that's been a major obstacle to achieve, but i supported want to see us work out game plans were that can happen. >> use it the trump administration is not using all of the tools. >> i don't think they've used any of the tools let alone all the tools. they missed a deadline for imposing sanctions. i want them to impose sanctions that are required for the intelligence community and defense community and others that are required. >> the trump administration implemented a much broader -- than the obama administration.
>> the congress took dramatic action last year to increase sanctions against russia. we would expect the sanctions to be used. trump has used some sanctions against russia but not at the level we have authorized. so is comparing it to what congress authorized in their same companies that don't want to deal with russia companies they also say that they have an impact in russian foreign policy. to have anything to say about how effective will be sanctions already impose?
>> i understand mr. putin will say different things that i might disagree with there might not be factually accurate. i think sanctions to have an impact. i think there are a lot of companies that want to business with russia so it is having an effect on their economy. we impose sanctions not because we want to hurt them, we want them not to interfere with ukraine or the united states, sovereign countries. is very clear of mr. putin changes course and does not interfere with the sovereignty of other countries we want talk about sanctions because they will not be there. >> today you say that you, congress is ready to increase pressure in russia, what did you mean? congress has already passed sanction regimes. you will find we will continue to use our oversight as we did
during the pompeo hearing. the statements made by mr. pompeo were helpful. will be using appropriation bills and the things we can do to strengthen the hand. >> thank you. [inaudible conversation] [inaudible conversation] [inaudible conversation] >> tonight on c-span2, oral argument in the federal case challenging the trump administration's policy on dock
>> the court case of university of california regents versus the department of homeland security will decide whether the trump administration can rescind daca. this is one hour 15 minutes. >> good afternoon. this is the time for the hearing on regents for the university of california versus the department of homeland security. i understand counsel has split their time three ways. you are to inform the court with the division of time will be. >> i michael from california we will be dividing our minute 14 minutes for the state, eight minutes for the regions and eight minutes for the individual plaintiffs. >> okay. you may proceed.