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such as history professor gene smith. i have a student asked me one time and i had been lecturing on the war of 1812 and as i was about to talk about the battle of new orleans and is just this wonderful episode because andrew jackson he assembles the heterogeneous cosmopolitan army. it has regular u.s. forces than he has militia from louisiana and they are either of french or spanish descent and they don't really like one another and then there is kentucky and tennessee frontiersmen. and then he also had three men of color and they were about 600 of these. then he also have some slaves that helped. you told us in the last class.
that when they were operating and the trip chesapeake bay that slaves there were being liberated and many of them were being joined with the british. now you're saying that they're joining with inter- jackson and new orleans. which run is right. we begin our special feature. we learn about the history of the texas multiracial democratic coalition. the book is called blue texas. essentially the book draws back the curtain on the story of another texas. it's is not the texas a big hair and cowboy conservatism they often associate with the state but rather a history in which it's a is a hotbed of liberal political organizing. some trade unionism and above all the story i tell is how activists from different
groups slowly came together and built at alliance and a coalition for both civil rights and labor rates. there are four legs as a collet on the democratic coalition. they are mexican-americans which are most liberal factions of america and the most liberal faction. the most liberal ring of the organized labor which becomes the umbrella of the federation. in a the group of white liberal democrats. previously they had been in a group in the and the group called was a breakaway faction within that struggle for control of the party. people often confuse a coalition with a coal listen
or two groups that are merging together. and basically lose their identity. it's really the opposite. and so when the groups came together really didn't go well. for all of the ways in which they might have certain similarities african-americans and mexican americans were distinct they lived in separate neighborhoods they follow different leaders. they embrace different priorities. they practiced separate religions. spoke separate linkages. all of these things were separated instead each group sort of learned gradually that they needed each other.
and over time they learnt that they were going to keep electing those people. that was the foundation. what would happen what they would come together for a meeting and yell at each other. you don't really care about our issues. you're not sincere. too many of our programs and our discussions are focused on labor rights and not on these other issues. and were proposing a joint effort in which we would prioritize african americans african-americans and said a mexican american. they often fail to agree in the early years. and over time they discover that the distinctions of class of strategy the political ideology and philosophy. all of those come to matter at least as much as you tie the
race or ethnicity. it's a very gradual process. the book shows this process in great detail how is it that these activists fully learn these lessons about who is on their side and who isn't. how do they start to hash through the various missteps so they could be one example and i believe it was and 62 the democratic coalition held a meeting in austin. they brought together the joint campaign of some kind. the african-american was forced to enter in through the back. 1962. it did not create a climate of trust naturally among all of the participants. and so the delegates have to point this out at a meeting. and albert pena was one of the chairs of this particular meeting went out of his way to apologize for this incident. and went out of his way to talk about the issues with
voter suppression that they should prioritize in order to really do right by the african-american members. it's one of many examples. a few years earlier the mexican american with great following among african americans have been involved in filibustering and a whole slew of filibuster laws. pitchman to support. the liberals refuse to get behind his campaign even though they didn't have a viable candidate of his own. but the remarkable part of the story is that after each of these failures and blowups and these confrontations they came together again. the day after an election that they lost because they can agree on a candidate someone
would send a letter and say let's get together again. they would figure out where to hold the meeting. that was a point of connection. eventually they figure out where their economy and they would come together and they would say okay let's analyze whether we went wrong. and how we can do this better. and over. of several years they do the disparate needs and their separate priority and by 1963 they are able to launch organized labor and the white liberals to large extent are forced to accept african-americans and mexican americans as full partners rather than junior once and even to prioritize the struggles for civil rights. as a top domestic issue. they define civil rights broadly. immediate integration.
it also included mexican american issues. the right to organize unions. they made that their priority. and so organized labor which as i said it was historically a right -- white organization that have defended the segregation of jobs. it certainly had challenged it. by 1963 the leaders of the labor movement called a press conference in which they demand that the governor of texas call a special session to deal with civil rights issues. and they do it not out of charity they do it because they have learnt that the issue as their own issue. it's her own self interests to advocate and it's their own path of that they've created. in 1963 these groups come
together on a new basis they are constantly reformulating what this means. and some 300 of them gathered in a ballroom and dallas and relaunch of this coalition and by that point they have settled upon a deliberate democratic internal structure. it has the four identified legs. independent white liberals and labor. each of those gets to send an equal number of delegates to this meeting. his chaired eye for cochairman. each of the committees has an equal representation among the groups. and when conflict arises as it always does instead of tearing them apart. they actually pocket in separate quarters of the room and hash out the issues. and talk openly about their differences. and eventually agree on
compromises. in the end they do come together. they make their money for their own coffers at outside sources to build a political ground game. unlike anything seen before or since. it is rooted in the civil rights movement. they build the field operation. and they drafted upon the local struggles. they hire dozens of campaign staff and they focus their efforts for the first time ever in texas history on african-americans in inner cities. they pair that with a program among trade unionists. as well as women attached organized labor. but the field campaign they watch.
voters of texas. and they go around spreading this message of the struggle for freedom through building political power. in the organization. and they manage to first register huge numbers of people and then they turn them out. they do so through an army of black workers. people who are local precinct captains in each neighborhood that as many as 10,000 block workers. across the state participating along with the dozens of paid staff. they have trained a debt generation a political activist one of their campaign staffers in houston was a woman named barbara jordan who goes on to become the state senator and united state's congresswoman. it is part of her origin story
this coalition succeeds in 1964 and reelecting them and we lyndon johnson to the presidency and ultimately they transform local politics. they redraw the map of texas elections are now today you have the blue inner-city central city surrounded by the red suburbs. they succeeded in their decades long goal of breaking down the doors of the democratic party and then taking it over and transforming and using as a vehicle to fight for things like equal employment opportunity they help to implement those things on the ground. they have to go in and keep demonstrating at lunch counters.
they have to do the same thing to open up the workplace. fighting for equal opportunities at work since the 1930s at least. in 1965 he finally has the tools and he is able to use that to break open employment at the southern pacific. he becomes the main plaintiff on a case that creates single-member voting districts. a winning political power. it learns that it was the secret weapon.
by the mid- 1970s the democratic coalition as such comes a parts and 65 and 66. a wide variety of reasons. they have succeeded in changing the political dynamic. the new opportunities were opening up. i knew people on the scenes. it is challenged on the left by some of the more radical coalition. the power shift. a liberal democrat. but since then texas has been followed the republican. and yet the city is a blue
spot on the map. we do well publicized gubernatorial race. and people all over america are asking is texas going to turn blue and windsor can you turn blue. what are the factors that are can be a part of that. i say there is a number of lessons from the history they give us some insight. the first is that what made the democratic coalition successful in the 1960s was that it succeeded and connected high politics and the electoral arena to grassroots social movements. two morally driven insurgencies about fundamental human rights. when the coalition tried to do this. when it tried to overlook some of those deeper issues and
couldn't talk openly about race it didn't win. the more committed it became too embracing unruly tactics the more effective and it became. i think the democratic party in texas would do well to learn from the history alone. that rather than focus on organizing a moderate center it needs to think about building as many bases not just one base but many base. people come to from all different directions. so what african-americans still want to see in the democratic party is one that is committed to that morally driven insurgencies on insurgency on behalf of human rights. they want democrats talking about black lives matter.
they want to democratic party that is willing to embrace the immigrant rights movement. and not be wishy-washy on those issues. i think that is one clear lesson for texas and i think nationally that the path forward has by not doing politics as usual. but connecting with the grassroots social movements into these moral causes. >> it remains to be seen what will benefit. it remains largely detached from these movements. and those movements remained skeptical of the sincerity of white liberal democrats. her back in the 1950s in a lot of ways. in texas in particular i read memos from the 1950s that read verbatim about the once you see circulating today may talk about the changing demographics in the state and
had to make the case that it will become a liberal democratic place. it didn't happen then. and there is nothing about it now. yes the demographics there are signs that there are some changes that would favor democrats there are also signs of their art. there is falling trends among latinos. but what the history shows is that those numbers are less important than the ground game. then getting these various activist together in a room to hash out what their differences are and to find ways to work together despite the differences and to put them on the table and work through them and to build a ground game that can mobilize an army of people.
they were able to do that and 63 and 64 and into 65. we have not seen a ground game on that scale since. i would say the democrats want to turn texas blue they are going to need to invest a lot more resources and they will need to do with the democratic coalition did. who are deeply embedded in those communities and attach the social movements to forge those connections into make the party then relevant to the people that are there. of the struggles in survivals and worries about police brutality, deportation and lgbt rights. then and only then will we turn texas blue. >> as we continue to explore the literary scene we will speak with author gene smith
to learn about the choices of african-americans during the war of 1812. >> i have a student asked me a question one time in the class this was sometime around mid october 1987 and i had been lecturing on the war of 1812. as i was about to talk about the battle of new orleans. it is a wonderful asked episode because injured jackson he assembles this heterogeneous cosmopolitan army and regular u.s. forces, then he has militia from louisiana and they are either of french or spanish descent and they don't particularly like one another and then there are kentucky and tennessee frontiersmen they don't like one another. and then he also had 52 choctaw indians. there is three men of color. and then he also have some slaves that helped then.
by assembling this force i'm trying to weave a narrative in class and explained to these students why this battle is so important and the student raises his hand and says dr. smith you told us in the last class. that when the british were operating in the chesapeake bay that slaves there were being liberated and many of them were joining with the british and now you're telling us that they are joining with andrew jackson at new orleans. which one is right. that was a question i couldn't answer. i said i will get back to you and i will answer the next class. i pulled out all my stuff and try to find an answer and just couldn't find an answer to it. the next class. comes in i don't look him in them in the eye. the problem is he was a good student he just kept putting me on this and it made me realize if i couldn't answer the question that i needed to find an answer for it. i spent 15 years writing this book.
to two offered to offer an answer of why slaves and free blacks chose to side with whomever they did during the war of 1812. and one of the things i can tell you is that the war of 1812 is a conflict between) on one hand slaves had more choices than great britain on one hand and a nine in and sits on the other. as i was researching this book is that slaves had as many as five options of whom they would join. they would side with the americans when it best suited them. in the gulf south. they would side with the spanish. and then they would often side with native americans and joint native american communities and then there was institutes where they absorbed
served their own marine communities. this was not a simple question for me to answer it became very completed and that's why it took some years of my life yes they do fight for the americans in a story i will share with you there is the story of jordan noble. he was born in augusta augustine georgia about 1800. he is the offspring of a european parent and a sleigh parent at the time of the battle of new orleans jackson begins mobilizing men for the defense of the city jordan noble is going to be volunteered by his current owner to serve as a drummer boy and the one thing i try to remind people about german boys it's more than just beating a beat. every order is given on a battlefield has a corresponding beat and that is
because in the heat of battle when there is loud cannon fire and market fire. in smoke. and you can't hardly hear or see the b of that drum would tell men what to do. he serves as a drummer boy. at the time of the battle of new orleans he is serving in the engagement happens on january 8. 1815. and it's one of the more dramatic episodes in american history. i've often argued it's really what we call the first american victory and once the battle is over jordan noble and the other soldiers are going to be dismissed. he is a 15-year-old boy at this time. he goes back to being a slave.
and ultimately he will secure its freedom. by the 1820s he's going to be volunteering for american service again. this time fighting in the seminal war that began in the early 1830s he will fight and a third war and that will be the mexican war he would be one of the very few african americans who will see service in the mexican war. in 1861 he will raise a regiment of truth. he will have service and for worse. the problem with him raising it. is that this action has often used by neo- confederate modern confederates to say that blacks served in the confederacy. it's simply not the case.
when the union maybe takes new orleans very early in the war the union army will occupy new orleans and those black confederates well then volunteer their services for the union army. and they will actually see service in the union army in fact jordan noble will help raise a regiment for the native guard which is the famous black unit there in new orleans. this guy jordan noble he spends he has seen service in for worse. he is the person that is most notably acknowledged as a black participant for the americans in the war of 1812. i will tell you the story
about a slave named charles ball. he was from calvert county maryland now, about 187 his owner sold him to georgia. he claimed that when he got there he was able to escape from georgia he traveled only a night and lived off the land it took about a year and a half to get back to maryland. my first question was why the heck would you go back there owner sold you from there. when you get back his owner was dead. he went back to the family there. he gets back the owner said he begins hiring himself out as free labor. the people in the neighborhood
know that they hire him anyway. by the time of the war of 1812 he has been acknowledged as being respectable worker there in the neighborhood. in the spring of 1813 the british had rated through the neighborhood they meet with the british commander and try to come ins there slave to return they get there they plead with the slaves that are in british possession now and the slaves simply refuse to go. to spend the night with the slaves and mingle about them to go to their former condition. the next day there can remain
free under the british. and he is exiting the ship the british officers asked him would you like to join us as a free man in the british colony he said no. i am a free man. i have either lance to work that i can. he was a fugitive slave kid had crafted an idea a story about himself that he was sticking to a little more than a year later he will choose to join the american navy as a part of this. he will be part of the marines that traveled to washington dc. a 6-pound fuel team.
and the sailors and marines that put them on the high point west high point west of the british crossing and when they cross that bridge with the kenyans are constantly deployed. so the canyon canyon and the marines that provided that. he continued fighting until he was injured. and he orders his men to retreat he was a sponge or on a cannon. instead of retreating with most of them goes right into british lines. as a black man. they had been evacuated how, just slaves instead of walking through the british lines he works his way to baltimore where he will participate in
baltimore a few weeks later. after the war of 1812 he's back to culvert county. he and his wife they buy property. about 1813 disaster strikes. a slave trader comes through the neighborhood and claims to recognize him. claims that he is a slave that he sold out georgia. he was put in chains and drag back to georgia. he would escape again. this time it takes him a year to get back to calvert county. his wife and kids have been
rounded up by slave traders and off to the south. that's how we know so much about them he wrote and autobiographical account. there seems to be part that some people claim to be too fanciful to be real. once his wife and kids were taken he published the book. will never well never enough he really did. had charles ball have a different answer and when he said you want to join us as a free citizen if you have said sure will be right back he said he said no he fabricated
an identity for himself another story is a story of a slave. and simmons was the sling of the american revolution daniel greene. nathanael greene is one of the greatest in the american revolution. he was awarded for his service and that land happened to be in georgia. he would have possession of a plantation on cumberland island. now, the interesting thing about him is that throughout the war thereby aside he have his slave. simmons was born about 1760 or so. or so unsure about that.
it was reported that he was an outstanding soldier but even more so he played the bible and washington's tent. to entertain the general. his life is determined by the rising and setting of the sun in the war of 1812 finally comes to the gulf coast january 1815. an admiral in charge in the south atlantic is a guy named george colbert. he is an admiral who'd been in charge of the attack on washington and he is the one who have captured washington and watched most of the city burn. when he commands the south he
lands the ship. the writers the waters around they take cumberland island and he actually makes the plantation his headquarters. although the island on the south atlantic coast they are liberating slaves and hundreds would find their way to the island. it was a deep post for slate. when given the opportunity he would immediately volunteer to become a british coalition team member. in this training he has been so went up at handling a bucket and the maneuvers of
the drills that the sky although he is about 60 years old. he is an outstanding soldier we will keep him here on cumberland island. we will serve to the example as all other slaves that you come here to the island. we will show them what they too can become. he's given a musket and he serves as an example and for a. of about two months there are more than 1500 slaves that will work their their cumberland island and there is not simmons holden has musket.
there are american diplomats who end up coming to cumberland island to talk with the colbert. the war is over. you have to return all seized property including slaves. he is going to stall for about a week and during that week the british are evacuating as many slaves as they can and ultimately when he finally does decide he returns about 80 slaves the green family would green family would eventually sell the plantation to another owner and ned simmons as part of the property that was transferred. he would eventually get his freedom. he does.
it's estimated in fact he claims himself that he was a centenarian. hundred years old. and in 1863 when federal forces took control of that. that simmons and his 70-year-old daughter they've fled under cover of darkness to make their way to union lines. and how we know all of this. part of it was because he talked about being the slave of nathanael greene and he have met george washington on numerous occasions. and there was a newspaper report there. they did a half-dozen interviews with ned simmons. and he recorded all of this information that simmons talked about and how he would eventually get his freedom. by fleeing to union lines.
he claimed that he said if i were to die today i could go to the lord knowing i'm a free man --dash make free man. he did it become become a free man and it was one of the last things he did. the understanding from this book and black participation. they would participate on every side of the conflict they're willing to use any avenue that they can if they think you it can bring them freedom. the plight of african americans is african-americans is going to worsen.
considerably. in fact, in maryland the politicians they are heightening up the restrictions for building the army of slaves in any manner whatsoever. when it revise the constitution. and they were beaten back by those who said we have to tighten slavery rather than loosen it. there be in north and south carolina mississippi will become us date in 1817.
alabama becomes a state of 1819. and this opens up for the farming land especially for southern cotton plantation agriculture cotton. so what happens is the war creates new emphasis for growth and expansion of slavery across the south. and while i had hoped they have a happy ending. and ultimately became a freedom story that had a sad ending. i've written about the war of 1812 for two plus decades. the hero in my mind that came out of this book was the british. the british liberated slaves.
the ones that fled they wanted to do something they were proud of. they wanted to have choices. and the red -- ones who fled originally their choices were not so good. they have no choice at all. we will take you inside the tcu journalist fair. the important not only for its role in texas history but
remember the alamo of course. also important in terms of the development of the idea of mexican-americans nationally. and it runs through the 1929 through 1934 time which is the deepest recessionary time. this is the worst time for homelessness and joblessness and hunger and poverty. in the united states. and everyone was suffering. it also coincides with the first imposition of legal restrictions in the united states without documents.
in a place and time that people were going back and forth quite freely. and the machinery was beginning to wind up. they were perceived to be taking jobs from others. it was owned by william randolph hearst. at this point he was the grandest newspaper tighten in the world. he owned 28 newspapers. this is a lot for the great depression. so he have a national newspaper. on the presses of a german newspaper. and it represented that railroad ranking interest.
it was the mexican immigrant owned newspaper that started in 1913 by the refugee. it was nationally actually transnational he circulated throughout the united states. in the same space in time they wrote about that. being removed from the country. more than 500,000 were removed to something called repatriation. it was a special process. and many times the us-born children.
they are loaded with thousands of people going back some forcibly. it's about how all of this disposable labor was removed and how the newspapers characterized characterize the role of mexicans in our economy. one of the central themes of the book is the making and unmaking through the media. in other words when you think about history must people think about i'm going to read a book about what happened. or what history is trying to tell me happened. but data and resources. my work doesn't look at what happened. it only looks at what newspaper said happened. the mediated representation even today is how we
understand so many things that we can't experience. what we understand about syria this is the same idea that i'm looking at here. and so one of the key things about the coverage then and now is of course how did the stories and narratives help us understand or not understand who is american and who is not. i would like to read a little bit from a pivotable -- pivotal scene in the book. it was again the newspaper. they have the editorials that were largely can't written by mister hearst himself. one of the national writers. they were anti- immigrant. but the new pages try to tell
a different story in many cases. here is a story about a march through the city of downtown san antonio. the temperature was 80 degrees by ten in the morning. it was warm for southwestern texas spring day. it would peek at 93 degrees. whether how ever was no deterrent to it thousand jobless san antonio to begin a protest march through downtown. the political climate was heating up also. they had been simmering on a back burner and would boil over that day and make page one of the light. the flashpoint was a communist led parade that marches through downtown past the mexican accounts consulate. a group of about 50 women were in the lead. businesses on houston street. was practically suspended
waiting such as we cannot be fed on help they endured bystanders. bystanders. i think they turned mexico loose in san antonio. that notion was shared by many according to the light. much comment could be hard embedded in these reactions was a racial coating of a mexican appearance or coloring into something profiled as automatically not american. i bet half of them are not american citizens. another spectators went further. haven't seen one american yet. it made it clear that these were not isolated observations. they could be heard on every hand.
immigration officials from very is agencies middle with the marchers. maintained that less than a dozen americans march in the parade. it reported for instance that the sense of onlookers and not sure what to make of this. marching down the street. the profile of the mexican worker and why they are so accepted was that of a very docile worker. very willing to do jobs that nobody else wanted to do. it's not like the white people are going to take these jobs. there were express reported.
they just watch through binoculars at the crowd. i guess they were wondering where were the per listeners. this march happened through downtown san antonio right on their deadline. they were able to cover it while. it was the only paper to cover the entire parade route. they also tried to keep a tally of how many americans. and they put the number of americans at 20. this is over a thousand people. thousand people. i'm not quite sure how they were able to determine this. it's an example of how people were characterized as americans based merely on
their appearance. what are the important takeaways that i would like people to have from the book is of course this idea that many of the ideas that their hearing they are recycled. that's one thing. the second thing i like them to think about is some of the things we haven't talked about yet. the construction of this mexican american identity. in the role of the spanish-language newspaper developed a contact of a people and journalism history. james gordon bennett.
we have begun to learn quite a bit about the black press but not nearly enough. in many of the other ethnic minority process. our little studied. and little explored. it can tell us a lot more about these people and how important they were in the development of their economy. the idea of the particular language. telling about them getting ready to be deported. this has been done in the early 19 hundreds. and something we sought more recently when the usa today came out. not this was considered a new idea.
it went on crusades. there was no healthcare and so the publishers started a campaign to build a mexican clinic. and he got people to donate from all over the united states. he would open the newspaper. and he would see that so-and-so from fort collins colorado had given a dollar which was a lot of money back then. and someone from yuma arizona had given 50 cents. have given another 25 cents. one of the things that the newspaper does is it drew this picture for people of mexican descent that they were a collective community. it was a national community
and when they work together they could contribute to the common good. this was something that was not reflected in the u.s. english language. you have to be considering all of the resources and drying on those. to get a clear picture. if you want to understand different points of view. you have this phenomenon. it's almost as though that's there. but three alice's. and everyone goes through a looking the looking glass investor a different virtual reality. again it is a world of media representation.
the ideas in the consciousness. different ideas about certain kinds of immigrants. alienating people from certain countries. and nationalities. have been involved very much in our thinking. we spoke with author steve woodward to learn about the history and making it more important for all raters. i find very interesting story a very interesting story and i wanted to present it in a way that would be interesting both to students we publish it with
the textbook publisher. i hope it's one that will be interesting to the public also. i think people naturally like stories. we are hardwired to enjoy stories. that's how i wanted to present it. as i was thinking about writing the book one thing i noticed was that there are some very long text books about the civil war. it's more than 800 pages long. what if you want something a little shorter. many professors like to assign a smaller book alongside a general history of the work and there would not be much to do that. there were some books that were extremely short. also some good ones maybe
hundred 90 or 200 pages. that is fine but it gets a little antiseptic. the student said they were so convinced and so bare-bones that it was almost a little hard to follow. and hard to be drawn into a. i wanted a book that would be long enough that you could really tell a story and not 800 pages long. i shop for about three hundred 50 pages. i felt that that would naturally be iestingo people and would naturally be understandable. they might say it's obvious. especially if a book is written to be used in class and assigned in a course. to some degree the author feels obligated to cover a number of different things.
we don't really march through the story in a way that i think is just interesting compelling and understandable. you get a book that covers a little bit of everything. but yet it doesn't have a good narrative thread that it follows. i wanted that good narrative thread. in telling the story of the civil war as a story you have characters who are important. .. .. lee made decisions and those decisions made a difference, and i might add also many other people at lower levels made decisions that had significant consequences that changed the course of history. and so people make significant decisions and another thing i
think that goes into telling a storyes that it history is not inevitable. it's not -- in fact, just don't like the word inevitable for history. nothing is inevitable if people make different decisions. the decisions they make are important, but nothing about that had to happen. if people would have made different decisions journal follow the decisions they make, and i think that gives a natural drama to it. i mean, not to overdramatize but makes a certain drama to it, that they face decisions, faced problems, and they had to make decisions and cope with the problems and overcome and that determined the flow, the course, that events took,. >> i think it's important for people to find the civil war accessible and interesting and enjoyable because i think it's an important topic, and if you
enjoy something and it's accessible interesting, you'll come to understand it and remember it and learn from it, and that's important with the civil war. i've been reading recently people writing but maybe we are headed for a second civil war, second episode of secession. it's hard to believe what you knows tweet forward might hold. we live in interesting time monday and when we understand the past, it's not exactly that history repeats itself. the same exact things don't happen. i don't look for ulysses grant or robert e. lee to show up doing the same thing. history doesn't repeat its but it as to rhyme, and similar things lead to similar results. now, the fact that we're sitting in front of a civil war statue, they're kind of raise the whole issue of the civil war statue controversy that we have today, and a lot of people are very much against having a confederate statue or statues
that monumentalize the confederacy, having that in public places and there's a reason for that and that is -- whether we like to admit or not, whether we wish it had been about that or not, whether our ancestor -- i had ancestors on both sides in the war. whether our ancestors would have fought authorize that cause or wouldn't have, the fact is the people who fought at that time said they were fighting about slavery. for the whole decade before the war, that was the political issue that they were having controversy about, the issue they seceded bit when the state of texas seceded some other states, the drew up an official declaration, here's why why seek sedes, declaration of cautions for secession and slavery was the central issue, why our slaves aren't huron when they runaway, why in the north elected a president who is against slavery, and on and on. why they won't send you've troops to defendant our frontier
because we have slavery and all about slavery. the war bass about slavery. as we look back on that, it's a war about slavery. thursday think too many people, happy today, are in favor of slavery. i hope nobody. and so people have said, why should we have monuments that celebrate slavery, and we've -- you have probably followed in the news different times where that has come up and it's been a big issue in new orleans and elsewhere. i think there's right bay and a wrong way to go but this, as far as i'm concerned. this is just for myself, a citizen who happens to be an historian to and studies the civil war. the university of texas they've done it the right way. they had a big statue, an eight foot tall stat tough jefferson davis and for many years -- many years, decade, on campus, on a pedestal. way up there, kind of respect this man, honor this man.
and that wasn't a good thing. so i think they did the right thing. they took the statue but didn't junk it or trash it. they put it in a museum for american history, small museum and they put the jefferson davis statue in there. you can come closer to it now. you can admire the artistic work of the sculptor better and you can just see it better than you could when it was 30 feet high, and then there are displays there, a video display, and displays -- a plaque that you can read that tell you when the statute few was put there why, who jefferson dave was, much better job of presenting the history, and i think that is the -- people say if you take down a statue, you are destroying history or you're erasing history. i don't want to a royce history. my business, what i do is trying to teach people history. so, we want to keep the history
but let's put it in a museum where it's accessible. as we know the history, we have more wisdom to be able to deal with the events of today. the civil war was very rick episode in our history, and the more we study i, more we're ask -- we have the wisdom and understanding to deal with the difficult episode that happen now. i like to tell my students and i'm kind are -- i guess they say i'm famous around campus for using football analogies to illustrate money points but i tell my students that stuff, for us to study history is like the football team watching game film of their future opponents. it's not -- this is a game -- it's a film of game that was past. you can sea what does that matter? it matters a lot to the guys and they have to spend a lot of time in the film room to see how the other team performed, the things they are good at, so we can cope
with them hopefully on the football field and that's hough it is studiesing history. >> jim wright was a distinguished representative of congress for over 30 years. he the went on to teach at christian university and here on campus we spoke with an author to learn more about jim wright as well as other influential texans in congress. >> jim wright can was from -- proudly from fort worth and grew up in a little town west of here called wither ford. the served in the texas houston of rebstives and then mayor of the city before running for congress in 1954 but proudly serve the people of fort worth for 35 years in congress, and made his home here after he left congress. he did not stay in washington. he moved back home to be among the people. and spent the last 20 years of his life teaching students here at texas christian university. so in a real since to the
portrait of jim wright represents the two signed jim right. one, the leader in congress during the time he was there and then also appropriately placed near fort worth which he called home. lone star leaders was project that tony champagne, my co author and i did after we did a full-length study of the austin-boston connection, the passing of power in the house of representatives between represent representatives from boston and from texas, coalition that dominated in 1931 when john nance garner became the speaker of the house, until 1989 who jim wright left the speakership. we were going around texas and going through archives of many of the influential people who are from texas and had served in congress during the 20th 20th century. and so once that project was finished up, we thought, my, it would be wonderful to do a
series of short pieces on many of the interesting people who served from texas in congress, both in the house and the senate. and so lone star leaders gives us portraits of 25, i think the exact number is 26 -- people who had served in congress from texas. >> we spoke fussed on the era between 1931 and 1989 because in 1931, john nance garner was elected speaker of the u.s. house of representatives. the first texan ever to hold a chamber leadership position in congress, and so it really marked texas' coming of age as a member of the united states union, and then during that period between 1931 to 199, texas had an -- 1989 texas had an almost uninterruptedded role in leadership of congress, i with sam rayburn serving as majority leader and then jim
wright majority leader from 1976, when he was elected majority leader until his resignation from congress in 1989n. addition that texans served long periods of time as chair of the appropriations commit. >> chair of the judiciary committee, chair of the banking committee, and a variety of other royals, agriculture, example. so there were periods of time when there was many as ought or nine texans who were the chiefs the standing committees in the house of representatives during a time when being chair was really important. the four h probably shownbrightest during thattary era were john nance garners, their first democratic speaker of the house after long domination by the republican party and brought democratic leadership to congress for the first time as a precursor 0 the new deal era, and of course he used his selection as speaker of
the house in 1931 to parlay himself to being the vice presidential candidate for franklin roofline 1932 election, and he world hand in glove with franklin roosevelt over the fours year of the root administration, roosevelt for all of his capabilities doesn't have any experience in congress. and garner had been in congress since 1903, and so he was able to use his friendships and his influence to really usher much of the early new deal through congress. later, as the new deal became more liberal from his picker, garner, staunch commit every way, found himself more and more at variance with president roosevelt, and therefore after the second term, of course, he abandoned the ticket and came back home to texas, and i his influence diminished greatly. he never went back to coverage as late as 1960, john kennedy visited garner in texas as part
of his run for the presidency. so, garner was a major figure in politics during the 1930s and even beyond. then came sam rayburn, rayburn was protege in some wives john nance beganner. he came to congress ten years later. he was elected in 1913 to congress and he was on the interstate commerce commission -- committee, and he used that position to gain influence, and became friends with people across the country so that when the majority leadership opened up in 1937, the -- he began to campaign for that position, the then-vice president, john nance garner, helped him get elected as majority leader, which was his stepping stone to influence. then of course he became the dominant figure in house
politics from 1937 until his death in 1961. proudly talked about the eight presidents of the united states with whom he served. he was always very careful to say he didn't serve under anybody but he served with eight. very much aware of the separation of powers and the checks and and balances between the two branches. but his biggest influence was is in mentorship of lyndon johnson, and lyndon johnson came to the house in 1930 and rayburn took him under his wing and they had an almost father and son relationship. rayburn never married so he had no family of his own and was very close to johnson family, i particularly loved lady bird johnson. and so johnson parlayed that into -- that influence into becoming one of the young turks in new deal, noticed very much
by franklin roosevelt force his hard work and his talent, and of course, parlayed that into his narrow and famous victory in the 1948 election i texas, and then became majority leader of the u.s. senate, in his 40s at a time when he only served for a relatively short period in the senate, something that was very unusual at the time and parlayed that majority leadership into being a candidate for president, and although it was obviously a great blow to lose the nomination to john kennedy in 1960, the consolation prize of the vice-presidency was valley then when kennedy was assassinated in 1963, johnson becomes president. so, he is probably the longest and biggest lasting protege of sam rayburn. another protege of rayburn's was
jim wright. and he served for many years on the publishing works committee, but used his position as a member of the texas congressional delegation and as a member of the public works committee win a very narrow victory after the election of 1976 to become majority leader. part of his appeal was jimmy carter was just elected president of the united states, and wright, using his southern accent, said that he liked jimmy carter, spoke without an accent, and so he was elected majority leader where he served until tip o'neill's resignation in -- after the election of 1986, and then served one full term and ball half of a second term as speak he of the house before his resignation in 1989. >> you have to look at the new deal, which was helped facilitate greatly by john nance garner very early on and other major figures in he texas
delegation. they had the impact on kind of diminishing franklin roosevelts role here in texas, both by john nance garner, speaking out turneds the end of his second term as vice president, against the third term, and by people like hatten sumner from dallas, chair of the house jew kurdish area committee and de facto killed. core packing plan. tea totaling methoddity. you have joe sever weldon bailey, the father of the federal income tax out of the texas congressional delegation. tom connally, a chairman of a senate foreign relations committee, who despite bag very conservative member from texas, led the delegation from congress to san francisco when the united nations was formed after world war ii. so you have a whole number of members of congress who really
were very influential and then you have people who were influential in negative way us. the mart indoors on the house unnorthwestern activities mistee. daniel was a character but in over his head in the united states senate. you have people like charlie wilson who used his positions to essentially fund the surreptitious war in afghanistan that led to the fall of the soviet union. so, texans were involved in domestic politics and foreign politics and had influence both nationally and internationally. perhaps the single most incredible feat in legislative history in the united states this funding of the manhattan project leading up to and world war ii. no one in congress knew anything but the man had tan project
and -- manhattan project and yet i it was a huge item in the united states. a black marked item and congress, year after year, voted to fund the manhattan project based solely on the guarantee by sam rayburn that it was in the public interest to do so. the credibility of the leadership, what an amazing difference from today. that is not the fault necessarily of the leaders today but it's certainly marks a different time. rayburn thought it was so important to have a sense of shared interest in making policy in the united states, the problems that we have as a society don't go away because we won't work with one another and so it's so important for us to show leadership and to understand that when you make
policy, often nobody is going to be happy. again, one of the great insights i got from jim wright in all the years i knew him here at tcu, he said if you ever left conference committee meeting and one side was happy and the other side was unhappy, you had made a bad deal. the only time that you had a successful conference committee report is when both sides were unhappy because that meant that for the greater good, both sides had had to give up something that was very important to them, and to their core kizzy. how different now from when we have people who do nothing but appeal to their base do nothing but appeal to theys of their own constituent rather than the an in and that is the thing that sam rayburn and jim wright and others during this era would miss most profoundly. >> our look at fort worth's
local literary continues as we explore the grace hall cell in their shoes exhibit at texas christian university. >> grace hall sill was a journalist and author. she is from texas, she was born in lubbock, and she started her journalism career almost straight out of high school in lubbock, texas. she worked for the lubbock avalanching journal. this started out in the 1940s, time when there weren't many women in the news room so she was built after pioneer and was sometimes the only woman in the newsroom, but she start out at the lubbock avalanche journal. she went to texas tech university for a little while. went to tcu. and eventually attended the
columbia university for some shoulder courses and she also -- shoulder courses and became a reporter at the fort worth star telegram, the major newspaper here in, and had a wide readership all over the state. when she was at thing for worth star kell gram she actually became the first female reporter to cover the police beat, and she was actually working on that pete when she met her husband. they had a brief marriage divorce, and after her divorce is when she left texas. she became a free lance reporter and she started outside working in new york city, but her reporting eventually led her all over the world. doing free-lance writing she ended up writing articles for the new york heralds tribune, he houston chronicle, the times picayune, and then she also took the opportunity to travel
internationally and she reported for a time in japan, reported in hong kong, and she lived in hong kong, and eventually ended up in souther america, where she worked for a newspaper in him him ma, per russ, for peru for four. >> after that trail around the world she end up in washington, dc. she was working nor washington bureau of the hewitt houston post and that put her in contact with president johnson who wanted to offer hear job in the white house as the a sect. she said i'm not a sect. i'm a writer. so she was given a job as a writer for president johnson, and i she wrote press releases and wrote speeches and things like that. she worked for white house for
three years and then was inspired to start reporting writing on racial issues, and in the late 1960s, the civil rising movement was a major issue in the united states, and she took on probably the greatest story of the biggest story of her life. she wanted to write about racism from the perspective or african-americans, and she started working on a book that was inspired by john howard griffin's book, "black like me." grace took drastic steps to take on this story, and she took some medication that allowed her skin to become darker. and actually lived in harlem and in mississippi as a black woman to write her book "soul sister."
"soul sister" became a huge hit, sold over a million copies and was widely read at the time, and so she kept writing from this perfect. of other people. she wrote a book called bessy yellow hair from the perspective where she had gone undercover, as a navajo woman and wrote about her experiences working and living as an american indian, and then she wrote another book called the "the illegals" and she researched this book by crossing over the border with mexican families who were coming into the united states, and so she spent the -- a good part of her career writing these kind of books, where she really took on another persona and then wrote about that experience.
her autobiographyy is called "in their shoes" and she documents everything in her life from her very unique childhood in west texas, to working in the white house, her marriage, and these journalistic assignments and books she wrote. this book came out in 1996. in 2000, she passed away from treatment she had multiple my loma and that was a cancer related to the medication she took to darken her skin. we have her papers here at tcu library and we have researchers come and do research on her work as a journalist and a writer. >> so, these are some examples of documents we have in the collection. they're clippings of her
articles that she wrote for the newspaper in lima, peru, and these are dated from the 1960s but she did live in peru from -- for a couple of years, and just worked on many different assignments there. she was very much a working reporter. i think sometimes the fact that there were not a lot of female reports at the time gave her an entry and got her some attention that wasn't normally given. so that may have helped her get some of the stories but a she generally wrote on the happenings of him ma -- lima, peru. in 195 she was working in was
for the houston post and was as a press event where president johnson was actually at the event. he noticed her and, again, her being a woman, got his attention and a roomful of male reporters, she was one female, and so he noticed her and made a comment about her being a pretty little thing, and trade to get her to work in the white house, and she writes about this in her book again, her experience interviewing with president johnson and then her experience and her observations working for him in the white house. he wanted to hire her as a secretary, and she said, no, i am a report, i'm not going to be in the secretarial pool. so he took her on and she got to see the way he worked as president, and she -- in her book writes about her observations and her opinions on
how he organized his office, things that he needed as president to kind of keep his confidence going. the way he interacted with other women in the department and the white house. so many years later, she took all of those memories and wrote an unpublished manuscript. it's a fictional manuscript but a baseds on lyndon johnson and it's called "london: love and the corridor's power" and it's a historical fiction that in the white house with president johnson as a character, and i think that it probably includes a lot of the actual events and things she observed and things she observed about this character, and again, it's never been published, but we do have
it in her papers, and it's a pretty interesting read. she worked in the white house and she was -- she found it difficult aft times not only because of president johnson and the way he ran his executive branch and ran the oval office, but i she also felt that her voice on certain issues was not being heard. she was very much against the vietnam war, for example, and she witnessed a lot of things happening that just didn't sit right with her. around this time, she read a book called "black like me" by an author named john howard griffin, and in that book, john howard griffin had darkened his skin and lived with african-americans to write about
that experience of being an african-american man in the united states at that time. she read this book and it inspired her to do something similar. she started a correspondence with john howard griffin and actually in her papers we have -- you can see this is a pretty big, extensive folder of correspondence. they maintained a friendship for many, many years. she wrote to him and told him that she loved his book, and that she wanted to do something similar, and he said he had got an lot of those kinds of offers and inquiries, how ick do this? and he didn't really respond favorably to them but something but grace really made him believe that she could do this
also. so, this is a letter that she wrote to him, offering to pick him up after they start corresponding. they make a plan to meet each other and get to know each other, and it's on white house stationeriy so she was still working in the white house when she began think offering this idea of writing -- living as a black woman ask then writing about that experience. so, this correspondence goes on for many, many years. they were friend until his death, and he had high praise for her, and they talked -- they had a very unique experience and they shared that experience. so, they had a lot to talk about with each other.
then the papers also document the process that she used to darken her skin, and basically she took a medication that is usually prescribed to people who have the condition where you have patches of skin that are a different color, and she took that medication and basically sunbathed. she went to poster puerto rico while taking the medication and sun bathe all day and her skin became to tan sunset she could pass as a black woman, and she started this journey by going to harlem and living in harlem for
a dime and then decided she needed to go to medical medical -- mississippi and end up in jackson, mississippi and worked as a domestic worker, housekeeper in mississippi and we actually have -- i have some photographs of her after she darkened her skin. and this will show you the difference. this is the photo of her with one of her doctors. she was under medical supervision when she did this, and this is one of the doctors who prescribed her this medicine and monitored the changes in her
appearance. and here he is -- this is another image of him, dr. kenny, one side effect of this, getting this excessive suntan was she get a lot of blissers and especially blissers on her -- blisters on his feet so this photo he's examining her feet. this one -- going off top yuck bit this is gray in 1951 in a helicopter in east berlin and that was one of the stories she worked on. she took advantage of the fact in world war ii that a lot of men were not in the newsroom, and made a name for herself during that time, and then in the '50s she just decided we should good to europe and start reporting, and sending stories
back to newspapers, and they would publish them or not. and so she got to ride in a helicopter in eastern europe. let's see. this is an image of her on a cotton plantation in peru, again, you could see from the previous folder she is just wrote but and the every topic that came across her next peru. and believe this is -- yes, this is her as a correspondend in washington, and sow the i think it's maybe one other woman in the n the travel in the press pool insure the photograph in the press poll and reporting on inauguration in 1965 and led to her working in lyndon johnson's white house.
and then this is also just kind of a fun image that shows off her adventurous spirit from young age. she was 16 in this shot. she was miss lubbock, and presented -- represented her home town in a rodeo. she kept extensive notes when she was living in mississippi, while she was researching her book, and so we have a lot of notes from that time period, and its consists of interviews she did, transcripts of interviews, and then also in this folder, are two notebooks she kept that she kept notes in of her research for "soul sister" and
especially this one, it contains a lot of plans that she had, names of contacts that she had in mississippi, people that she could interview and people who would help her. living at a black woman in mississippi, she did experience discrimination, and she did not have any friends or family really to rely on, so this was another travel that she did on her own. so whenever she could make a contact or get to know someone, she would keep a note of that. so, she started out in jackson, working for a couple of families as a housekeeper, and then went to other locations in the state to sort of gauge what conditions
were like, and many times the reception from people working in the civil rising -- civil rights movement were open to talking with her but it was nose a safe -- it was not a safer situation for them to really create a strong boston with her. she was traveling around but mainly because if she stayed in a place too long, the authorities or people in the klu klux klan would discover what this woman was doing, and the contacts she made. it put herself and her african-american contacts interest a lot of danger so that was one reason that she did this for six months, and did not stay in one place for very long when she was doing it. but after this assignment was
finished, she came home and wrote her book "soul sister." when it was published it was a great success, and so the took that success and that format of becoming another person to investigate discrimination. she did that with american indians and native americans, and illegal immigrants coming across the border from mexico. we do have researchers who use these papers to research grace and her authorship of these books, and i don't know if her methods would be looked on very favorably right now, but at the time i think she had the intention of trying to bring to light these issues. there has been some criticism of
her books because she darkened her skin to be another race and pass as another race and that is fairly controversial thing to do. so, we're happy to have people research in these papers and kind of analyze her thoughts and feelings behind that and why she did it, and what benefit it could have served. i think that grace halsell definitely saw herself as a woman in a man's world, and she in other words and noticed the discrimination that she experienced. she had a strong, adventurous spirit and she pushed back on that discrimination as much as
she could, to become a journalist and really still during a time when there weren't a rot of female journalists, she didn't let that hold her back or what societyhought women should be doing. she didn't let that hold her back. after her marriage broke down, she realized that maybe she wasn't cut out for marriage and family, and didn't dwell on that too much. she was heartbroken by it but she wanted to be a reporter, and she really followed that passion all over the world, and she could recognize and understand that she was breaking those barriers and was proud to do it, but always realized that she was going to have to fight to break through those glass ceilings.
>> there's lot to say about being located in center of the country. we are not a major port. we are not in the middle of the mountains so in a lot of ways the citizens who founds this place willed it to be here. >> while in fort worth, texas, we took driving tower tour of thesive with mitch witten. >> if i were going to take you on the ideal tour of fortworth it begins here where passing over the trinity river, one of the great officers texas, and this the site, near the site of where fort worth, the fourth, was established in 1849, overlook the confluence of the clear fork and west fork of the trinities river tom colt from the west as the river flows east, and it's interesting because not only is this the roger look where the army established this fort on the western frontier but today we
find ourselves interested in the river from a development standpoint. every wants to be by water. so all the development going on in the city right now is really all along those forks and that river. so, really we have come full circle. we're coming into the heart of downtown here. we're known as the city of cowboys and culture. we point to a story just kind of a coincidence. when the was was develop in the 1890s, who things happened in 1892. bush -- butch cassidy and the sun dance kid robbed their first train. not around here but they were getting starts. fort worth was 40 years old and a group of women said we want to invest in the culture and founded the first museum in texas, which is the modern museum museum, great museum of fort worth but that happened at the same time. so you see these force at work between, we're still land of
outlaws and cowboys and cowgirls and also you see people wanting to bring art and culture to the frontier, i fort worth has been a place for business from cattle to trains to oil and having a good time. we pass the convention center -- >> on the left. >> on the left. used to be what was known al hell's half acre, the entertainment district where you drove your cat until from south texas and why you were waiting to buy or sell it, the stock yards were located originally in the southern part of downtown. this is where all types of house owes entertainment from gambling, prostitution, all sorts of revelriry low caked here and hell's half acre is a fun name thatstick stuck around experiment have hell's half acre, tcu tacks about hell's half acre on the football field so one of this great legend.s.
today the southern half of hell's alf acre is filled with a water garden. great cities have great gathering places where it's parks, museums and plazas and the water garden is a unique first. this hilton hotel where is john kennedy spent his last night before making his fate trip to dallas. that night, president and mrs. kennedy came here to gave speech the next morning to the chamber of commerce. he came out on this spots we're driving by right now. it was raining and despite the weather thousands and thousands of people gathered and he gave his last public speech. game some rock saturday said floor faint hearts in for worth fort worlds and they'd there's a memorial tribute to him in the square, and then he gave the remarks to the chamber of commerce before departing fordal
lags. but his trip here made a dramatic impression. so we're going to come out of downtown, we're going again cross the river over to the museum district. so we're coming up on a site off to the right that is today the modern museum -- modern art museum of fort worth. the building designed be the japanese architect ando and one of the interesting things bout fort worth is five great museums lock hired. on the right is the great kimball, called the best small museum in the america, home to the only michelangelo in america. amy cartert collected a lot of rimingtons and russell. the great are-to-the west, and he -- when he died he said i'm going establish a free museum for all time, and then that
western art was the beginning of it. those artists really were about saving the idea of the west because by the time they came on the scene they knew that brief moment when the cowboy and cowgirl was dying out as the western expansion was happening. ing this this cowgirl museum and hall of fame and this was built by some of the great ranch women of texas to pay tribute to the history. and they have a hall of fame that includes everyone from dale evans, to sandra deo -- sandra sandra day o'connor. >> why the importance of understanding cowgirl history. >> if you know the story of the
west, you know it was very diverse place, not only in terms of men and women, not just the cowboy but very diverse and a lot overreact is in advertise that caming to to -- if we don't tell the story it would we easy to get lost and it's easy to say cowboy without cower gil -- ab -- cowgirl. she modern vision was the by marion in texas. a lot of great women leader weather have built fort worth. we'll turn left and head toward the stock areas. the stock yards in forts where where the -- fort worth where the great cal drives came in
started downtownment they were our ticket out of the recession and the civil war. this economy had been hit really hard but then the cattle drives caught on, and fort worth became a great is to be. this his historic stock areas, and average -- stockyard, and when that operation moved up here more than 100 years ago, this area was incorporated as niles city. basically a tax shelter for the cattle industry in a way but quickly amentioned by fort worth. this is one of great places of commerce for cattle, not only historically but even virtually it to with companies who do virtual trading and people who come from around the world. this is also an an entertainment district. we on the actual road where the cattle drive takes playing, a lot of great restaurants and history. >> as we pass on our left is
still part of the stockyard district. aim right. >> yes. these are the great acres of pens that historically kept the cattle, where the cattle were modern through, bought, sold, transfers. fort worth has re-invented itself numb numerous times but cattle and that industry is one of our first big success stores and we're excited that story is still around. you'd be surprised how many people come to texas and even though there's so many new, excite can things happening in texas in great cities in the state, the still want to but on a pair of cowboy boots boots ana hat. >> would would you like folks to know but a fort worth that maybe the don't know. >> two things that i would leave you with. one is it is a great western
city that, beyond just the great stories of cowboys and cowgirls, it's frenally ands a love people who come here, whether it's to start a business, whether its to have a good time, try hick's whiskey, hear the local music, they enjoy it because the people are so welcoming and the second thing is it's a really interesting time here. the city is growing rapidly, and we like many great cities, want to hold on our heritage and the great past and those great stories, even while we write new chapters to the story and figure out how to continue to embrace diversity and include everybody, how do we grow in the right way, and we think that it really -- as we end our our tour in downtowns, emanateses from downtown, which everybody came together to work on that -- to build it together, and and we
believe you have to have a strong city center where people can gather it's kind of what people look to as the heart of the town, even as we grow all around. >> i want to thank you so much for taking us on this tour. >> it's ban great tour. >> twice a month c-span cities tours take book tv and american history tv on the road to explore the literary life and history of a selected city. working with the cable partners we visit various lit area and historic sites and interview local historians, authors and sick leaders. you can watch our past interviews and tours juvenile by going to book tv.org and select the c-span cities door or visit c-span.org/citiestour. you can see behind the scenes videos.
>> my favorite research' and she son would tell you that shows what a dork i am -- a guy named ex-has eppley and he has been researching these intangibles of human nature for years. just recent lay few months ago, he did this very long study, not just nicholas about a whole crew of people. he found when we read an opinion we differ agree never any forge doesn't mary it it's printed in a newspaper, book, an e-mail,
facebook, if we read it, we are much more likely to think we disagree because that person is stupid and ignorants of the real issues. if we hear someone telling us the same opinion, whether it's recorded in a podcast, if we hear their voice we are much more likely to think they differ agree with us because they have different experience and perspective. what that means is that the human voice is literally humanizing. it is the voice itself, some quality of the human voice, that helps to us recognize each other as human beings, deserving of respect, and we do deserve respect. every person deserves respect, not every opinion but every person. and it also means that this process that we're going through
right now, of transferring all of her communication to digital world is dehumanizing us. of course we hate each other. we don't see each other as human beings, deserving of respect. and this is not a partisan issue. if you're thinking, yeah, absolutely, those liberals are always jerks or the other way. doesn't mary what you're thinking. it's not partisan. every single person is equally prone to do this to the other side. every person is equally prone to confirmation bias. you know what confirmation bias is? where you believe something and then someone gives you evidence proving that belief is wrong, and it makes you believe it harder. we are the only species that suffers from confirmation bias. and that is because confirm make bias is not helpful -- well,
it's not really helpful. if you have a cat, and the cat truly believes there's no cats in the next room -- i mean, a mouse -- sorry -- the mouse totally believes there's no cats the next room and you show the evidence of cats in the next ream, a lot of cat, and that make this mouse believe harder there are no cats in the ex-room, mice would basically be wiped off the face of the planet. so you have to ask yourself, why do we have confirmation bias? why do all of us have confirmation bias and how does it help us? because frankly, why would it survive through all this millenia of evolution if it did not in some way help? i'll tell you what i believe, even though we fully don't understand it yet. i think confirmation bias is a
strength. it proofs to us constantly we need each other. that we need to talk to each other. because we are our own checks and balances. i need you guys to tell me when i've said something nutballs. and i need to believe you. we need each other. all of us. there is no virtue in saying, i don't talk to people like that. it's not a virtue. i don't care how vial you think their opinion is. that is not something to brag about. you can talk to everybody. and i'll just give you two examples. one of them is georgia's own. din no who szzyrna clays ton is? one person. she was a good friend of the
kings, drs dr. king and his wildfire, coretta, when they decided to create the great neighborhood initiative, the great society initiative to strengthen neighborhoods near atlanta, she was appointed as the head of the prom and had a whole bunch of different neighborhood captains, and the mayor came to her and said, listen, i have to warn you because she was an african-american -- cities is an african-american woman. that. he said one of your neighborhood captains is a grand dragon in the kkk. just so you know. and she described that very first meeting when all the captains came in and one of them refused to touch her or shake her hand, and she was, oops, that's the one. so you would come in from time to time and sit in her office downtown and she would talk to him. about whatever. and she says, dr. king told you don't try to change hearts.
leave that to god you have no control over whether a heart is changed. you don't have that power. but you can be a human being and respectful, and these that's what she dade and they would talk to each other -- he ended up come, sometimes two or three times a week and at one point she asked him, why do you keep coming sneer you don't even like me. he says i know but i like to talk to you. ... the attack by the taliban that almost killed him.
salinas zito and republican strategist brad todd report on the swing state. and how they might impact future elections at 9:00 p.m. eastern. editor of a commentary magazine. discussing of the forthcoming book where we go from here. that all happens tonight 72 hours of nonfiction authors and books of this holiday weekend. television for serious readers. here's a look at some books being published this week. and trumps america the former speaker of the house newt gingrich looks at the success of the trump administration. michael eric dyson explores
how morality and ethics had impacted racial injustice america. and in first in line new york times best-selling author examines the lives of 13 modern vice presidents. also being published this week the former deputy national security adviser. the world as it is. and friend ami's they look at the impact of the digital age and the advertising industry. bob shank discusses balancing faith in politics in his book costly grace. the murder trial that helped propel abraham lincoln to the
presidency. in the last trial. look for these titles in bookstores. watch for many of the authors in the near future. so you're probably wondering how this all started i mean writing about a book this has been a dream of mine especially a children's book. and with my dad. it's really fun. i wanted to talk a little bit about marlon in general a lot of people ask how long we had have him how old he is and when we got him without we let
he said make me an offer. i became the godfather joke with my friends. we should name him marlo brenda. ms. how he came into our family. he lived with me in college in the dorm for only about a week. then he lived at home with my parents and then look in my apartment in college. he's one of our pets. we were moving to dc's of
course we have all of our pets with us on air force to me working to we work and leave them behind some people are helping us unload marlon in his cage. it seemed to go viral and all the sudden the bunny was famous we didn't really understand why he was so famous that kinda started the whole thing going. i think it was on inauguration day we have moved into the naval observatory and my mom and dad live there too. and so we thought we should get an instagram handle
because i think the twitter was taken when he was on the news that one day. he put up marlon in his cage on the second floor of the naval observatory. the first steps. he is bunny of the united states. that is his official role. the first steps in the neighbor -- naval observatory that's one thing we wanted to talk about in the book.
just a let you know we keep saying naval observatory but a lot of people don't really know what we are talking about when we say that. every ice presidents family since the mondale's have lived at the naval observatory. the naval observatory actually is a naval base there really is a working observatory right across the street for us there are 17 ones that are gated off where the actual house is. and the naval observatory is kind of like a victorian home
is what it looks like. it's on the cover of the book. it's very private right in the middle of washington dc. the white house there are tours people come there all the time. but the naval observatory is little bit more private. the way the story got started. years and years ago. she became a storyteller. and she would line up her stuffed animals outside and she would tell them stories and she would regale them with all kinds of adventures. at night she would tell her little sister stories for her to fall asleep they shared a room and really almost in the
high school years. ivory would say to me a story shyly. i can't fall asleep. and they would start a story in the next night she would continue that story and so we weren't surprised when she went to college and majored in digital seminar -- cinema we knew someday this book was what happened. to get to the book relate when people ask is how did you come up with that idea. we always say it all started with all of the gang. with no idea would anyone even follow this page about our bunny. anyone have instagram. he is very popular.
it makes sense to us that marlon is so adorable. he has a very real personality we even let him pose for pictures when were taking it. how did we get him to do that. headed to get him to set in front of the fire up in or open the book. he just does that. he just starts doing it. it started with instagram page. with that we should thought we should do a children's book on this. it was always really a partnership i feel like it was always going to be my mom did the watercolors. she's so talented. we decided to do it together. and when we wanted to do to pick a theme for the book it
made a lot of sense for me to make it educational. it wasn't just also teach about the role of the vice president whoever he or she is. everyone has very specific official duties. and i didn't really even know about a lot of them until my dad was vice president. that's kind of where all started. we kind of wanted to help kids and adults in teachers and educators have a way to teach about the vice presidency. here is a look at some authors recently featured a book tv afterwards. an author interview program that includes best-selling nonfiction books and guest interviews. the former national intelligence . offered the insights. the best-selling author
explored the science behind how it by the body ages and journalist jerome corsi argued that there is an effort to thwart the presidency of donald trump. in the coming weeks on your words bill press will retrace that transition. john delaney the first democrat to declare it for the 2020 presidential election will offer his vision for america. and this weekend that syndicated columnist examined threats to democracy. whenever you talk about the left having some responsibility. we didn't vote for this guy. there is some truth to all of that. you can't go around yes all white people are racist. you can't say it's amazing how
the white working class blue-collar guy joe luntz -- lunch bucket that is what joe biden bragged about. and archie bunker was the democrat. the second they vote for donald trump they are all champions of white supremacy. it's like the day before that 2016 election. blue well that they have. the day it worked against them as an institution of white supremacy. you can't demonize people forever and expect them to say you're right i'm horrible.
my grandfather fought in world war ii. he fought for the union union and the civil war. that's the normal human response. and now we are seen increasing numbers of white people identifying and seeing their core saying their core identity comes from being white. it airs on book tv every saturday at 10:00 p.m. eastern and sunday at 9:00 p.m. eastern and pacific time. they are available to watch on the website book tv.org. [inaudible conversations]