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tv   Global Forced Migration Crisis  CSPAN  May 31, 2018 2:53pm-5:11pm EDT

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>> next, we'll hear from dallas mayor mike rawlings, former pennsylvania governor tom ridge and former obama administration u.s. trade representative michael froman. they took part in a panel discussion on refugee migration and what happens when their displaced by armed conflict. posted by the center for strategic and international studies, this is about two hours and 50 minutes. >> let's get started. i'm daniel runde. i hold the chair uscis we're rolling out our report called confronting the global force migration crisis. we had a bipartisan taskorce, very diverse group folks him all over the world and from all sorts of perspective in the united states on this issue. we are really pleased with the result.
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particularly grateful to the lead author who worked so hard to make this report also. i also want to thank michael leavitt who was a consultant and is an affiliated here at csi estimates are possibility with a number of people have come a long way to be with us today and we need to kind of go at it pretty brisk pace. i also need to think a particular the ford foundation made all this work possible and we are very grateful to the ford foundation, clarissa and my friend david in particular. so i think you are going to learn a lot, i mean, i think the largest refugee and idp crisis we've had ever more than world war ii and all sorts of geostrategic implications has development implications, community implications. what shocked me is the levels of the growth that is projected in terms of people if we do
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nothing. what's also sharpies amount of money that we been sort of passively spending both in wealthy countries, in essence all foreign aid has gone from a 2% to 10% in the last ten years at all for it was globally this bit in wealthy countries do with refugees. and then it's gone from about $4 billion that was spent on refugees and idp is all in 2006, it is to have $2016 so it is increase six times in the last ten years the metaphor assistants spent at all on the whole global issue of refugees and idp. it is fast approaching what we spend globally on global health. and so if you're in the business, you follow the step, global health is a big chunk of the pie, it's almost as if you add it all up its approaching the size of all we spent on global health but we are doing it in sort of a passive playing defense sort of way. we are not thinking about causes and didn't have this. that's what this report is
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about. without further ado i'm going to engage in a conversation with ambassador froman and dental have conversation with cochairs and then go to the panel. [inaudible] >> okay. really appreciate ambassador froman agreed to do this. so you were u.s. trade representative in the obama decision also the head of the national economic council. you are now at mastercard which is one of the reasons we wanted to be here. you have a lot of other things in your inbox. could you tell me how did the issue of forced migration refugees and idp, how did you come across your radar screen and help you in public service? >> it's great to be back here at csis. it's even better to be back not be asked to talk about trade policy. i appreciate that. when we first started to review
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our development in humanitarian policy, we came out at the time with lucy as a controversial conclusion, that you could achieve these objectives if you achieve sustainable economic growth. you are only going to achieve that if you globalize private-sector trade and investment. and so that was sort of a compelling driving force behind our policies. i was always a bit suspicious to be frank when my public sector collets with talk of public-private partnerships. usually that meant they wanted a corporation to write a check, and corporations are not going to be just donors in these areas. there's not enough money and corporate philanthropy to cover these issues. we will only cover these issues is businesses can figure out how to innovate their business models, use their technology and its tools to address these broader issues. that's why i was glad you're invited as because that's what we're trying to do in part at
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mastercard is figure out how we use our role in the digital economy as the provider of digital infrastructure to help identify people across the border and that i have identity papers, how to create trustful relationships between people who want to provide goods and services on the one hand, and the people who need them on the other hand. how to do it in a cost-effective way so we can deliver aid more effectively and more efficiently, and how to do it in a way that helps the refugees by the displaced person be integrated into their home country, apart with their part of the country get all the benefits whether it is soon or cash or education or health or housing all being provided to this end a safe and secure manner. >> you are employing mascot is not just a credit card company, is that a way to describe it? >> i've learned this, i've only been a six week but i've learned we are a global technology company in the payment space. what we do --
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[laughing] what we do, think about it, we make it possible for complete strangers halfway around the world to enter into some kind of trusting relationship with somebody's willing to provide goods and service end of the show and the process the other end of the transaction is the right person to transact with you. you would get paid or is the right person to deliver the services two. as people move more from, i know in the meant to instill we talked going from bags the food to cash, and are what we talk about going from cash to digital payments. ..
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and there's alsoor looking at exempting with business models. >> that's exactly right. philanthropy is corp, corporate social responsibility is important but not enough. we need to get companies to see it's in their best interests to do this. it's an easy case to make. we fail in a failing economy and we thrive in in a growing economy and we're working with the world bank to bring 500 million more people into the financial system. 40 million knew microand small businesses businesses into the financial system so they can get access to payment, insurance, credit, the basic needs and the needs so they can begin that walk down the path of prosperity. >> this is a little built of a new employee quiz so i know this is tricky. a fairly complicated he
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ecosystem. the mastercard, and then their the center for inclusive group. talk about the center for inclusive growing. you have connectivity in your new role with that. that also plays into the conversation. >> this is just to take a step back. our ceo has been involved. made major commitment to take the notion of doing well by doing good seriously. not as a tag line but as an operational business philosophy, and we looked at all the speats we had and said, okay, what can we do with those assets that can have a positive societal impact. so the center is our internal think tank. >> at the company. >> the company. we do thought leadership. we have economists on retaryn who are doing interesting
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studies, independent studies about what is going on in the area of inclusive growing. we have decided -- >> including in this space. >> very much. the board decided in february that to take 20% of the benefit of the tax cut that was recently passed here and create our own philanthropy in master card then public and put 10% in the foundation, and that makes its one of the largest foundations in the world, focused on africa and jobs for youth. so, that works independently in this field and we in the company are looking to see what we can do from our business models. decree create the mastercard to roll out financial infrastructure in a refugee
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situation so when a displaced person crosses the border they gate card that will be biometrically protected. unique digital i'd. loaded with e-vouchers so aide organizations can use the same common infrastructure to load it up with cash -- for food and in the host country and can produce data what is being used, what services being used or not used, where there might be a service delivery problem 0, a need to top-up aid in a particular area or not. our goal is to deliver the aid more effectively and efficiently and also improve outcomes. >> also the concept of, these folks, when they are displaced, often times one of the most
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important social programs you can have is a job. part of what you're doing is enables businesses to start in these communities. >> we launched something called the smart communities coalition, with power africa, and usaid, and the mobile operators and mercy corps and microsoft, to try to figure out, instead of every group working in their own silo and one group responsible for electricity and one responsible for a food. let's have a collaborative, coordinated approach, and we'll pilot this no uganda and kenya to see if we can provide a common approach and a common infrastructure in a collaborative way so people can use these tools across the
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ecosystem and make it easier for businesses to provide job opportunities. >> when i was in ubegan to, not makes me the world expert on ubegan to because i was there three days. it's the third largest host of refugees in the world. and met with people there and they have a policy of welcoming folks, you can enter into the school system if you move there use the hospital system. they give you land, so, it was clear to me that there was to the extent that there was sort of a lot of -- then there was a philosophy 0, government philosophy, but it was clear me that a big part of the need was to make sure that these folks could participate fully in the economy and they are allowed to do that. so what mastercard is doing is thinking but how to put than eye
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steroids, right? you're like fuel injustification for that. >> that's right. we have to look beyond distributing bags of food or paper vouchers and figure out how to add these people to the digital economy so that wherever they are, whether they're urban reach reaches or in camp they can become integrated into the local economy and avoid problems. >> one message in government is don't look to companies like mastercard to write a big check to top up foreign aid. that's with what your conclusion can be. it's helping with technology, new business podles and there dismiss corporate philanthropy but if you work with the u.s. government, having been in the government and now you're on the other side of the table, what advice for folks in the u.s. government or other aid agencies who want to work with master card. your thoughts given where you
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have been and where you are now. >> two things. one goes back to what i said at the start. it surprises me today that the degree to which there is suspicion of the private sector among development organizations and international development bodies. we want to be able to contribute here. yes, it needs to be in our interest, otherwise it won't be sustainable. we can find ways of doing that this -- >> you're not the bad guy, you're trying to say. >> we're not the bad guy. let us work with you to find ways off providing services more effectively and efficiently and try to resist one-off efforts. a great tendency to take an individual country and an individual camp and an individual situation to say we'll create a solution for that. that's not scalable or re applicable by the private sector. we hey need to have common input
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to roll out where crises occur. there's likely to be more rather than fewer so we need to find ways of coming up with common infrastructure and we're talking to the world bank talkings to others about this so these things can be rolled out at scale in a replicatable way. >> thank you for doing this, please give ambassador froman a big round of applause. [applause] >> i wanted to my co-hosts to come on down. come on down? we are fortunate to he tom ridge, head of the homeland security and gail smith at the national security council are in president obama and was the the
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administrator of usaid, agreed to be our cho cares cares and -- co-chairs and it's been a successful enterprise in large part to their leadership and effort. want to particularly recognize governor ridge, who had some health hiccups but was taking phone calls from the hospital bed to help us, and so i want to thank you in particular, governor rich. you look great, and i'm just really good -- >> better seen than viewed. [laughter] >> so can i ask each of you, tell me why did you both agree in addition to me being persistent, why did you agree to take this on? you have plenty of other asks of your time. governor? >> you're very persuasive, daniel. start with that. frankly, i would call visiting the statue of liberty years and years ago, and in the exhibit
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hall they have suitcases that those who migrated to the united states left behind. and the thought occurred to me at hat time, how many americans would leave everything they owned and move to another country? but it was an opportunity then for people to willingly, on their own volition, move to a place where they were assured, assuming they met all the challenges, they could create roots and build a new life for themselves. you contrast that to the 21st 21st century, forced migration, people are moving not by choice; but happenstance, could be violence, terrorism, famine, civil war. and the whole notion that we have got literally millions now and potentially hundreds of millions of displaced individuals and families moving from the country they would prefer to live in to another
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country that challenges associated with them creating family roots, creating opportunity for their families, just seemed to me worthy of my involvement but, more importantly than my involvement, i think america needs to lead on issues like this. i think when we elect our president and our congress, we focus a lot on domestic issues. i've get that. but since world war ii the regs of the world has looked for american highway, and i personally have had -- american leadership, and i personally have had experience trying to resettle individuals. countries have said you're not being very aggressive, you're not taking initiative so why should we? i think we need americas leadership to deal with this forced migration issue. it's global in nature. it's created instability around the world.
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and america is intense, sovereign interests, or best advanced when there's peace and stability, and whole notion of a rising tide lifts all boats and it's interest in the interests of america to be more involved rather than less involved. >> this is an inside basketball texass bit every year the united states i the large e taker in of refugees, the inside-baseball statistic, but if you're outside of the united states, what struck me is how much people follow how many folks the u.s. is willing to take, and to the extent we say, we took 60,000 last year, going to take 40,000 this year, to your point, governor, people say, okay, i'll follow suit and free-ride a little bit and i won't take in as many of these folks. >> the trouble is the numbers are falling, and right now we're just dealing with triage. i'm a big believer in foreign aid, foreign he development assistance, less than one percent of the budget.
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i got that. that's not dealing with the symptoms associated with a forced migration and the fact i can look with gail and an incredible task force was a great opportunity to lend my name to a group of professionals who have been working most of their lives on this issue. >> thank you, governorment gail, you and the governor wrote a very important cover letter in the report, and i think it said a lot of -- spoke for many of the tax forces, why you decided to give some of your time for this or reflect a little bit on the letter or anything else you wanted to say. >> thank you, dan, and thank you to everybody that served on the task force. when we did that cover letter, it was kind of a case of sort of one-upsmanship. but i on matters of principle to be frank, and these are the around joined. the first is, i fear a world and i don't want to be part of -- will do everything i can to prevent a world in which we turn
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our backs on the world's most disenfranchised, whether it'sed a individuals, as communities or at countries. that's number one. number is i real -- number twice i really like the government. we talk -- if you'll do it, i'll do it, and the reason we wrote but this in our letter, we debated at surrogates in the 2008 campaign and scored some points but i don't know we were great because we were both tempted to say, i totally agree with what you said. and, oh, no, we're supposed to -- and the moral of that story is that to deal with this issue, we can't politicize it. to o'hill size is is to poison it, and i've seen that we have achieved a bipartisan consensus on foreign aid, which if you
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told me that 15 years, i -- years ago i would have said you're inhaling but in this country we have strong bipartisan support, and on this issue, and also among the american people, we can secure that same kind of almost nonpartisan support. it doesn't matter where you're a republican or democrat in terms of how this issue will effect us or how we lead. there's an opportunity here, and i was honored to be able to make some even small contribution, hand in hand with somebody i very much respect in the hopes that together the governor and i might demonstrate this is way above politics. >> gail, putting on your ol' aid administrator hat, thinking notice way in which we're spending money on this, which shocked me about the amount of the growth of this globally.
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what their root causes? >> well, i've got an enormous respect for my successor. i are say a couple of things. the growing in humanitarian spending hacksen exponential. it's gone through the roof because we're seeing a number of crises around the world that are incredibly complex and sustained, and many of them, mose of them, are generate huge refugees '. we have to do. that we're the world residents leader and should the country that is the first and the fastest when people are in need. we have to be will drag sustain -- i argue growing -- our development bug. these are investments in the future. they are consistent with the recent conversation, they're pro-active investments in the kinds of stability,
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ininclusivity, prosperity, we want city, that is our best hedge against any transnational challenge. that's none one. the seconded everybody who has worked in government knows that aid and state behave very well in public but there's up a little back and forth. would invest more in the state department. we need more diplomats, more people be able to work these crieses and be negotiators. we need more people to take the kind of leadership the governor referred to, and leverage it, but a it is absolutely true when the u.s. says we're going to put 200 million, 500 million, bill dollars into something, then when aide and state you can get the rest of the world to line up. we have to invest in both of those resources, the development and the diplomatic side, and to be able to do it understanding
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that some of the returns will come in the short term, but some of these are long-term investments. >> like to years. >> yeah. if we -- fail your to do so is at our peril because if you look at the way the trend lines are going, we're spending more on crieses and less on development. we're upside-down and neat to get right side up. >> i want to recognize my colleague, jennifer, who is heading the humanitarian mission. these touch on the issues you're referring. to governor ridge, one thing is the elephant in the room you're a former government and former secretary of homeland security. not a secret to say there's been a almost backlash, not just in the united states but also in large parts of europe against taking on more refugees refugeee migrants and a lat has to do
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with fear. if you are putting on your former governor hot or former second of homeland security and say i'm afraid of terrorism, i'm afraid of what is this going to do to my society? what is your recollection to that? those are the sorts of things i hear when i'm out there. >> well, obviously in certain countries around the world, certain elect officials have made the notion of the forced migrantses, referee, a political issue and they've tried to generate fear that somehow these individuals -- by the way, the majority are women and children -- the most vulnerable in the countries -- somehow will be terrorists or criminals and disrupt your way of life once they come across the border.
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it's mythical. frankly, don't think nicer enough empirical evident that suggests the terrorist attack that have occurred globally have been occasion by those who were forced to leave the countries and seek eve refugee status or find a welcoming host country to at least let them survive and be safe. so, this whole notion that these men and women and children are terrorists is just false. quite clear through there may be a few that may trickle cross the border in the massive -- a real possible but just the worst kind of fearmongerring going in my judgment, and unworthy of the united states of america in my judgment. [applause]
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we need to disspell that myth. understanding it's a risk but it's a manageable risk and we manage it all the time. vetting is about as their how as you can get -- thorough as you can get. it's a risk you, march and we do it pretty good managing risk so let's put this fearmongerring over here and deal with the issue. the second challenge is the united states, and democracy at large, is reactive, not preemptive. so we react to this forced migration. we react instead of saying, why is it happening? are there causes to which we are responsible or causes we can contribute to mitigate the possibility of home having move snout the challenge with this report, it is preemptive. we already know what the problem is. how can be, as a country, lead a
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global response to what appears to be -- and that than -- somebody said earlier, on the back of the envelope sis we have 66 million forced migrants and by 2020 we may have up to 300 million. that create is instability and just natural insecurity. what it's done in europe and elsewhere is brought out the worst -- not the better angel of our nature the worst angel, super nationalist, xenophobic and that's a dangerous mindset in the global world today. so i think the first thing is to disspell thing my around global migration, they're leaving their country family -- most of them take their families with them torn to create a terrorist plot in the country. it's falls and the worst kind of fearmongerring, and as i said before, it's not worthy of being
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considered a reason not to do the right thing. >> so, gail, i don't think there's any country alone that can solve these problems. even if the united states said, we're going to adapt a strategy, it seemed to us in the report and the task force that our best solution is a coalition of countries led by the united states to kind of bend the curve. could you talk about the contributions that other countries to make in this? the one campaign is a global organization, so you work with other countries as well. know that other countries have a contribution to make. >> i think we can't solve it alone but one can really feel our absence when we're not -- >> when we are not there. >> i say a couple things and some of these really important is if you look at the real leaders in this, in accepting refugees at some of the poorest
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countries in the world, and that sends a really powerful message. if you want to deal with fear montherring and the kind of uninformed attitudes that -- i don't think most americans realize that, that uganda, ethiopia, they're taking millions of fief -- refugees and they're not complaining ask they're not threatening. that's one thing we need to understand. this isn't something where the solution comes from donor countries. i think there are a lot of countries -- canada i think very early on, in this crisis, step up in an extraordinary way. so we know that we have allies with -- >> share the burden. >> no question of that. we also know that many of them are facing some of the same political challenges that exist here in terms of this sort of feeling it's an all or nothing
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proposition; that either we throw ourselves in full scale or do nothing and hope it will go away. there's some common ground for solving political problems. on the unthere's a -- on the u.n. side there's a lot of criticism of thannan -- u.n. we have an organization that tends to perform very well. i think that, again, if we invest in unhr, enable us to do the things it needs to do build the kind of coalition that mike was talking but that include governments, businesses, ngos, there's a great deal we can do that we are not doing now because the world is -- everybody has again over to their corner, and what we're leaving it to, and something interesting point made the discussion we just had --
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leaving it to the world's humanitarians to pick up the pieces. that's not fair to them. they can't do it all and we're missing an opportunity to get a number of countries to line up. i don't think it's that hard to build this coalition but it's impossible if we're passive. >> i just wanted toed a on to what gail said. the security concern in my judgment, and very little to do with an individual or two who may be a terrorist or a criminal, the real concern -- and i would leave it to the diplomats in the audience who could but an exclamation point round this concern -- this instability either that country and the region that naturally arise when you see this massive migration from one country or two to another. look at the political instability among our friends and our nato allies, because of,
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well, the collective action in the middle east, the syrian refugees and iraqi refugees. look at the unstable in the middle east itself? so whenever you see massive migrations, forced migrations, it creates an unstable and insecure world by definition and that is a much longer and broader and more significant concern to us as a sovereign nation than i think the possibility, the possibility as remote as it might be -- that one or two of these individual maize be a terrorist. tate that instability that should concern us and if you asked the diplomats in the world why probably say, ridge is right. >> i'd like to take two quick questions. hands, please, two quick questions from folks. okay. this gentleman here.
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name, organization, and short. >> i just arrived from venezuela and study -- what's the effect in -- in the last you years, 1.5 billion people have left venezuela and i think many south american countries have been very helpful in trying to solve this situation without that much international aid. what is your opinion and experience of what is happening in latin america. >> i was in columbia and there are mow venezuelans in colombia and it's growing. i think this is a relevant point. so, gail, do you want to take a crack at that? >> i would just say, we're seeing circumstance -- circle's migration as people move from country to country and these numbers are going to increase. and the result is a gradual
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diminution of their economic independence so it's a longer and longer setback for venezuela to recover and this gets to point in the report. these investments, even when it is not apparent you may have a refugee or displacement crisis as a result, in countries governing well, goning effectively serving their citizenses, and realize venezuela is not prepared to listen to the united states tell it what it should do but i think long-term relationship with venezuela are the kinds of things to think about now or we'll wake up in some period of time and find that on top of other economic challenges from a commodity crisis, latin america will we looking at a refugee
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surprise displacement crisis that is much, much bigger for them to handle. >> i wand to hear from mark snyder, a. >> thank you. i think that the point about venezuela is important in that the country's war are were taking 60,000 reefs aee, colombia has taken 600,000, chile, 250,000, and they're doing it. and to be frank, our astance to them help cog integrate the reef is limit. my question goes to central american issue. in terms of clearly a substantial number of those who are trying to get across our border are those who fear violence in their countries and central america, rightfully. so unacr has indicated that many
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of them, i when they have done the screening, should have refugee status. our response seemeds to be heavy handed response without providing an opportunity for them to make that kind of asylum claim no now with the separation of the children from families, the question but how this relays to what we're saying about who we are as a people. i'm curious whether you look at this issue in terms of what we might do in central america to reduce the pressures on them to leave, and also a more sympathetic american response here. >> let me take a stab at the central american issue. came to this consideration because general kelly, i was at a conference and said we need have a plan for colombia and central america and stood up and said i want you come to miami. it was like george patton saying issue need you do something.
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spend a year looking at the issue of central america it led know understand there is a larger global problem and that led to this conversation. he some things the obama administration, with the republican congress, put in place to bend the curve as port of the conversation. he need interest be inter -- enter look tours, and work with somebody on the ground, and to extend you have dysfunctional plate x-rated situations it makes things more rick, and i took away we need high growth and other parts of the world. so i absolutely think the report we did two years ago was a prelude to this report so we touch on it more implicitly and in the prior -- we get interest a lot of detail bows central
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america. >> i would just say one other thing, mark. i think we did talk a lot about how an individual or community, country, responds to this crisis says a lot about who any of us are, and i think i can speak for myself and my friend here that what informed the passion that you see in the governor's remarks, that small fire that broke out when we were writing our letter-whatever you point of entry into these issues -- who we are matters. so i mate be you're driven by moral imperatives and you believe we all have an obligation to help apsychiatrist our fellow man and woman. so itself is economic self-interest, who we are in this matters absolutely because we're sending a message to the
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regs of the world. we are either ignoring economic challenges or we are building opportunities if you listen to mike, if you look at tent foundation, listen to the mayor of dallas there are economic opportunities imbalance bedded in the solutions. or if your point of entry is national security, there is a clear interest that comes now two ways. one is that unless we have the stability, prosperity and ininclusivity that comes for engaging fog decade won't have the security we want. that's at simple. most important thing to me -- i've had the privilege to see this and many of you have -- it matters a lot to our security, our economic well-being, and our standing as a moral country, what other people think of us. and i have traveled all over the
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world where a government question may disagree with us strenuously but where you meet person after person after person who says, my child got vaccinated because of the united states. my son went to school because he got refugee in the united states. when our country, when our family was broken, the united states was there for me. and that pays off in ways we can't measure but i think are as powerful as any investment we make around the world. >> all right. i'm just cognitive of the time. we need do a set change. can you join me in thanking my co-chairs? [applause] [inaudible conversations]
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>> let's just invite the mayor of dallas, mike rawlings, to come up. mike was a -- the former ceo of pizza hut and is the current mayor of dallas. as dan mention our task force is full of very interesting and well-accomplished folks and we thought it was really important to have a local government voice and especially an elected official task voice and were very honored when mayor rawlings agreed to be on the task force and we're very thankful he took the time fly up from dale threes have this conversation. so union me in welcoming mayor
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mike rawlings. [applause] >> thank you to the center for strategic and international studies and aaron milner with csi, a dallas, texas, resident and went to high school there i'm also pleased to see dallasites gone 0 to solve world problems. i'm honored to be on the task force and provide a local government voice on this report. cities have always been and are always especially now on the forefront of degree -- dealing with international issues. this couldn't be more evident today as we talk about migration. migrants may leave their homes for many, many reasons, and they may end up all over the world, but they always end up in cities. we may not have a voice as
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mayors in what causes it, or how to deal with it there, but we have a obligation and a chore to deal with these individuals when they end up in our cities. this is especially true in dallas, texas. now, on a beautiful sunday afternoon in january of 2017, i drove to a north dallas office building, roses in hand to greet and welcome our visitors from syria, iraq, iran, and suddennan. they came to dallas to visit children, some were students at smu, some came to siblings. a few had been coaxed out of their vehicles. where they came from, being held for hours upon hours without explanation, before being shuttled to a nondescript
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building in an unfamiliar town is an ominous sign but not in dallas. the men and women had been retained by the federal agents at the dfw were reunited with the families they travel so far city this was two days after an executive order was issued barring visitors from similar countries. the eyes of the world were on us and could have been a devastating moment four our city and run country. yet could i not have been prouder of our community and how it responded, volunteer attorneys and protesters filled the airport within hours of the knew that innocent travelers were being held. a broader question was asked that toy. how do we deal with people from
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other places, strangers, the other. and once again, our city and so many other american cities were faced with that question, we she'd -- showed what we stand for, tolerance, quality, and respect for the other. for dallas, this was the way we tried to respond in times of crisis, from those difficult weeks we battled ebola and our city brought our city from the shores of west africa to a more recent displacement of thousands of texans during hurricane harvey. dallas trade to show it was welcoming city. in these times where priorities and policies have shifted at a federal local, local leaders have a new responsibility to leave by the basic principle of the golden rule, we treat others as we ourselves wish to be treat. in fact, we have developed a local communications campaign in
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dallas. the #beglobal campaign which invites to put aside labels and see the human side of immigration. there is no question that the world seems divided between lands of chaotic disarray and those countries that provide organized hope, and it should be no surprise that human beings try to get from one to another. but we must understand that the refugee is not the other. not our competition. but they are, like our forefathers, someone who reached our ports in search of freedom, safety, and hope, for a brighter tomorrow. since i come from the business world, all my life, until i jumped into politics, i tend to see these things from that
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vantage, and as the former ceo of pizza hut i have seen it on an international level. our fear of migration so often spills over and creates a new zeitgeist that is dangerous in politics. international relations and trade have turned interest a sorrow sum game where countries are -- zero sum game and countries trying beat each and has turn into a division problem rather than a multiplier effect. pacts and aligns are dissolved. the uk leaves the european union, questions about nato, u.s. leaves the transpartner shock, challenging nafta. people fear think getting the short end of the stick. as leaders we must become unite on this issue rather than recycling the political narratives of the past that the good governor smoke about. as i began my eighth and final
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year in office, i'm convinced now more than ever, we can't pull back from the world. we believe that we can be a country of laws and have an attitude that greets newcomers with a small. we can be safe and security at the same time be a safe hain -- haven for those purse cuted. in dallas we're changing the way we address the issue of migration, forced or otherwise. we cannot force those who live month us into the shadows. the quell is how to harness the contribution of immigrants and refugees and imbalance proo approve the quality of life for all the residents. now, we're fortunate in dallas having an economy that is strong and expected to continue to grow, immigrants and refugees are part of this upward
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momentum. to disregard that contribution and our city would be a fall sympathies past year we teams up with a new american economy to produce a report about immigrant economic and demographic contributions to the city. it was previewed at the dallas federal reserve with top economists, policymakers, business leaders and academics. some key high likes. just one big growing city in the united states. imbalance households in the city earned about $8 billion in 2016. of that for, born householdded contributed $2 billion in federal taxes and $600 million in state and local taxesle they were left with $5.4 billion in spending power. quarter of dallas population, immigrants were responsible for
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40% of overall population growing in the last five years. immigrant households support federal social programs, the foreign-born contribute $850 million to social security, and $218 million to medicare. this is important because also dale dallas-fort worth has the highest growth rate in nation and continue to see a growing skills gap. in 2016 be found that 37% of dallas county adults have the credential or degree necessary for those jobs. we know that a significant none of refugees come to -- number of refugees come to dallas with playground finance, medicine, and education. it takes aty and county leadership to align their talent with the work force needs and address barriers from prevent them from maximizing their full potential. in the 20,000 immigrants who own
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their own businesses, generated almost a half a billion dollars in business income because they are strong entrepreneurs. as mentioned in the cfsi record the private seconder has a big role to play in assisting forced migration. this is true on the no-profit side and the not-for-profit side. private second sector -- private sector is he very point. manufacturing, the turn,over railing among refugee was only 4%. compared to 11% for the industry average. this is good for business and it saves them money. we must not forget that the role of private ngos and the
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faith-based community is extremely important in finding solutions as well. this past year we went a step fur -- step further in the stay and developed an office devoted to immigrant affair is. the office of welcoming communities and immigrant affair us, part humanitarian and part pragmatic. we know we know we need immigrant talent and re realize the palpable fear of immigrants in these dynamic times. the director of the office is here with us today. fully integrated foreign-born residents is critical because dallas is a city of immigrants. as mayor of dallas, i understand that new come e'ers cannot immigrate by themselves. immigrants must do their part no
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question, learning length issue, navigating the job market, playing by the rule and by the receiving community must offer inclusion, hospital and hope. this idea is simply that dallas residents, from natives to newcomers must working to and nurture and sustain a vibrant city. with culture and economic opportunities. we welcome your ideas for furthering the efforts as we no there are many cities that have extend tragedyic welcoming plans, not only in the united states but through the globe. few for including our city in this year-long process. one of the purposes of the csis report that has been so carefullycraft by the task force is that it is not meant to remain on the bookshelf and will not in dallas. rather, it's meant to bring new life interest the work of migration by recommending a series of tenable goals and
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strategies. in dallas we premier is no do our part at the local level to achieve these goals and stand with all of you also you do your part. thank you very much. [applause] >> thank you, mayor. really excellent remarks and we're looking forward to having a panel of the top members so if i could ask -- there you are. >> i'm the deputy director and research fellow here at the center for strategic and international studies. i'm also co-author offing this
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property and want to acknowledge the mayor mentioned aaron milner, who is from dallas, aaron is in the back, my co-author and a driving force behind the research and the association. so if we can join our hands and thank aaron for all he has done. in. >> i'm also a proud texan, we're not from dallas, we're humbled and honored to be in major city in the south and the texas, taking a leadership role on this so thank you for you comments and leadership. also thank you for saying that this report is not going to sit on the shelf. that is a huge goal of ours, and we're happy to come to dallas anytime and talk to anybody who you think is -- needs to hear this. without further adieu i want to turn to our panel. we, as dan mentioned, we set out
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on a very ambitious task, about a year ago to understand and encapsulate and really frame what is by all estimations on incredibly complex global issue. wanted to put together a really robust and high-level group of not only bipartisan but different sectors leaders and i think we accomplished that and their four representatives that have taken time out of their busy schedule be here. see wore very thankful that they did that. before i get to mary beth. there are other -- countless folks with ncis that help with the research. the task force members
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themselves, our interns and the other research staff, we consulted over 150 organizations in nine different countries as part of the report, and i wanted to thank dish don't have time to individually thank each one of those organizations and people put they were really important to producing this report. above ail want to thank the forced migrants who we talked to. we have changed their names in the record but their stories remain true. and remain incredibly important for really putting the necessary human face on what can so onbe construed as a numbers issue. it's not. these are. people. so, thank you. maribeth was the first woman to be confirmed has the assistant secretary of defendant and a
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leader in national security issues through her contrary. we're really humbled and honored you a took the time and effort to not only be here toward beaut really read the report and offer us constructive solutions so thank you for being here. i could i ask you to comment on why you wanted to be part of this and what effect it has hand on you. >> absolutely. the first thing want to say is most of you have dedicate your entire lives to humanitarian issues and including immigration. i am not that person. i wanted to just tell you that i have -- you have any tremendous respect, particularly after diving into this issue. my father said always avoid preaching to the choir, sowso i will not address my remarks thank you toe you because you already get the more and the -- the moral imperative and the economic benefit of dealing with
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migrants. i am addressing myself to the people who would not likely read the report. i don't think that forced migration and the issues surrounding that are well understood in the national security realm, and there are significant national security implications. i will give you three concrete examples. number one, about ten years ago i was selected to be representing the united states in the minister of defense conversations in central america, during which time to a man every central american country said we have problem that is going to end up with crime being a national disputer. and that problem is migration that is going result of the return of gangs and groups out of your prison systems who have been recallized -- radicalized in american prisons, ms-13 who
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are going to take over territory in our countries that will force law-abiding central americans to the north. guess what? they were exactly right. and people don't want to talk about america's contribution to that by returning these hardened criminals to their countries but we had a role in this migration problem that is impacting the southern bother stayeds and the u.s. i sat in a eu sponsor erred meeting which to a man the nato allies talk but the real threat of might grandded out of northern -- might migrants out of northern whoer are being preyed on, the most horrific of problems that were starting to deteriorate certain nexts of their nation statement the overall deter organization racing of the nation --
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deterioration of the nation states in northern africa, yemen, and other places, and witness call a national security problem that we have only begun to see the results of. and then finally, another concrete example, the poorest countries taking on immigrants, jordan, lebanon,emn and syria, are going to result in the deterioration of the nation stayed. jordan is truly imbalance perilled by the imbalance appraisal problem and migrant problem, airand other places. jordan falls or becomele empaired that is a correct threat to the united states and israel. israel will argue the most important allies they have are the jordannans, even more so than us. >> you were just there. >> was just there and went to visit the ya -- yazidis in
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northern iraq. kurd stan has -- kurd stan -- this is a national security issue we have not dealt with. in the dod talk about it as phase zero in which you see there are problems you have an opportunity deal with them prior to becoming national security problems for the united states. not talking but dealing with other country's problemes. i'm talk about security issues for us and we have to get raid of this and we have to start dealing with this. i you can't buy into the humanitarian issue, you can't buy into the moral issue, to the economic issue, the religious issue and buy into the fact in the next decade, because of global warming and demographic, countries like egypt, pillar countries, nato allies are going
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to suffer severe problems that will become our problem. mark my words, if we don't start thinking about this as a broader issue. >> absolutely. thank you, maribeth. there's a lot more there and i'm sure during the conversation we'll unpack some of those and i think it's powerful to not be speaking to one another in this room, like we said there's a lot of incredible -- just looking out and there's incredible wealth of knowledge and experience in the room, and talking to ourselves is not something that we just wanted to do only in this. it's important to include communications of practice in this, but i think reaching out to skeptical audience is is something we do well and something we wanted to bring this effort and thank you for being part of this and i'm sure we'll have many more questions. want to turn to jacqueline.
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jacqueline is a longtime humanitarian and development practicer and you have experience in kenya and i'm probably -- even if i trade i couldn't name all the places you have dismissed work, and it's incredibly important that on our task force we had people like you who really know what is going on, on the ground, and who -- what the stories and are what people out there are thinking aboutment what they're caring about. if you could talk about what -- you were just overseas, and you travel a lot and you're really tapped into what forced might grands and refugees and other people are thinking about. what they care about and are worried about. if i could ask you comment on that and then in doing so if you could talk about maybe what some of the research gaps are, the problems are that we're not --
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whether we talk about them in the report or not, what are the things we should be focused on moving forward? >> great. thank you very much. like many of my fellow colleagues on the task force it was an honor to participate in in the conversation, highlight the human face to this crisis, because i have spent quite a bit of time and have visited a camp that is one of the biggest refugee camps certainly in africa if not in the world, and i had great mother -- and i say that genuinely -- to speak with the reefs and the people living there to hear their stories and to weather with the crises they
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themselves were dealing with. let's me just paint the scenario a little bit. i know a lot of you probably understand this, you have experienced it yours or seen its. the decision for someone to leave their home to involuntarily have to receive their know is not anese one hi and have the ha host of problems they have to have solutions for. what they are seeking is basic security and stability. whether they cross the border just november another sex of their done -- another section of their country and this is really critical. when you -- to understand and to identify and hopefully connect with because i think win we look at how to address the problems, we have to keep that in mind.
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what is their experience how can we truly help them. one thing that struck me in speaking with refugee is did in fact get to talk to, they really lose who they are as people. lose their identities. and when you lose your identity you feel powerless to move on, and so i have to really appreciate the efforts of unacr and the ngos on the ground and interactioning with them and who understand this crisis they're faced with and trying to void ways to provide the necessary court and structure they need to settle and to integrate, whether it's in the camps or whether it's outside the camps and nunes. so the situation is, like yaw said, very -- we make reference in the -- i come to this
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situation -- i come to this -- to think but how to absolute help them, communities of people, look at them not as the cause of the crisis but the victims of the crisis and, more importantly, how to help support them with taking their lives into a positive and productive area. i think this is something i would like -- policymakers are supposed to think about. how to support, how do we provide the structure they need, to not only integrate and also to prosper, because we all want to prosper, live dignified and prosperous lives and they're no different. they confront with the issues and have to figure out how to survive. have to figure out how to stabilize their families and children and their homes and they've got to figure out those thing pretty quickly.
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i think the report makes reference to the root causes of displacement and forced mights and the root causes are important policy discussions and they're not going to be resolved in a short space of time. ...
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he makes reference will to the role on how he's taken hold of this issue to see how they can support integration of migrants and those who have been displaced. we need to have more conversations around that. as we mentioned earlier, these communities need support in integrating them. we need support from individuals and also communities who are the receivers of migrants, the receivers of those who have been displaced. those are not terribly hard to address. there are great examples on how this has been done. let's see how we can learn from those examples and build upon
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them and really decide a space for those placed in these situations involuntarily. >> thank you. you said there primarily concerned with safety, security and stability. >> that's cracked. >> i think that's really critical. i think you also set upon displacement, a lot of them lose her identity and i think that's also a very dangerous thing. to tie in the national security component best, giving people, offering the solutions and the support they need whether it's dallas or elsewhere, it's really critical we do that not just for humanitarian reasons and because it's the right thing to do but people losing their identity, especially youth losing their identity is particularly scary, if i can use that word.
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matt reynolds is the regional representative for u.s. and caribbean for the high commissioner for refugees. i kind of had a look up the actual, what it stood for and this is someone who's worked in camps and other places. it is really the premier organization thinking about these issues, not just from a protection perspective but a whole host of perspectives. as i mentioned to mary beth, we didn't just want to be talking to ourselves but we need to include ourselves in the conversation. wherever we went, we made a point to meet with people from this organization. these are some of the most qualified, dedicated, incredible
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people i've ever met. you happen to be the representative in washington. i want to ask about this and how you're approaching these things i also want to tie into your background. you also worked on the hill. he worked in the state department. you were sort of touching all the branches of government here and as we move forward, we really welcome your thoughts on how best to do this. i'm assuming that part of your job is to frame these issues for policymakers. if i could ask you to comment on that, that would be great. >> sure. thank you very much. thank you for including us in this process.
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i also want to think my colleagues in washington and geneva were the experts and provided information that makes me look smarter than i really am. thank you very much for bringing this issue to our attention. you did point out correctly, all give you an easy tag tagline, we are the un refugee agency. we deal with refugee and forced displacement. we do this in partnership. [inaudible] we do this together throughout the world and my colleague from the un development program because as the humanitarian crisis turns to a development crisis, you have to do the long-term planning. this is a partnership that happens. i think for us, our number one priority, and maybe for the un at-large but the way to fix and
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help address this is to actually find political solutions. these are all fixable problems. they all come back to a political solution and the failure of the international community to find solutions. the cambodia refugee crisis, today we have more and more attracted and reigniting refugee crises around the world. we are there on the front lines and i think that makes a huge difference in people question what the un does and why were there. we are on the frontline in places where people who criticize us are afraid to go. south sudan, central african republic,. >> 80% are on the front lines. >> we are there on those front lines and it's no different, i think there's issue sometime people question the un and bloated bureaucracy but when you're in trouble you call the
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coast guard and you rely on the coast guard. we are that reliable coast guard out there to help these people who are in real need. as we look at how we approach, this is an overwhelming problem we have to find new solutions and reinvigorate ourselves. we hope to finalize the global compact on refugee. this is a new set of commitments and routings chairing to improve host communities. we want to help host countries and communities improve the capacity and responsibility to provide better data and really know who are the people moving and where are they going. we partnered with the world bank
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because were on the front line we can collect that information but were not that good at analyzing it. and we have others who do that. we want to strengthen protections for people in need of protection and expand our partnership. this is no longer just an ability for individual countries or bilateral programs like the state department or the un to tackle. we look at things like the world bank and the private sector and the compact really is putting that all together in your format. we've already experiment it on two small regional compacts that are working successfully. we have the horn of africa where uganda is playing an important role were all these partnerships are already coming together and making a difference also in central america where we have a regional compacts where we use the. [inaudible] is another place where we can help people stay home and we
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want to help them keep at home with a better and safer life. mention the world bank engagement, that's another area where there's a lot of opportunities. they are offering billions of dollars to host countries, as well as for countries that aren't that poor but that our middle income in taking on a lot of refugees. jordan, lebanon, bangladesh, colombia and there's anything available there. i think it's important and one of the jobs that i have is to share here in the u.s. in the caribbean just what we are facing today and how one can really be helpful for a lot of americans don't always appreciate or understand that the u.s. continues to be one of the most generous supporters of
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refugees as has long been our largest supporter and continues to be. it's also the largest settlement country in the world and has a very vibrant and open asylum system at the border. there is a lot that can be done. i think people should be proud of what they've been supporting. we do need to get more information out because of mary beth mentioned, regardless of your interest, you do have an interest. >> i will push you a little bit more on that. we live in a strange political time and i think there's a healthy skepticism and sometimes not healthy skepticism but lets us call it skepticism toward the un and the liberal international order. when you're talking to folks that are inherently skeptical of the first two letters in your acronym, how do you message th
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this? the reason i caught onto that 80% of our people are in the field is because i think this a perception and misperception that this is just the bloated headquarters thing. can you talk about when you talk to policymakers and folks on the hill and folks who might have a skepticism involved, how do you frame why your mission is so critical? >> is a sort of referenced, there is a perception of governments being loaded in the un is a big multi agency organization as well. if you point out the things that matter to them, everyone knows a refugee in their community. it's very easy to broadbrush and say i'm concerned and fearful of refugees, oh well i know this man down the street.
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he's different. >> will not really. there's millions like him out there. i think you got springing back to to your own community and your own human interest. [inaudible] i think it's important to show what were doing and how are doing it and how people are being helped, and remind people about numbers and so on. the poorest countries in the world are supporting the most amount of refugees. if you look at a country like lebanon, one quarter of the population are refugee. whether their palestinian or otherwise. they can manage and are doing well and refugees contribute. we should not be afraid but it's hard in a political environment.
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>> you seemed like the right guy for the job. thanks for being here. you are the former director of the usa office of disaster assistance. he is now at the elliott school for george washington university. i will get this wrong but you're the executive director of the institute for disaster and resilience. you also have a role at the international medical board. when i'm sitting on panels, i was like going last because i can go off what everybody else said and i deliberately wanted you to go last because you've this academic hat this former government official academic hat. you comment these issues from a disaster resilience perspective. i would like for you to spend a couple minutes reflecting on what you've heard, and if you
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could talk a little bit about how we move beyond addressing symptoms. i think someone at our breakfast made the comment that were playing defense and the defense have been on the field for a long time. they're getting really tired. how do you make sure the defense gets a break and we can move forward with addressing whether you call them root cause or anything else. thanks again for being here. >> let me start off by saying as a refugee from vietnam, it's been very challenging to listen to some of the recent rhetoric that's portrayed refugees in a very negative light. as the governor said, it's not a way that exemplifies what america has been all about. me and my family had a really positive experience resettling
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in the u.s. we've done better and we can do better. part of this report, i jumped at the opportunity so thank you very much for including me. around resilience and the root cause and challenges that has been identified in the report, i would like to highlight a study that we are part of back when i was at the university where we supported the national academy of sciences to carry out a study entitled disaster resilience, national imperative. in the study, it looked at a community in new orleans which is primarily made of refugees from vietnam about 15 minutes from the french quarter. this community, in response to her hurt kane katrina was able to self organize.
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they were the first community to come back in the aftermath of hurricane katrina. they were able to rebuild their lives in community. they did this with very little support from the government. for years people try to figure out what was it about this community that made them more resilient than some of their neighbors. the study was really interesting. it highlighted three factors that i think are sufficient in terms of resilience. it noted social identity and memory as one factor, social capital in community competence. i will briefly explain them. around social identity, as war refugees and recent migrants, their experience of both the hardships and the reward of relocation, they really saw the
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storm not through the lens of being victims but they saw the storm as in adversity they collectively could overcome. around the social capital, again, this is a community that has the practical experience of working together with very limited funds to rebuild their lives in america. therefore, they didn't wait for the all clear signal to return. they came back, they lent each other many to rebuild and they lent money to their neighbors to expand the ability to rebuild their lives. they didn't stop there. they understood they also had to rebuild their community. they created a community fund to build clinics and schools and they also realized through this community of incompetence that for them to survive, the broader
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new orleans community also had a come back. this community also provided small grants to businesses and a french quarter to attract people to come back. the reason i lay out these contributing factors around strengthening a community is if we are serious about strengthening resilience we have to go beyond the current approach to prepare for and respond to disasters where for example, some of the invested post- katrina was improving the way the community provided evacuations for those who couldn't self evacuate or strengthen the levees were raising and elevating homes for another flood. is there something about empowering people in understanding how people respond to adversity and harness that capacity, integrating that in the types of investment we make. that will sustain the way we go about improving resilience.
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i like that study because it shows, it portrays this group of refugees and it shows that people come with capacity. i think that's where we have to change the dynamic and how in the future they contribute. i have a lot of questions about that study but one of the questions will probably come back to is about what are some of those investments that can build resilience. before we get there, i wanted to turn to mary beth. i have a short career working in places like iraq and afghanistan
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and other places that have a significant military presence. i was always struck by how there was always list service to coronation and playing in the sandbox but when it actually got to it was more challenging than we would have liked it's been. we come from slightly different world. how can we play better in the sandbox together? how can defense and development tackle the issues? talk about causes, a lot of times were talking about what we are going to have to figure out a way to work together toward a common solution. how do we do that? >> i think there are three things. the first thing, and i think the defense communities have done this, that is except the point
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that governor rich made which is were not talking about individuals coming across the border who represent a national security threat. that's primarily law-enforcement and we do an amazing job of vetting. the main thing is. have to get over it. both the humanitarian community that is very reluctant to affiliate or even get close to the military and vice versa. i actually think the military side is much more appreciative and much more willing to reach out then those who were very worried about being teamed with a different color brush and impact that will have on their efforts. we need to figure out a way to work together. the second thing is, i think there is a lack of understanding to the extent that forced migration has a national
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security impact from instability point. the first thing we need to do is mamax those out and see where se of the overlaps are. lebanon, syria, iraq and other places it's not. then up with programs, working together, that do things like encourage immigrants, migrants and displaced persons to come back into communities where you've had successful military if ever, but you need that community to reestablish itself in order to avoid the cycle of sending thin, sending trigger pullers in to stabilize a country or region. the other thing is, in military planning, i don't think there's any consideration given for what are the migration impacts of my
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particular efforts. am i forcing a population into the arms of the enemy? or into the arms of terrorists? will they be segregated and forced to deal with tough situations that will make it more difficult for them to come back. having an idea in our military planning of the impact from the migrations to of what we are doing is one very real example was from iraq to curtis them, very late in operational planning wasn't realized that some of the major cities like multiple you would be forcing the bad guys into a particular area where you are going to take care of them, but you are going to be forcing a large portion of the population into the very safe area and that the court orders for citizenry to exit and get out of the way were very
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limited and probably unrealistic. it's identifying those places of current lab and working together. one more point, looking to the future, if you talk to anybody in dod they will tell you that water wars, wars over resources and the problem of everyone from developing states and emerging states, everyone moving from the countryside into the cities is a real humanitarian issue. it's also a security issue. there will be conflicts just as states are unable to deal with and provide basic necessities, water, governance to those areas. looking for those future overlaps and getting ahead of the issue so you avoid a national security, an issue of the impacts on lessons first where we will have natural commonalities are three places
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we could focus on very quickly and get the synergies going. >> i was in nigeria last month and i found out population dated two-point to million jobs. year to keep folks employed. at that onto the already high unemployment and you've just disenfranchised, i think the future is not that hard to paint appeared jim picture of what the like which leads very nicely into my radar. i think we can think about it, hotspot security perspective we can think about it from the humanitarian crisis perspective. matt mentioned that it's not just that there is a faith that holds the restarting and reoccurring in the current ones we have are moving into this area of investment status so
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talk to a little bit about where you see all of this going in the next five or ten years wow. that's really loaded question in ten words or less. [laughter] i'm hopeful. one of the things, i look at the as an opportunity to take what seems to be really and make it more and opportunistic for not only those affected by the crisis but also those who are outside of that, how do we use the case and turn it into an opportunity. so for me, it can be positive, it can be hopeful and it doesn't have to be hopeless. this is where working together with coalitions is a critical
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component of that. that's work intensive. we've got to work collectively to really define solutions. that is my particular area of interest. i think there's a really strategic, what situations are being created for young people and how are we really putting in a lens to specifically and proactively address that problem? really what it comes down to is young people want to feel value. they want to feel like there is a teacher for them. there's less opportunity for them to be recruited, for them to get pulled into the various truths or situations if they can
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see a glimmer of hope for their lives. i think that young people, generally speaking i looking for you can work towards and be hopeful for. something i think requires a lot more conversation and dialogue and some very specific structures for how to help young people cope with the stress they've had to endure and how to help them transition to vocational programs or work programs that help them feel like they have an opportunity to survive and thrive from the crisis they have been forced into. i would really like to put a positive spin on what sandy taken from hopeless to cold and help people, provide them with the tools and skills they need to get through this situation
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they can get to a point of hopefulness. i think there's ways to do that. they're really keen examples we can look at and create some meaningful solutions for how to help organizations were on the forefront dealing with these situations every day. it's not impossible. is that only possible and i appreciate the reference to the possibilities and looking at how we can support structures, policy, processes for taking young people from hopelessness to hope. >> absolutely. >> i find that in my travels, young people are keenly aware, there hope is not just, i was sitting in my room and i thought about some other world. everybody has a smart phone and they're actually seeing what that looks like and being able
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to offer some sort of future, whether it looks exactly like seeing on the phone or not and i think we have to be aware this is what consuming more designing solutions and trying to provide avenues for that whole we have to take that into account. matt, i'm really freaked by the compact in general, but especially the regional compact. as we all know in this room, the united states left the global contact leader process. this parallels the global compact on refugees and i was in geneva last year for some compensation for that and i think those are really important additive efforts to the global conversation, but i think the river road is level, and even, especially at the local level so
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especially in the context of this tensile american conversation that the governor and gil smith and mike's schneider mentioned earlier, can you talk a little bit about what's so innovative them about the central america compact and what can we learn from that. >> to think. on a political level, a lot of people and interests are free to very large, global compacts that may have requirements and burdens on countries and so on. the smaller regional ones show that you shouldn't be afraid. let's look at it on a small level. while credits working and making a difference in going to hell. then you realize the global is a combination of a lot of regionals and all isn't as frightening as it could be. were finding that many
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governments including some who are skeptical and very much engaged in support of of these compacts. the concept is it for the un to go with all the problems will provide all of those solutions directly, other players to strengthen the local governments themselves and there are a lot of challenges the central american governments are facing, particularly with nonviolent state actors, but to provide the different inputs so world bank but also developing banks. got international finance, the private sector coming in with investors that we have a couple pilots were looking at in mexico said as well as other is an important place for the united states and is a very important
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player to the alliance for prosperity and syrian society building programs horton. remember, most of the displaced individuals from central america don't want to leave home. who wants to take the risk of going through dangerous gang territories to make it to u.s. border to be stuck in a backlog for asylum which now has 700,000 case backlog. america's generous but it's a lot to handle. recognizing that some of the countries within central america can help themselves. they're helping build mexico's asylum. mexico is not only a country of origin in a country of transit but it's now becoming a country of asylum where those vulnerable from salvador and honduras can find safety for a while in
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mexico before they return home. is trying to bring all the stovepipes together to find a catalyst and build strengthening of society and strengthening of those organizations and others that help recognizing that most people want to stay safely at home. let's help them do that as a movement. same routine in africa and we hope that using these examples bring some governments along and can see you're not demanding x, y, and z, it's actually a form of burden sharing and this is where again, the u.s. plays an imperative role of being a leader financially and morally and if the u.s. is leading, many others will follow. the u.s. has been a historic
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leader and we hope it will continue to be a leader. it's been a very active and positive engagement with the global refugees were hoping to finalize that. >> excellent. i think you hit on a theme of this morning which is that american leadership matters and matters now more than ever. thank you for the clarification. i think there's a lot to be learned from a regional compact model and i look forward to digging into that a little bit, probably in my own personal time after this. one ask you one question and then open it to the audience for questions. talk a little bit about, you talked about new orleans and resiliency, talk a little bit about what that looks like from
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an overseas perspective or from your experience and resilience programming, i don't know if it was while you're there or shortly thereafter, but this became a really important focus. these shocks are going to happen. whether it's climate or some other disaster, there is going to be, people are going to move, and whether or not they come back or whether they have to leave in the first place has something to do with the level of resiliency in communities. how do we get there? are you thinking about this? >> that's a real challenge right now in terms of thinking how to expand the humanitarian toolbox. when i first came, the core budget was $235 million. that is smaller than many of the
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ngos represented in the room today. at that time i was only providing six-month awards at the time. it did not have enough money. by the time i left the budget was a billion. today it's about $2.3 billion. there are more resources available in terms of humanitarian funding. but, i do think there's a need to go beyond the traditional approach to what our lifesaving activity is. there's this arbitrary distinction. as an immediate crises we provided food and water and shelter and sanitation. i think we all recognize that sometimes the most needed assistance in terms of lifesaving might be a book or a teacher or school. that's something i've been pushing my colleagues to do more
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of in terms of understanding first informant entry and foremost that even the most vulnerable people are able to actually take care of some of their immediate needs. therefore, there's a real gap sometimes. it can be senior sometimes where food aid shows up in the marketplace. people are using that to sell and purchase so this is worth thinking through, as i left in 2009, i've been spending a lot of my time thinking through how do we provide the evidence as to how people are really coping and adapting. how are they adapting to conflict versus rapid organization. had we take that evidence to support the humanitarian actors and policymakers to go beyond
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what were doing. the reality is not always more money. it's perhaps how we contextualize this type of assistance and it's the aid that's provided and driven by the people themselves for that takes effort and time and energy and i think there's a desire to do it but it's not always more money. i definitely think were changing the way we go about doing business. we seen here early this morning where we talked about the world bank now recognizing there cannot be development if you have large amounts of people on the move. if you're not addressing the chronic drivers. i definitely think, at this point in time, there's a lot of energy and focus and it's really exciting having spent years and years in the community to think about the escalating risk vulnerabilities and there's a real opportunity now to make a
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difference. >> absolutely. >> i want to turn to the audience. want to take two or three questions at once so, questions from the audience? yes. we will search your animal go to the gentleman in the glasses. if you can stand up and say who you're representing an and the question with? >> i am with humans on the move. we work with the refugee crisis. the question is about the defense question and how do you get dod to work more effectively with ngos. you talked about certain areas, but can you kind of talk about florida. i live in tampa florida and i'm really curious to hear your perspective. >> so dive a little bit deeper into that, okay yes for the gentleman with the glasses. stand and identify yourself.
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>> i'm tim mcdonnell, journalist for npr and other publications but i was hoping to hear more about the climate or environmental aspect of this, in particular the connection between where this is happening in other countries and how becomes the security problem for the u.s. and also what role the u.s. should play in addressing climate or environmental refugees from other countries and if that somehow different or special kind of intervention that's needed compared to the broader crisis course is all part of one issue. >> the question. i'll take one more. the lady here in the front. >> thank you all for the work you do. my name is rachel and i been serving on the board at the united nations association of boulder colorado and spending quite a bit of time with colleagues from the united
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nations on issues like this. as a volunteer and someone who is migrating myself. and i can see it from a global perspective in an individual perspective. within that context, we have this wonderful new partnership for refugees. i know that incorporates immigrant and migrant communities as well, the private sector, ngo sector, governments and multilateral organizations and they are addressing the global context of refugees and funneling a lot of funding for innovative programs. what are we doing and what can we do internally in the u.s. we have people migrating drastically, not only from hurricanes like in texas, but
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also one and half million dollar home pricing in san francisco and cities like seattle impor pd because i could no longer afford on an ngo salary. what can we do to be proactive about what could happen with the mass u.s. migration domestically? >> thank you for mentioning the tent foundation. the executive director of the foundation is on our task force and has been a huge contributor. we have three very good questions. one is asking us to dive a little bit deeper on the defense development, the nexus which is a word i hate but is appropriate, what are some examples of how we do that, asking us to double-click on the
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climate and environmental questions, especially as it relates to security and what role the u.s. can play, and then what can we do here in the u.s. to engage the private sector and really address these issues. i'm in the start with dealers choice on which of those you want to take and if we get to the end and we don't address all three then i'll push a little bit harder. >> all take the question around the defense i remember in the early '90s, there was a lot of focus, what's the role of humanitarian actors somehow straddling the line.
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there's something unique about providing humanitarian assistance. one of the downsides. this is really only for development. we've seen that might do wellin terms of branding, but for those of us who do this work, you go into the communities and you asked the community members themselves whether there in afghanistan or yemen, the source of the money or how it's branded or labeled, they don't even care. ultimately it's the type of service we provide to them. this is really, we could pool
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the resources together and come up with the right investment. there are some distinctions that need to be upheld. in terms of security forces. there needs to be better experience within the discipline. >> very good. i think they mention there's this apprehension on the humanitarian community of which i was a part, we had to visit projects and i have to admit that was real and i think there's a stigma that we have to deal with -- i wonder if we need
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to start with planning and when that planning happens that there are civilian folks that understand what the repercussions are going to be. i'm going to skip to mary beth to see if you could elaborate on that point or any of the other points that were made a little bit further. >> i will elaborate on just two things. the reconstruction team in iraq and afghanistan were deliberately designed by dod state department to have an ngo component that was led by state. the idea is that whether it was veterinarians that were needed were school, by design they
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would fill the gap that the community asked for not that the dod wanted and because i supplied generators for communities to sort of get them jumpstarted with electricity for some of the school or build the well and really relied on the usaid people. it was a little bit like kids soccer. we've got to get more
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coordinated so we can leverage authorities in money and roles in situations where we are trying to prevent conflict and get people back into the community or solidify them by providing both security for human necessity and leverage d dod. they have all kinds of talent. we provided medical care, schoolteachers, agricultural people to help enhance the soil. i also worked with the colombian minister of defense as the peace corps became reality to help provide helicopter support or transportation support to those members who were interested in
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giving up their arms and interested in training whether agricultural or others, by leveraging u.s. military public affairs folk or providing u.s. access support to the small efforts that columbia does so well. we also introduce the colombia colombians, one more example, we literally took the colombian narcotics police and the reintegration experts and their internal plan and sent them to afghanistan to help the afghans deal with the nonmilitary aspect of opiate production. there's lots of leverage back and forth. >> interesting. can i push you a little bit, you mention the environment in one of your answers for the previous question. can i ask you to address the
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gentleman's question on how the climate and environment, as part of this research we went to bangladesh. part of the reason we went there was not necessarily because we had some crystal ball and we saw there was going to be a million rohingya people moving in but because there's cyclical displacement within and from around bangladesh, and a lot of that is related to changes in the environment, changes in the climate that are somewhat predictable at this point. there are obvious security implications to that type of displacement. how do you think about that? >> actually, the dod has spent a little bit of time looking at this issue, and when i say there's going to be costs over water, there's going to be wars over water. we very seen the beginnings of the infrastructure for serious
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conflicts being laid between egypt and. [inaudible] over the nile because the nile isn't flooding the way it used to therefore egypt is attempting to keep more of the nile that they feel they are entitled to. georgia is also not getting access to water. it's very difficult to get locally produced water right now in georgia because other people are taking it. there are a number of places where dod is watching as we predict conflict in africa over mineral resources, it's not commonly known but there's oil and gas in afghanistan and there will be a fight over who gets back, and where and when it becomes more public information. the problem of that feeling something like an al qaeda resurgence where the taliban is
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a real issue. getting ahead of those, because the first indications will be humanitarian crisis. people being forced out. migrants being forced out and people coming in and taking over. there's a lot more we could do to avoid conflict through the humanitarian, through the ngos and the private sector set dod can facilitate with authorities and sleep trends in preplanning. >> excellent. dealers choice. there were three questions and i can repeat them if you need. what are your responses to the development or the question about what can we do in the u.s. >> thank you very much for that. just let me add parenthetically to what you said. i think with every threat and opportunity to course correct
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and create solutions that could potentially combat situations, if we can look at these scenarios in that way, where are the threats but where are there opportunities to thwart or divert or create solutions that could potentially minimize or thwart the majority of the threats. i also just wanted to share my own experience where defense and diplomacy have really worked in my opinion. i work in northern kenya for some years and it was that time for the three c's was really something being pushed by the authorities in the state department and the department of defense and the aid agency. it seems complex, it seemed a
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bit overwhelming but already there's many challenges to have to deal with it. then when you have to start interfacing to these other big agencies whose missions and values are so different, it can get a little bit tricky. but, it was not impossible so again, i looked at the opportunity to work with state actors and working with the department of state and also with the military who were stationed there at that time to figure out how to make it happen. : : :
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is the easiest thing to come to an agreement but one of the things if this is to ensure the forces and the time time we were heavily trying to fight against the militant forces of al-shabaab coming in and taking young people in pulling them into that terrorist cell. how do we ensure that from these three authoritative perspectives , we really have that dialogue could have that conversation but also understanding we equally have an important role to play and with adequate coronation and communication and there are some parts of the network prepared. up to that time unfortunately there was less of an emphasis
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but i just want to emphasize that it was not impossible and i think there is definitely, we should consider going back to see how we can resolve some of these problems. >> it was a productive construct to think about what we are talking about and revisiting some of that is worthwhile. matt, dealer's choice. >> i will take advantage of the question relative to the environment to actually use it to make a little bit of a different point which is when we have a climate for an environmental challenge in dealing with the tsunami they are relatively easy to fix on their own. we have the technology to work on how to better plan things and you can recover and rebuild and people can return home. where you find the challenge is
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a huge giants is still in the room which is the lack of a political solution to the underlying conflict. the famine in somalia could be resolved relatively easily with modern technology and agricultural work if you have as political solution to the civil war and the civil crisis that is existing in somalia. so many other areas where this is actually a symptom. i'm not under binding that mother nature does things whom we can react to that but those as i said are relatively easy in the challenge we face in the reason we have to have these is because of the failure to be able to resolve some of these long-standing conflicts. these are human made. they are not natural. they are not climate, they are not environmental, they are human. we need to do a better job and on the humanitarian side of colleagues who are the political side courthouse with the sometimes very enormous
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situation so we have a rekindling of south sudan or yemen where their health crises but otherwise it'd be relatively easily solved today and we could move on. we see where we have famine or crisis in a place where there is in conflict it is relatively, it is handled relatively quickly. while this is extremely important we have to not lose sight of the fact that we have more and more and more growing crises and the way to fix them is through political solutions. that's a very difficult thing in this ever-changing world but it's a challenge we have. >> when we were doing our chapter there was an underlying thread throughout all the root causes that was actually human so i think that is a good point
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that i'm going to take an attempt to myself to enter this last question but i wanted to plant the seed. the last thing i want to ask of you if you want to leave our audience with one thing at tweet lank so if you want to leave them with one tweet before they leave here what would that be? >> just to get to your question i think the role of the private sector in what the foundation does in the partnership is really critical to get the big businesses and the multinationals and really crowd and private sector and as you mentioned there is the starbucks of the world and the chobani's of the world that are doing interesting innovative things to incorporate it into their business model not just from a social responsibility perspective they getting to their core business, their bottom line. i think that there is a method here and i'm not sure that's the
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silver bullet to what you are asking about and i'm not sure that exist but there's a lot of entrepreneurial wisdom and not to burial spirit and those that are on the move whether they are forced migrants or economic migrants and i think having them , for them having the ability to tap into financial markets and finance the loans and just sort of crowding and private sector investment is going to be really critical. entrepreneurialism as i mentioned is not the silver bullet here but i think there's a lot of untapped energy and untapped potential and communities that are on the move partly because they are on the move and it's hard for them to access that. i think we need to think not just about multinationals and i know it's a really critical piece but critical piece but how do we support small and medium sizes that really actually employ a lot of these folks and have the potential to employ
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incredible amounts of others. i'm going to turn to mary beth and then we will just go down the line. if you would leave our audience with one short snippet that they can put into at tweet what you wanted to take away from this conversation? >> i think it would be that the national security implications of forced migration are under -- and a better understanding as to solve them while their nascent and don't create immediate security threats. >> i think and again i want to keep focused on who does this ultimately affect and i want to re-emphasized the need to change the narrative around forced
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migration which are migrants themselves and really create solutions as it does the private sector and institutions as well as agencies and see how we can collectively and collaboratively come together to develop solutions that simultaneously addresses their ability to integrate into the communities in which they live. >> i would say just to remind folks they tend to be mostly women and children and therefore i think the mayor in dallas said it quite well you treat refugees the way you would want to be treated. put yourself in their shoes and think to yourself this is my first option are my last resort in who is out there to help me
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and how can i find a durable solution? >> what are the recommendations was for providing funding for formal education and forced migration. the tweet would be oca provides funding. i want to take this opportunity to thank the panelists and to say thanks again to the ford foundation for generously supporting this really important research and we are very thankful to them and thank old to. theresa: who is here from the ford foundation. please join me in thanking the panelists. [applause] and thank you all for coming. [inaudible conversations]
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