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tv   Senate Commerce Hearing on Transportation NASA Nominations  CSPAN  August 24, 2018 7:17am-9:20am EDT

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>> in the weeks ahead we will hear from nancy johnson and lynn lee. watch oral history sunday at 10:00 eastern on american history tv on c-span3. next, hearing for donald trump's nominee for deputy administrator of nasa, assistant for aviation for the transportation department and director of the white house office of science and technology policy. this hearing of the senate commerce, science and transportation committee is about two hours. [inaudible conversations]
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>> there we go. that morning. thank you all for being here this morning. we will get going. we have a couple of our colleagues here today to introduce a couple of the nominees and we have a couple votes coming up before long but we will try to roll through those and get this process rolling for these nominees. i want to welcome our distinguished panel today's urine, we are considering nominations of the director of policy, mister jim morhard to be administrative nasa and the assistant secretary of aviation and international affairs was i think leader mccullough, senator lankford and secretary udall one for providing introductions for the nominees and welcome nominees family and friends for joining us today as well.
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doctor drug meyer has experience at federal and state levels and should he be confirmed, he will advise the president on scientific, engineering and aspects of policies across the federal government. is scientific background is primarily atmospheric science and weather prediction receiving bachelor of science in meteorology from the university of oklahoma and phd from the university of illinois. he served as vice president for research, the weather news jerry merritt us of flight meteorology and director emeritus of the center for analysis and prediction of storms at his alma mater, university of oklahoma. he serves on the oklahoma governor science and technology council and the governors cabinet secretary of science and technology. he worked with us as we developed a bipartisan american
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innovation and competitiveness act. and the science and us economy and hurricane research, doctor drogomeyer was confirmed by voice vote. first time was a bush nominee and second time an obama nominee. and he is a well-qualified, i look forward to the senate confirming this position which is vacant. jim moorehart spent 25 years working in the senate in various capacities. mister morhard serves as deputy sergeant at arms, prior to this role he served as staff director of the senate appropriations committee. in that position he helped develop and negotiate multiple appropriations bills which
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included funding for spaceflight, spacecraft control and nasa communications. as a testament to his reputation on senate appropriations committee, senator leahy submitted a letter of support for mister morhard's nomination in which he says, quote, based on mike spirits with jim on the appropriations committee, nasa can expect to have a deputy administrator who will push an agenda of common sense and cost-effective solutions. mister morhard's reputation for bipartisanship as well as his experience with large organizations will undoubtedly serve nasa well and i look forward to supporting his nomination. and mister zabat is uniquely qualified to the position he was nominated. he currently serves as deputy assistant secretary for aviation and international affairs, fulfilling responsibility so the position we humans nominated since january 2018.
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one of his primary response abilities was to develop policies to improve air service and access to commercial aviation system in small and rural communities like aberdeen, watertown in south dakota. we are joined by former colleague and secretary of transportation ray lahood. he is well known to the committee as a bipartisan problem solver with willingness to appear on behalf of mister zabat, which speaks about the qualifications. all three of the nominees are exceptionally well qualified for the positions to which they have been nominated, who have an extraordinary opportunity to advance american progress in transportation. thank you for serving in these important jobs and i recognize that ranking member, senator nelson for his opening remarks. >> i think it would be appropriate for me to d for my remarks until after the majority leader and secretary so they can
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get on with their duties. >> we are fortunate to be joined by distance majority leader senator mcconnell and i want to recognize him to introduce mister morhard. >> appreciate the opportunity to be here to introduce a distinguished servant we are all familiar with. we know a lot about the gym morhard brand of leadership, dedication, patriotic commitment to excellence, the ability to set the bar high, meet it and raise it even higher. we will be sorry to lose our deputy sergeant at arms but it is for good cause. jim is completely qualified and uniquely prepared to serve as second in command in an agency as crucial as nasa.
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let's talk about subject matter expertise, one of the impressive stations on jim's resume is 6 years as clerk of the senate appropriations of committee on, justice, stay judiciary and related agencies. he was point person in funding nasa and the scientific community charged with strategically resourcing these agencies, and a culture of self-justifying spending growth. he mastered this role and subsequently asked to serve as committee chief of staff. you can check that off. directing a large staff as well. school for relationship building at the highest levels of congress and executive branch check that off to. senate sergeant-at-arms, he's been four years demonstrating even further capacity for a large multifaceted workforce, growing a culture of diligence,
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responsiveness and service. i can attest to his emphasis on safety and security. those are critical subjects at nasa and they could not be more personal to this nominee. most of us know the remarkable story. jim survived a 2010 plane crash in alaska the claim five lives, including our late friends under ted stevens, the impact of the crash temporarily trapped jim in his seat but this leader still poured himself into those around survivors, leading them in prayer. i understand jim took more than a commitment to safety and security, as you can imagine, away from that tragedy. he explained his miraculous survival drove a renewed sense of personal place and professional purpose. as he explained in a speech at his alma mater we need to
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maximize our time here helping others. in short, jim is a passionate public servant who possesses precisely the unique combination of skills his position requires. specific expertise demonstrated excellence in managing complicated government organizations and a passion for ensuring america leads in space exploration. mister chairman, senator nelson, thank you for the opportunity to come by and say some words on behalf of this really good man and i hope he enjoys the support of the committee. >> thank you for that compelling testimonial. obviously many of us know mister morhard well from his many years of experience on capitol hill in addition to his other accomplishments and experience. i want to recognize secretary
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ray lahood who want to make remarks and introduce one of our other nominees, mister joel zabat. >> good to be back. a few hours before this committee previously, enjoyed a wonderful relationship with many members of this committee. thank you for your service and support for dot. i'm here to introduce joel morhard who is nominated to be assistant secretary of aviation and international affairs at the department of transportation. soul has been an exemplary leader in federal service for over 25 years. he is an excellent manager and proven problem solver. i first met joel in the early 2009 period when he was deputy
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assistant secretary for transportation policy. he was dot's federal officer responsible for implementing the recovery act and let me say a word about that. as many of you remember, dot received $48 billion in the recovery act. all of that money was spent properly. there were no bad stories, no boondoggles, no earmarks, no sweetheart deals and joel stepped in and did this as a career employee before a lot of our political appointees were appointed and he did really good work and was a great team leader and great member of our team. joel also helped manage the development administration for the first round of tiger which i know is a very popular program, renamed now but still very popular in the senate. it is for this dedication that
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joel received the presidential meritorious rank award in 2012. i'm also very proud of the work joel did as executive director of the ma and in particular, appreciate his leadership and dedication to the men and women of the united states merchant marine academy which was a very high priority for the obama administration. as you can see by his record joel is motivated by the spirit of public service. i believe he will do an outstanding job and he has strong supportive secretary chow, one who encouraged him to seek this appointment. i urge the committee to support
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joel. i know he will do a great job. i know he will be responsive to this committee and members of congress. thank you, mister chairman. >> thank you for coming here and giving your voice to this nominee. we appreciate your many contributions to public service, the member of the house of representatives and transportation. senator nelson i recognize you. >> gentlemen, welcome, congratulations on your nominations. thank you for your willingness to serve. mister morhard, after your confirmation, your experience of managing, as the majority leader
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said, critical security activities in the senate and also complex activities. it is going to come in handy at nasa as will your experience in reviewing programs and negotiating budgets in the senate appropriations committee. mister chairman, senator leahy wanted to be here to introduce mister morhard. senator leahy have a conflict. i ask unanimous consent that the introduction of mister morhard be included in the record without objection. >> the lives of a lot of people including the astronauts and the success of the most ambitious science missions will depend on
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you and administrator brightens time --bridenstine selecting the best people to advise you. if confirmed i would certainly urge upon you to seek out the council of career nasa professionals such as bill gersten meyer and bob cabana. we will also consider the nomination of doctor kelvin d dogermeyer for the office of science and technology policy, otherwise the president's science advisory. there is certainly no question, doctor, as to your qualifications, norm augustine and neil lane wrote the
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committee, you would be an outstanding science advisor in any administration and that is a pretty good endorsement of heavyweight people. on a personal note, your work on extreme weather is of course very important to the country. it is important to the people of hawaii today as a cat 4 closes in. certainly very important to the people of my state, we have extreme weather all across the country. we see it every night on the news. i appreciate your working with this committee to improve ways to get people to respond to this extreme weather that is happening. if confirmed, you have a tough
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task ahead of you, a lot of us on this committee are going to be happy that you are the white house science advisor. and mister zabat, a recommendation from the former secretary is a long way, he is held in high regard this committee. the office you would be heading covers a wide array of aviation matters in this committee. i appreciate your years of public service including your service in the military. look forward to working with you. and an faa reauthorization bill in the near future. >> we are now joined by senator
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langford who is here along with the senior center for oklahoma, to introduce them. >> it is an honor to be here to speak for kelvin drogomeyer. i will make a brief statement on his behalf because you have a lot of business to do. just to give some context on this. doctor udall see -- doctor drogomeyer served for 25 years, nominated by president george w. bush and confirmed by the u.s. senate, 6 years in the national science board at the national science foundation and provide science policy guidance to congress and the president. he was renominated by president obama and confirmed by the senate serving a second 6-year term the last four years as vice chairman. and the research facilities when
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he was vice president to carnegie status which is the top status. he has an impressive record i'm sure you have seen, to see his background. one of the most impressive statement you will get from them is science has no politics. science is just science. it is just the facts you are looking at. the key thing he brings to this is not only his extensive background, his experience working with the government, the congress and the white house in the past, the work in weather and climate for decades now. he is an honorable individual. you will enjoy getting a chance to get to know not only his science background but personal and family background as well. it is interesting to see going through his extensive resume, background with all these different awards and all the things he has done over the years but in the middle of it, the head washer at his church.
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which again shows the humanity of saying a lot of things you can do in personal life that you can be engaged in to keep life in perspective as well as to say these are areas to be able to serve people and find ways to do that. i hope you enjoy the dialogue with him. i support his nomination and look forward to voting him on the floor in the days ahead, thank you. >> thank you, senator lankford for voicing your support of this terrific nominee. the senior senator from oklahoma, distinguished leader on all these issues before the committee also here. i will recognize senator inhofe for opening comments about doctor drogomeyer. >> i appreciate that, senator lankford, fighting to see who can introduce you. we are both introducing you.
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you said it all very well. all we need to know about kelvin drogomeyer is he is the one responsible for saving so many lives in oklahoma. i have been around long enough to remember we are a tornado stayed. they are devastating. i remember when we had virtually no warning. we didn't know, had no advance warning when things were taking place. now because of what he has done, we have minutes and sometimes hours to warn people to take cover because of impending severe weather. if that is not impressive enough the company he created employs 100 people and has had $350 million impact in our state of oklahoma. he is a celebrity. you may not know he is a celebrity but he is. look at him. he has got a great smile.
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he is a celebrity. in 1978, in search of, the science television series narrated by leonard nimoy, where he was featured for expertise, on tornadoes. he will be doing a great job. he is eminently qualified, there is no one in america better qualified for this position than he is, democrats and republicans alike agree with that. i would like to add in addition to being eminently qualified he is famous, he is fun and he is entertaining, thank you, mister chairman. >> that is a pretty glowing endorsement. thank you, senator inhofe.
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i invite the nominees to come forward. mister morhard, mister joel zabat, look forward to hearing your opening statements. if you can confine them as close to 5 minutes as possible, make sure your statements are included as part of the written hearing record. let me start, look forward to hearing from you. please proceed. >> thank you very much. ranking member nelson, thank you, members of the committee. i'm truly honored beyond words to appear before you today as donald trump's nominee as director of science policy. i'm grateful my wife behind me could join me along with wonderful friends who bless my
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life throughout the year. i was born in kansas and at age 19 i went storm chasing in the texas panhandle and saw my first tornado up close and personal, a pretty big experience. the power and majesty of that awesome power fueled my interest in meteorology which is the focus of my undergraduate study at the university of oklahoma. i went on and earned a bachelor degree at the university of illinois and atmospheric science and then began my career as a researcher and educator and i use data to improve forecasts giving people more time to find shelter when threatened by extreme weather events. and predictable storms we feel are quite dangerous. i started a weather technology company based on network. i'm a scientist, storm chaser and educator. as many of you know i have experience in science policy having been nominated by the president and confirmed by the senate for service on the national science board first under president george w. bush and then under president barack obama. under having served as vice
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president for research in the university of oklahoma, i served as cabinet secretary finds under mary fallon. we live in a time of extraordinary possibilities. the pace of discovery is exhilarating, global science and engineering ecosystem is right for competition and opportunities for cooperation. i was privileged to speak to this committee two years ago when i testified about the bipartisan and wonderful american innovation, i want to thank all of you, peter gardner, for including me and allowing me to be part of the wonderful process. today i appear before you again with greater privilege and responsibly, to discuss the possibility of serving as the director are, i would like to share american leadership in our science and technology enterprise which for decades contributed to our success and prosperity. what i love the most is it
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measures its success not by what it does but the extent to which america succeeds because of it. our nation today faces great challenges, no question about that but no challenge is the on our reach and science and technology are time-tested and powerful pathways towards solutions. of confirmed by will work closely with this committee, other members of congress, my colleagues throughout the federal government, the academic and private sector enterprises to ensure robust american leadership in science and technology. i would like to highlight a few areas that would include coordinated and conference of portfolio of federal science and technology initiative across the whole of government, everything from fundamental research that is commercially risky but must be funded and important role of government to applied r&d to bring these research outcomes to market. second an education framework to produce a capable and diverse workforce that is critical to
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america's future, to colleges, preeminent research universities. finally, new initiatives, new models of public-private partnerships to move scientific research outcomes from the bench and the lab into the economy creating jobs and building the wealth of americans. an increasing number of threats science and technology in america, unnecessary regulatory burdens stifle our best and brightest researchers it is clear international competition is rising rapidly especially from china. china has the wealth and expressed desire to challenge our important leadership, our long-standing leadership. we have to recognize the challenge but also must embrace collaboration. global research is not a 0-sum game. all progress is valuable but american leadership, insurers american values are at the forefront of ecological development. we are in a time of unprecedented opportunity. tools and technology, research
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capabilities are absolutely unmatched in the world and our scientists and engineers enjoy something unique, unprecedented freedom to explore the boundaries of what is possible in our creative minds but we must not simply be comfortable to maintain. we must accelerate our progress and effective planning, strategic investments and by limiting barriers that hinder us without sacrificing fundamental freedoms. if confirmed i pledged to work with all of you to safeguard america's national and economic security for generations to come. thank you very much. >> thank you, doctor droegemeier. mister morhard, welcome. >> commerce, science and transportation. it is an honor to appear before you as the nominee for deputy administrator of nasa. i think the president and vice president who put their trust and confidence in me as well as
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jim bridenstine who has gone out of his way to be helpful providing me wise counsel. i'm pleased to have my son and his family here, many friends and colleagues are here today who have been so very kind. if confirmed by look forward to serving and working with you, the administrator and talented nasa professionals. in the 1950s my dad working side-by-side with alan shepard and thought the world of him. in 1962 i was 5 years old. my brother jay was 9 and after john glenn orbited the earth my parents dropped in front of his house in arlington, virginia. we walked up to the front door and knocked the astronaut opened
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the door and welcomed us in. some of you know senate or glenn was that type of person. after petting the cat and drinking the offered glass of water we received his autograph. these men inspired america as well as the world and influenced our psyche and brought us together. it is an inspiring time again for human spaceflight and once again, nasa is leading the way. it is also aspiring. i once asked my mother why are we here on earth? she said to do the greatest good for the greatest number of people. my desire for this position is to be part of the purpose greater than any other. this committee is well aware of the many challenges that come
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with that purpose. i support the president's refocus on america's space program, on human exploration and returning astronauts to the moon for long-term exploration and use. it is all part of setting the table for nasa, its partners and the eventual missions to mars and beyond. the moon is a steppingstone. i support the study of the earth and the universe. in addition to the above mentioned exploration missions nasa must carry out earth science, planetary science, helio physics and astrophysics research as well as aeronautics research. there four main strengths i bring to the table. first, over and over again, i have led organizations through difficult situations by creating an atmosphere of collaborative teamwork that turns visions and goals into reality. when i was on the appropriations
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staff director we got all the appropriations bills done. but that entailed getting consensus with democrat and republican members, their staff, the agencies, cbo, the house, omb and the white house. one year, only two bills were expected to pass. we worked both sides of the island together 13 were and acted. to do that it took a complete command of the federal budget and legislative processes. that was a feat then and as we see, it remains one today. second, i able to focus on helping to lead a situation that continually tends toward disorder. that goes from helping manage most of the senate's operations to quickly reacting to
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cybersecurity threats. third, nasa is blessed with the most extraordinary and energized professionals whose ideas and talents must be allowed to flourish. i spent my career attracting, mentoring and retaining great challenges. finally but most importantly on all levels and at all times the safety of the entire nasa team is absolutely critical. on a daily basis i am responsible for helping to ensure the proper processes work for the security of all senators, staff and visitors. to conclude, i believe transformational leadership and the strength of collaboration will ensure a new era for america's space programs, advanced scientific knowledge for the earth, and inspire a new generation to enter the stem fields. that is what nasa needs and it is time. thank you for this opportunity today.
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>> mister morhard, mister zabat. >> member the committee, i am joel zabat. i have the honor to be nominated assistant secretary of aviation and international affairs for the department of transportation. i hope you will find my record of public service worthy of confirmation. joining me today is my happiness, my inspiration, my wife, jillian. the president of the asia-pacific islander american chamber of commerce and entrepreneurship. 20 years ago we established a nonprofit to teach asian american pacific youth that our government derives just powers from the consent of the governed. they are taught to use their power as citizens to make government response responsive to their needs and those of the community. three fellows from the foundation join us today, jessica lee, hymie otto not oh and justin lee and sue coming to the former executive director.
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if confirmed, i will pursue three key goals. first, support secretary chow's mission of safety to the economic licensing of air carriers. and the determination of international agreements to include open skies and other aviation accords. and labor, industry and traveling public. and the customers of central air service, and the rural communities controlling costs. since 2002, senior figure in federal service, i strive to exemplify ideals of the senior executive service whose numbers can lead to programs whenever and wherever they are needed.
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in my first four months as chief of staff of the small business administration, all year long backlog of 100,000 hurricane katrina disaster assistance requests. and dot i was designated government official responsible for standing up $48 billion recovery programs eventually completing 15,000 transportation projects. under my watch the ma quantify the size necessary to employ enough american mariners to meet our military requirements. i hope my record in these positions and elsewhere is is the committee and senate i have the skills necessary to meet this office. since january i have been managing the office of aviation and international affairs and have prior experience in most missions of this office including negotiating with foreign governments during my time in uspa, serving as transportation counselor at us embassy in a rack and multiple
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roles, and the us china strategic and economic dialogue. i managed staffing and budget of the office of aviation and international affairs including essential air service and small community service development programs. i have 25 years of federal service as an army cavalryman and civil servant. in every role my philosophy of public service remains the same. i'm bound to follow the constitution. honor bound to follow the law and directions of my superiors in that order and duty-bound to provide my. my best advice and the advice of my staff. this office of staff for the record is composed of crackerjack professionals, the pride of any organization, civil, military, or corporate. if confirmed i will continue my commitment to public service unchanged. chairman thune, ranking member nelson and members of mckinney,
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thank you for your consideration. i will be pleased to answer any questions you may have. >> thank you, mister zabat, thank you for your remarks. i know you appreciate the importance of cooperation with congress. nevertheless these nomination hearing give us an opportunity to underscore that point. if confirmed will you pledge to work collaboratively with this committee and its numbers to provide thorough responses to our requests for information? >> yes i will. yes i will. >> doctor droegemeier, who identified official intelligence, quantitative intelligence as the top budget priorities. this committee also marked a bill recently with ranking member nelson to prioritize quantum research standards. countries like china are investing significant resources in these fields, china's
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expenditures projected to surpass those of the united states by the end of this year. what will you do to enable us advancements in ai and quantum to maintain an advantage over countries like china? >> those are extremely important areas, china and russia are moving rapidly and i think quantum information science in particular is the next major revolution from basic physics through devices and things like quantum computers related to that. artificial intelligence, which affects everything from financial services, looking a large amount of data, to assisting doctors with making diagnoses and things like enhancing the opportunity for veterans to find jobs. these are extremely important areas. the federal government has prioritized the use, the president in his budget but also in the omb yearly guidance memo has quantum information, artificial intelligence, machine learning as top priorities.
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there is an assistant director of quantum information science and assistant director of artificial intelligence so these are high-priority items organized, very large encompassing to bring agencies together to basically charge strategic courses. they are not just in civilian work but substantial military components as well. the national security counsel and others like that are also involved. extremely important role to play and has been playing it but china investing very heavily and making no bones about it. they are putting that out and challenging us, we need to rise to the challenge, it is extremely important we take a leadership role in these areas. >> hope you focus on those issues. to doctor droegemeier, mister morhard, you likely observed during this hearing, a lot of debate about the role of science and policymaking.
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i want to ask you as deputy administrator of nasa, should you be confirmed, what do you think is the appropriate role of science in guiding policy? >> i believe science is extreme important in forming policy. science needs to be conducted as you mentioned earlier free from political interference, science has to be the way in terms of telling us whatever the facts are. my role is confirmed as directors to make sure those scientific results are unbiased, presented to the president and others for effective decision-making and policymaking. >> i think it is critical that it be assured there is no distortion or disregard for science or scientific evidence especially with the amount of effort that goes on at nasa to collect scientific data.
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>> this is for mister zabat. has to do with eas, dot is responsible for administering the program that plays in my opening remarks an important role in enabling rural communities to stay connected national air transportation system. i know you are familiar with the program given your current position. if confirmed as assistant secretary what will you do to ensure the program is carried out in an efficient and effective manner? >> thank you for the question. you are exactly correct. the service is vitally important, not just as a federal program but the communities it serves. i have only been serving this position now for eight months. i visited six states, including south dakota, nebraska, montana, mississippi, virginia and west virginia and spoken to the airport directors and community leaders of many more. if confirmed i will be a voice within the administration to champion the importance of what
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local community leaders tell us are the most important things for the communities which is dependable, reliable air service to the communities. the cost pressures you look at our enormous. ... since 2011, the cost have nearly doubled. these cost pressures are increasing. i believe, in my discussions with the airport directors, they also believe there are a number of ways to maintain these costs and to continue the effective management of the central air services for the benefit of the communities. fy 19ere suggested in the proposal. others were suggested to me by the airport directors and community leaders. will work with interested members of congress with the staff of this community and that yes communities themselves. senator thune: i will hand the
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gavel to the senator wicker. sen. wicker: >> it seems that we have senator gardner followed by senator cortez masto.r cortez let me absorb, mr. szabat, that was an excellent list of states to visit. [laughing] i don't know how you came up with that list but right on. >> i have excellent staff, [laugh senator.sen. [laughing] >> senator gardner. >> thank you, mr. chairman. mr. szabat, congratulations and thank you so much for taking the time to meet with me. appreciate hearing your thoughts particularly as the related to the offices approach to china os and asia as a whole. aviation industry is important to colorado as it is indeed i ifstly growing industry.
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iif confirmed, partner will you to oversee themd partne partnership of foreign countries and terry are seeking to broaden air service term from the united states. is that accurate?is t >> yes, it is. >> and our discussion we talk about it is where holding our partners accountable to their commitments as part of such air transport agreements. could you talk about some of the things that impact the current state of berkeley with a ag partnership with china inhank yq particular. >> thank you for the question. thank you for identifying what is along with her air transportation agreement withrod europe, the united states single most important international partnership for aviation. one of the things i've learned since i joined the office in january and think reinforced by the 25 years of that in federal service is important not just making agreements but of working with partners to ensure thatnts they uphold the agreements that are made.phold the ement even before joining the office we've had that challenge of working with our partners, our aviation partners in china.
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as we had discussed from our perspective there are four areae where we'd like to see improved progress going forward in the relations with tldheprmoved prod think we have agreements and we need to see more progress. they include on the bright sidel -- freight side, this was agreed to and their challenges in doina so.alsothe pr also the problem of the chinese have writ large which is congestion in their airports which affects their ability too provide us the slots and the frequencies, the routes, the ability to fly into the country that from our perspective that they have agreed to.perspect and then finally among the four, the slots, the frequencies, wewo also have some of what i would call the basic day-to-day issues
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such as the speed with which normal requests are made whether they are for inspections of airframese or for coach sharing. >> its third is that chinese netmeeting those agreements at this point? >> that is our perspective. >> that reports china was caller bunder domestic characters recluding american airlines andr united airlines to change the content to consumers regarding taiwan. in response the wides whitest ia statement think this is nonsense of part of a growing trend bya the chinese come is party to impose its political views ontez american citizens and private companies. senator rubio and i send atizent lettere to the ceo can write a letter expressing concern the tactics by china toward u.s. businesses. what are your thoughts on the administrations comments on this issue? senat >> thank you for the questionue. and this has been a major issue almost from the moment that a joint this office in january. ti as you
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point out the administration statement come out may 5.ame this is after the chinese had made the demands of all their dn international entered onds apr l april 27. the challenge that we had in the administration, not just us but the partners would work with in the state department as well asr within the white house such as the national security council is we opposed the action china took trying to force for political reasons private businesses in oe this case aviation businesses,ae airlines from complying with the political world as they want to see it. but from the cellist from our perspective is we don't want tot put an same trap in order u.s. businesses have should respond.d so instead we worked with those businesses, those airlines. we encourage them to work together so they could not get picked off one by one by the chinese government and they did so and they came up with a common response to the chinese
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government. >> if i could interrupt, i'm going to run out of time. i want to state this. i am concerned about china's bullying tactics. china will know they can vote other american companies and you and a compass going to do china agreeing censor sites which is being done. i've drafted an amendment in this case to offer to the faa reauthorization bill, an amendment that would are as conditional operator in use national airspace the carrier must refer to taipei taiwan. dr. droegemeier, u.s. has some of the strongest science research laboratories in the world of the drug use competition. i've talked a lot about china with mr. szabat. could you talk about innovation statement that the science research and development funding and forms and how we can compete with china in future? >> it's extremely important. we need to make sure we are the
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strongest research enterprise in the world. always tv sits on committee called cfius. that's one way to really monitor what china is doing in terms of its predatory trade practices and unfair advantage as it tries to take up signs. it has while the history of stealing intellectual property, stealing research results and things like that while at same time as we welcome foreign researchers introduce i think historically there's been a robust part of enterprise. what to do that with care, with some degree of care. this is something the heart education community to look at. we need to manage this challenge because it's very openly done. my own status accorded some of the stuff that i've been briefed by the fbi in my role as the people research at the university and that's happening. i could happen so it's big threat to the u.s. >> as the committee recalls dr. droegemeier helped lead the replication, the roundtables this committee did.
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it was you said to this mistakes of making signs bipartisan again. thank you, dr. droegemeier. >> thank you, senator gardner. senator nelson. >> thank you. mr. morhard, in the past in nasa there been times when the administrator were not on the same page. what do you see as of the role of the deputy when it comes to administrating -- supporting the administrator what do you do to make sure the tooth you get along? >> senator, i appreciated the question. the administrator is my boss and he has the vision and the voice of nasa. and i see it as i will help him run the organization. i started out at the navy department and i'm very clear of
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how chain of command works at i have, served me well through my tenure of working. and i would use that. but with that i know your concerns regarding safety. it's making sure that those processes are working and it gets down i think to governance and it's the authorities and the accountability of governance structures that have to be aligned so that if you have an issue that's somewhere in the chain of command, it can get to you, whether it's through the chain of command or through the independent processes they have set up there. i think part of, if i'm confirmed, it's going there and with the new leadership, do those processes work with the
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new personalities that are there? and i assure you that if i am confirmed i will be looking into that. >> you and i have talked about this, and you have certainly satisfied me when i shared with you might experience, for example, the loss of two space shuttles, firs, first challenged then columbia, was because the management was not listening to the engineers on the line who were warning them about the technical problems, albeit different in that the instruction of both, of each space shuttle, but nevertheless, the folks on the line understo understood. in management was not letting that filter into their
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decisions. dr. droegemeier, what steps are going to take to ensure the federal science is conducted and communicated free from political interference? >> that's an exceptionally important issue. as a practicing scientist, someone who's hosting sites enterprise at university a bit of of the national science board i can tell you the ethical conduct of research with integrity without political interference in the scientific process is absolutely without question important, and to me there's no other way to do it. if we sacrifice, compromise, then the entrusted focus we have, public-private partnership we have, the foundations of research in the public trust kind of, done. to me that's very critical. ostp has a very important role to play in that activity. in the past it has communicated,
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chordata with all the federal agencies to have them provide their particular strategies for ensuring exactly what i'm talking about and i think we need to make sure we are vigilant and make sure those practices are being followed. extremely important. >> since we are in hurricane season, you've worked with us in the past to improve the publics response to hurricane warnings. you know what's happening. fires, floods, storms. it's happening all over. we are seeing, because in part of heat, persistent algae blooms on both of florida's coasts, although fueled by nutrients, what should we be focusing our
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research efforts on to mitigate the risk of all this that's happening? >> another extremely important question. we really have to understand in the case of harmful algae blooms for example, how these things happen and have explicitly developed like to do. my own research at universities, my own universities is a lot of work in this area. senator inhofe became quite ill one time with one of these things. fundamentally and all the things you mention went to understand the underlying issues, improve the signs and prediction of these, whether it's the biological things, whether it's hurricanes. another important thing we don't talk much but is the communication of the threats to the public and understanding of the public response. this is what the social behavioral sciences can would play an important role. when we work together in the hurricane research initiative ten years ago that all-encompassing strategy we worked o with the national sciee board did just that and, frankly, i wish we would've got money for because that looked at the hurricane in particular in
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its totality. not just the physical size, the observations of the social cable dimensions. into today and become you mention is about people. we have to understand that. that's something i would commit to you to work with you and others on addressing those important issues were i confirmed. >> i hate to have to bring this up, but the national academies of science put out a report that says there is sexual harassment in academic science. your thoughts. >> yesterday. this is something as a vice president for research that i do with in compliance at my university. that report came out in 2010 and it was specifically targeted to women in the workplace but especially in academia. it made important conclusions. this sort of thing inhibits recruiting women, retaining limit and then it inhibits the pathways as improve throughout their career. it looked that best practices and that was with importance i think that's -- the november
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work shop on this. something that happened that was asked in the form, the national science foundation put out an important notice number 144 earlier this year. vice president i was involved in taking that to my university, helping us understand and ask questions to get clarification. what it is look at it is they agreed with my personal feeling that a lot of us who say this kind of behavior is absolutely unacceptable, never will be acceptable, has to stop. we owe all of our researchers a safe environment in which to work. and upon stake in the ground and they said we will not tolerate sexual harassment of women or any other individuals. the workplace will be safe and we want you to do that but on the other hand, we also reserve the right to come in a take away funding and take unilateral action. i thought that was a really important strong statement. renew that you ostp, what we can i do? i think united states could take that and say okay let's have a agencies in that conversation, you take that, get threat all the agencies that do r&d. nothing more important than making sure with safe and
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private. >> mr. chairman, one final question. since i haven't spoken to mr. szabat, you are going to be in position to do something about the fact that this committee has taken a very strong position with regard to protection of passengers, consumer protections on airlines. and yet we did not seem to airlines do the things that we have in fact, discussed in this committee, such as ensuring that young children are able to sit next to at least one parent with no charge, or the fact that when paid checked luggage, paid, is lost or not delivered in a timely manner, they don't even get a refund on paying for their
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bag. what can you do about this? >> senator, thank you for the question and raising a valid important concern since a joint the department in 2002, safety and fair treatment of the traveling public oppose that part of the culture and regulatory role of the department. the particular issues you raise, of jonah sitting with parents, the treatment of luggage, fall in the purview aggregation and consumer protection office but if i can confirm it sitting in an office as assistant secretary, i commit to work with them, with the involved offices in the federal administration aviation, with yourself, staff and interested members to address these concerns for the traveling public. >> thank you, senator nelson. senator udall. >> thanthank you so much, chairn wicker. really appreciate the hearing
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today. don't worry about this bandage. i'm fine. you should see the other guy. [laughing] doctor -- yeah, dermatologist. we occasion when into them around you. you're right. the "new york times" recently published a lengthy article on climate change action in a country called losing earth. i mentioned this article to you when we met earlier in the week. the author concludes that we had an opportunity during the decade between 1939-1989 to take climate change head-on but we failed. what you dedicate yourself to work to address climate change impacts in america? >> thank you sifted. i did pull a article that and you are right it was 40,000 some words and i enjoyed looking at it. a lot a familiar names in there. it was an interesting history. i absolutely believe that we
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have to look at the future. that was the past. talk to it as you say that air from 79-89. i focused as a guy who does weather modeling, predicting the future. i'm looking about redoing the pictures are absolutely unexcited to work on that. i think we need improvements in climate models. we need lots of things we can do. i talk to senators including senator hassan about this in her home state of resilience picturt she made the point when we rebuild from the destruction we can rebuild and not build for the future. that's a great example of the things i think we need to be doing. luckily i'm excited to work on that with you and see what we can do to move forward. >> and what specific actions we take as the leader of ostp to act on climate change? >> absolutely. one of the important bills bills passed by this committee and cited along with the weather forecast for the act. for example, if regard to hurricanes that is a national park in research initiative as part of that. also activities that look at
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doing or seasonal forecasting, bringing the climate and weather communities together to work together. they could learn a lot from each other. in the climate modeling going forward we need to reduce uncertainty. there certainly is and certainly -- uncertainty. the weather modeling community can be helpful. also when you think about an american prediction john weathertight skills we see of a few days may get to seven days into cecil timescales as a board for agriculture, other areas. moving the weather forecasting for the downstream into the climate arena. there's a symbiosis there to be gained and don't be something i would like to work on as well as things i mentioned and risk and resilience with senator hassan. >> i assume from the question that was asked earlier about scientific integrity that you would also preserve scientific integrity in this climate change arena. >> yes, sir, absolutely. >> dr. droegemeier, we discussed the importance of ensuring that
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the united states research and education enterprises robust and competitive at the international level. how would you ensure that u.s. remains a global leader in science, technology and innovation, and continues to be a trusted partner in international research? >> that goal you mention is the goal to me is to really ensure america's leadership in all the things you mentioned. first of all when you do have our strategy. we need to look at what the key things are. the chairman mention a few moment ago, the artificial intelligence, also ai and machine learning, advanced manufacturing and these kinds of things. other countries are aggressively pursuing these things as well because they see them as game changer. we have to be smart and are planning. i take a portfolio look across the federal government to look at what we doing not just within the agency a topic across agencies. when you get efficiencies, remove burden that hampers her best and brightest scientist.
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some compliance activities are extremely important but others are very unnecessary and we know that. we need to untie our hands. also think we need to be efficient and effective moving research outcomes in to get lighter into the private sector where they can grow jobs and be put into practice. all of those things are critical. other countries don't have what we have. we have not only american ingenuity, we have typos have education system, and credible national labs, amazing by the companies. we are leading despite what you see in terms of the dollars of other countries but we got to watch those dollars because they are on our heels, absolutely. >> thank you very much. trencher of a submit additional come i get me to just focus on you. i question for the other witnesses but i will put those in for the record i know we have a lot of our here. >> thanks are not roughing up dr. droegemeier. [laughing] >> senator hassan.
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>> thank you, mr. chair, and thank you to our nominees for being here today, for your willingness to serve your country. thank your families as well because this is a family affair and we appreciate all of your willingness to serve interservice to date as well. i want to extend a warm welcome to our nominee come to pet at the office office of science and technology policy. as we waiting a long time for this nomination, 570 days to be exact but who's counting? actually some of us were and so i led to look plastered to the present urging acts on this vacancy because of the critical importance of this position and i'm really pleased to see that our calls i finally been answered and you are here. i look forward to a discussion and i will start, dr. droegemeier, with a question for you. when you visited my office ordered this week and i enjoyed our discussion, we talked about the importance of s.t.e.m. education. the united states is going facing a serious stem challenge.
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we're not producing enough qualified new stem graduates to meet the needs of our modern workforce, something he from employers in new hampshire all the time from science enterprises to advance manufacturers. part of the problem is that women and people of color are not joining these fields acquittal rates, leaving behind a large portion of our talent and a future workforce pipeline. should you be confirmed come in what ways would you lead the office of science and technology policy in meeting these challenges? >> thank you. keep it up on something that is something passion about but passion is not enough. you have to do things. in oklahoma i've been part of the, i know you were governor. the s.t.e.m. initiative sensitivities, also my university. those existing workforce of of the future is essential. the past with the spectrum from k-12 all the way through higher education went to really understand what the need is out there. and reps in population as you challenge and it worked a lot on
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that and i think this is one of the biggest and most important things whether it's native american people of color whatever. we got to bring them in and we've been spending a lot of money on that and the needle is quivering. it's not moving. we have to do more. i can tell you the ostp zwicker on a five-year stint strategic-ish. it's an important thing. there was a committee just recently created out of 500 nominations, 1818 phenomenal people chosen, gabrielle gonzález of intel's lead that effort. i think that's good for the future. nsf, noaa, nas and d.o.e. are involved. we've got to make progress there because we are really in the challenge in meeting the future need. my colleagues behind on the sides board looked at this as well and in addition to the s.t.e.m. workforce it's still enabled workforce. hoaxer get degrees nodded still encourage them, take some courses in other fields because the statistics of the one-fourth of all i.t. workers in this country don't have s.t.e.m.
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degree. having a stint degree isn't just the absolute indole. having stint capabilities mitch and portable in a lot of different areas. went to think about those. >> we have to think about ways of offering stackable credentials in the field of people can do it while they're working, while the race in the family and move forward that way. >> correct. >> i want to follow up with you on something we just touched on in a conversation. i've been working to free up additional spectrum to support the needs of the wireless industry as move towards adopting ig nationwide. once that i took was with my calling senator gardner between traduced together the airwaves at sets goals and timelines to get additional license and unlicensed spectrum into the hands of industry, innovators and the public. the legislation makes meaningful investments in rural broadband. in order to achieve goals like those that like in the airwaves act, we will need cooperation between federal agencies including the department of
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commerce, fcc, keep up of transportation defense to name a few. to see the opposite sides and technology technology policy playing a leadership role in spectrum policy if you confirm and if so what with that won't look like? >> absolutely do. ostp, there's a broadband initiative th the present has broadband initiative in the guidance memo come american connectivity is one of the key things that is highlighted, priority. bring broadband to rural committees to empower role committees, also the people who are in the one-time access otherwise certain things like education and health care to the mobile environment. for ostp i think it's helping make sure the research gets done to create the capabilities, photographic provide the spectrum. jeffrey expected. that's critical. some infrastructure in the private sector being a full partner to deliver the capabilities. this is one of the great priorities. we've got to par all of america.
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living in a state that is a real state i recognize some of the folks live in rural oklahoma are not participants but they need to be participants in our society. broadband is an incredibly important way to bring that into make them a part of the whole enterprise. >> is critical to our democracy. so thank you. i have a question for other nominees that i was with the record. again thank you for your willingness to serve and thank you, doctor. thank you, mr. chair. >> thank you, mr. chairman. mr. morhard, the position for which were nominated requires an understanding of climate science. do you agree with the overwhelming scientific evidence that human activity is the dominant driver in the warming of the planet? >> senator, i believe climate is changing and man is, has a significant impact on it. >> do you agree it is the dominant driver of climate
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change? >> i can speak authoritatively on that, senator. make that statement. >> well, that's not what the consensus of scientists around the planet reached every national academy of science, every country in the world has reached that conclusion. let me come over to you, dr. droegemeier. are you committed to protecting the scientists who work within the administration to ensure that it there consensus is that human beings are the dominant cause for global warming, that it will not be punished, that it will not be removed, that they t will not be in any way intimidated by officials within the administration for political rival and scientific reasons.
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>> was yes, senator markey. it is my position, i believe that includes think you mentioned come sites has to be free to export. that's what science is about and we have to make certain that they are free to do so. i absolutely agree that it has to be free from clinical influence and conducted with the highest integrity. >> so, mr. morhard, given the fact that you're kind of hedging on this issue and not one to make a full throated commitment to the scientific consensus that human beings are the dominant cause of the problem, how would you ensure that scientists at nasa will not be unduly influenced, since they are part of that large consensus that climate change is caused actually human beings? how are you going to give a security that they will not be
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in any way affected by your supervision over them? >> senator, first, thank you for asking the question. certainly, if confirmed, work to confirm there is no distortion or disregard science and scientific evidence. if we compromise on it, we won't have science. so i can assure you that there, i think it's a critical that we don't have, there is no influence on the outcome of the scientific method. >> mr. szabat, now that the united kingdom has left the eu, the united states and the uk are negotiating an open skies agreement which will dictate the terms by which airlines can set roots, compassionate pricing between the two countries. how will you assure me that what they can use jobs is a priority for the uk, open skies
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discussions? >> senator, yes, i can and they do. >> you will? >> i will. i have. >> great. [laughing] all right. we can just hope, hope the will be enough evidence of protecting these people. dr. droegemeier, i've introduced a bill called the cyber shield act which creates a cybersecurity certification program allowing internet of things manufacturers to voluntarily certify that the products meet industry leading cybersecurity and data security benchmarks. we can you be supportive o of te kind of legislation? >> yes. i haven't with the bill but as a talk i think cybersecurity is one of the greatest threats facing the nation because of all of the connectivity and all the new things that artificial intelligence, online, open the first things that could happen.
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you said as the kind absolute support that end up happy to read the bill but i think you're on the right track. we have to have those measures absolutely. >> thank you. and just finally in terms of science and technology, the atmosphere within this administration is very aggressively negative on science and technology in terms of allowing for the future to open up a further to be protection of those apertures which have to be created. and so from my perspective that's going to be the criteria of which i'm judging your nominations we thank you for being here. thank you, mr. chairman. >> thank you, senator marquee. senator cortez masto. wait, so we just came in. go ahead. >> thank you. gentlemen, thank you for your willingness to serve. dr. droegemeier, it was really a pleasure to meet with you.
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thank you for taking the time as well. welcome to your family. i don't know whose daughter this is but she's been awake the whole time and it's fantastic to see that, so is that your daughter? your daughter. >> my granddaughter. >> welcome to the family. it's a fantastic. let me just say you all three will play important roles in various areas of our economy and society. what is and that is most important that are really interested in is technology and innovation. a big part in nevada right now of our recovery and economic future. that's what i've worked so hard, my state i think is an innovation state, and half past, excuse me, interviews, hope pass various initiatives including the safe drug act, the first act and the code like a girl act. dr. droegemeier, let me start with you. back in april senator peters and i sent a letter to the white
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house asking for clarification of some of the activities of the office of american innovation, which is run by jared kushner. four months later we received no response at all. i note this because the federal government role in innovation is a big priority of mine and we need to ensure that any office in charge of this issue is being transparent and working with all of us. i know you are going to be in charge of ostp and not oh and i but will work closely with oai. and i just want to see if you're willing to help me get a commitment from the office on the letter with respect to innovation? >> certainly as you mentioned innovation is very important and i be happy to be part of that team and work collaboratively with everyone on innovation, very important. >> thank you. so to you and mr. morhard, at chautauqua innovation and evolution of technology involved in this space, we're trying to find the sweet spot between
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advancing innovation and considering things like you would for my colleagues cybersecurity, safety and privacy as we develop these new technologies. can you just let me know how you will be working with other entities in the government to achieve these aims at how we can work with you as well to address these concerns? >> i can tell you in my view it's a very important question. we develop technology rapidly. we know the pace is cute. what is much lower is the extent to which we understand the human uptake of the social use of the technology of those kinds of things. we have to at least get caught up with the former to where we are not putting technology out there and all of a sudden now what do we do? people posting suicide videos on facebook. who would've thought flash mobs, so i think the pace of the discovery and acceleration and innovation is there and we don't want to throttle it back. we have to accelerate. and today we're always deal with
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people. this is something ostp is unique to doing in the government of of the canceling the box top and seven at the technology, when you do bring in these other dimensions and make sure we're working as an ecosystem, not just the technology peers. we paid prices for tha that in e past without doing that. >> mr. morhard, your thoughts on that? >> senator, uas traffic management is a good example, and i know it's something that you are very much involved with. it's not just in the united states, it's all over the world and its the standards that the aeronautics mission directorate is working on now, they will affect the united states but it will affect the world. and it's so critical that we do that now before it gets out of control in other places. and so i would say that we look forward to working with you on it and certainly want to promote
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it as quickly as we can. >> thank you. let me highlight this because i say this all the time. as we built this architecture infrastructure, we should be putting his guard rails in for cybersecurity and privacy at the same time because it is so hard to come in after the fact and try to lay those over the infrastructure that's been created. i look forward to working with all of you on those as well. mr. szabat, one of the stated goals of your office is, quote, developing policies to improve their service and/or access to the commercial aviation system for small and rural communities. i appreciate that you specifically noted in one of your priorities and then your testimony small and broken her dismissal. can i get your thoughts on aviation competition all airports? specifically how you plan to support the mid-and small community air service between the two main programs that you
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noted in your testimony as well in your statement? the vet has remote places and i've been to elko nevada as well as alamo and they both have world airports. most concerned about how we include them in chip including thin as we talk about this space. if you don't mind? >> center, thank you for the question. i think as you are aware under president trump's administration we do have a rural focus on rural infrastructure and development of technology in rural areas. specifically to a question about the airports, you are correct with both the essential air service and the development program. both of which eas continues to serve airports and nevada and those communities are eligible to continue going forward. the situation as it affects the that is the same as nationwide
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is our challenge is we want to continue to provide these essential and services come will have to work with communities to find a better way, cost-effective way to increase the frequency and especially the reliability of their services to these communities. without reliability nothing else matters. passage will not come to the airport. they will drive much for the period as leaders of communities have told us, without this report they cannot attract businesses, the economic growth of the kennedy suffers. my commitment if confirmed is to work with you, interested member of the staff as well as dictations and supports themselves to find a better way forward that we can work both with pictures and airports to increase the reliability and the frequency of the services to these communities. >> thank you very much. i noticed my time is up. thank you, mr. chair. >> senator blumenthal.
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>> thank you, mr. chairman. dr. droegemeier, the role of your office and you personally will be in the sense to advocate for scientific integrity, and i know a number of my colleagues have remarked on somewhat disturbing lack of appreciation in this administration for scientific integrity, undermining the role of science and public policy with drawing the climate accord, giving industry undue influence in certain decision-making challenges creating a hostile to five with for some federal scientists, reducing public access to scientific information. you intend to be an advocate against those kinds of tendencies?
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>> senator, i strongly advocate, i don't know if i said i advocate against advocate for the positives but i agree all the things you mention are challenges and problems, and science has to be done with integrity. so i think i would either advocate they be undone or advocate for the positive. if maybe 1% as he of the, but to me integrity in science is everything. we owe that to the american taxpayer. we owe it to the site and the future of our country, be honest to conduct sides and absolute most honest way full of integrity and without thinking, but political influence. i want to advocate for that, yes. >> hostile work environment for scientists this is such a public health and safety, is it not? >> it certainly can be. as the talk but only with regards to things like sexual harassment and work environments, when you departments will be attract people who want to commit to signs and work for the government. for example, if we don't have that they will not get the people that we need in the federal government scientific
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enterprise plates and affordable in our country. we have two of the positive environment, yes, sir. >> but apart from sexual harassment and other absolutely abhorrent and unacceptable practices elsewhere, respect for scientific integrity is something that you uniquely has to be an advocate for, would you agree? >> i would absolutely agree with that. and that is my plan, sir, yes. >> thank you. >> you bet. >> mr. morhard, i was interested in some of the questions that have been asked, but i want to repeat the same line at the risk of being overly repetitive. your boss to be, if you are confirmed, said that he wanted,
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quote, somebody was a lot of space experience, a space professional, somebody who is one large organizations who understands the technology, end quote. that's what nasa administrator jim bridenstine said he wanted and is deputy -- wanted in his deputy. what do you say to critics who have indicated you meet none of those qualifications? >> i appreciate the question. i believe the work at nasa, if i'm confirmed, is empowering scientists and engineers and astronauts, and technicians. and also the quiet professionals that are behind the scenes that really are the connective tissue of nasa. for my part it's really creating an atmosphere for these people of collaboration, of 18 -- a
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team with people can see a clear vision of success. >> and i'm more than happy to allow you to make this response in writing for the record. i'm going to run at a time. >> i'm sorry. >> what do you say to critics who say you don't meet those qualifications? you don't have space experience. you're not a space professional. you have never run a large organization, and you have no background in technology. are you going to run about those things where they are not necessary? what would you say? >> senator, running, helping to run an organization right now that the largest on capitol hill, and the processes of an organization, whether it's working in operations or the safety and security side of it,
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the legal side of it, the h.r. side of it, the budget discipline that is needed, the schedule discipline, all those things are critical. and that part i think i can bring to nasa with folks that don't have that background. >> i appreciate your answer. it. my time has expired. mr. chairman, i would just like to enter into the record the recent survey done by the union of concerned scientists showing pervasive political interference in this administration. i'd like that to be made part of the record. >> without objection. senator cruz. >> thank you, mr. chairman welcome to each of the witnesses. hanky for testimony. congratulations on your nominations. mr. morhard, can you share with this committee what your views are on what the approach should
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be to the international space station? >> senator, thank you for the question. i think the international space station is one of the greatest technical achievements for our time. and i think there are a number of musts that go with it. one is that we've got to have the continuity of human spaceflight. it's critical for our future that that does not get interrupted. secondly, i think we need to protect the talent pool at places like johnson space center. and i think thirdly we've got to find a viable transition plan that's attractive to this committee. because it's not going to go anywhere unless you all agree to it. but also attracted to private industry.
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and that allows then, nasa, to focus on deep space, if we can find such a transition plan. >> do you agree that we should get the maximum usable life out of the space station after the taxpayers have invested over $100 billion in it? >> i agree that we should get the best use out of it we can. >> do you also agree that it would be catastrophic to seed low-earth orbit to the chinese and have chinese operating build a platform in low-earth orbit? >> i completely agree with that and i think they would if they had the opportunity. >> since 2011 congress is use the appropriation process to prohibit nasa from cooperate with china on space exploration. you agree with that prohibition? >> yes, sir. i worked with congressman wolf, and definitely with the wolf on
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them and i think it's very appropriate. >> dr. droegemeier, will on the question of global warming that is been an issue that has been deeply politicized in washington. what are your views on whether questions of science should be driven by political agendas in washington? >> it's a great question, senator. as we talked about before you arrived i am absolutely firm on the point the site should be conducted without a lyrical interference or influence. by that i mean they should not, politicians appoint individuals should political appointee should not be involved in the scientific process. they should also be free to explain and expose their results without any encumbrance from a political process.
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it wineries are set, for example, by congress and then scientists call the priorities, then that's a different matter because the research is still being conducted independent political influence but it is following this artificial intelligence is a priority, so, therefore, it can't process it okay there's money for artificial intelligence and should be conducted come back anything. fundamentally they should be free from political influence. that to me is obsolete non-negotiable. >> should questions of policy concerning science dictated an actual data and evidence rather than political agendas of members of congress who want to expand government control over the economy? >> michael if unconfirmed is to bring unbiased science, the best science available to the executive branch, to all parties and make sure that information is at the table and available for policymaking. >> do you believe there's only one acceptable impermissible you
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when it comes to issues of climate? >> i know there are multiple views. i welcome all points of view it as a scientist i get a very concern and i've read articles where they say this particular viewpoint of science, not climate is actually settle. science road provides immutable answers. without we understood the added. there are subatomic particles. do i think the open and close it all points of view. science is the loser when the king to vilify and marginalized other voices. we have to everyone at the table talking of these things of it the site takes as where it takes us. that is i've run my whole career. >> and are you familiar with the empirical data from satellite measurements that this committee, subcommittee on science heard testimony on, that from the satellite measurements
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show no statistically significant warming over the past 18 years? >> on the money with some of the studies. i don't study climate personally but i'm aware of the studies. >> thank you. >> yes, sir. >> thank you, senator cruz. senator lee. >> thank you, mr. chairman. next to each of you for being here. i'd like to start with you, mr. szabat. i want to talk to you a little bit about supersonic flights. as you know since 1973, the faa has prohibited commercial supersonic flight over land. there's been just a complete man on this. -- complete man. there been a lot of technological developments of course that might change the picture to support the idea of revisiting that man so that the u.s. could become a leader yet again in supersonic flight? >> centrally, thank you for the question for talking about this
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important emerging or in case of supersonic flight reemerging technology that we're looking at as possible way to advance the national aviation, national system we have in the united states. so the short answer to question is yes. a longer answer is within the department of transportation we always want to relook at technologies as there are advances and asked her to voice a look them to find, integrate them into our aviation system. secretary chao number one priority to do this is in a safe way. and if we can find what integrated we will. this is the responsible of the federal aviation administration but if confirmed i would work with you, with your step and other interested parties to ensure that your input and your concerns are addressed about the effect of offices within the office of sector as well as the federal aviation administration. >> as we address this issue i
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suggest we ought to look back at 1973. 1973. 1972 was a long time ago. it was the year my wife was born so i should refer to as out long ago. but in technological years 45 years ago, might as well be more linea. i mean, -- millennia. we used to dream of the devices weeks now have in on threes. the computing power each of us has in her own pocket any given moment outpaces anything in existence back then. with those technological developments, we've had other scientific developments that have made it possible to revisit the all-out ban on overland supersonic commercial flights. i assume you would agree a strong argument could be made that the total ban i am referring to is outlived its usefulness and has outlived
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relevance and a modern technological age. do you agree. >> yes, senator. >> dr. droegemeier, i want to talk about spectrum for a minute. we live in exciting times, exciting opportunities are already here. they are getting even more exciting as we imagine newer and more efficient uses of spectrum. spectrum that could improve the quality of life. not one for hundreds and millions of americans but for billions of people throughout the globe. from basic communication to sophisticated offerings like telemedicine and like driver assisted technology. the development of our spectrum and increased voted to use is becoming more and more for two more, more people. it will save lives and improve the quality of life for basically everyone.
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some have estimated that upwards of 2% of radio spectrum is set aside, not eligible for auction for any kind of commercial use, upwards of 60%. and that's predominantly for government use. there are a few other use is built into that 6 60% set aside. would you agree that in order to reach our potential that congress and the administration will need to make federal spectrum holdings more transparent and more efficient, and perhaps revisit the presumption that 60% of the spectrum needs to be kept to off-limits? >> that's an important question. i'm not familiar with the a 60% issue you raise but in the work have been appalled with the entrants of radars across the
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country, the idea was to consolidate several different bands, spectral bands of greater interest central symptoms of other spectrum could be made available. optimally with the topic and the boards of it bu but i have to gt read up on this particular issue. it does sound like something extremely important because it addresses the issue of commercial entities being able to spectrum and have it available to do things with and so on. i'd love to get back to you on that but i would work with you on that. sounds like it's something are important to work on together. >> thank you. i appreciate that. i want to be clear, i understand the need for the government to retain a portion of it for military and other government uses. is absolutely a strong, even compelling need with the government to have some spectrum for that spectrum not to be auctioned off for commercial use but i will note generally speaking, what has been allocated for commercial use is usually utilized for more
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efficiently. people forget how to make the most of it, and when the majority of it is never even allowed to enter into that sphere, i worry that we are neither being transparent nor efficient in our utilization of the government set aside spectrums i hope you will work with me on that. thank you very much. i see my time has expired. >> thank you, senator lee, and a very important point and one this committee has a very sincere interest in, that we've got to make more spectrum commercially available. they are going to be tremendous needs out there and demands for it, and particularly given the fact that as we are in the race to 5g, that would be an important component of winning so we've got to make sure that we're doing everything we can and we hope that you will follow up your discussion with senator lee, work with him and with this committee to try and figure out ways to make more of that. government sits along the spectrum spectrum and it is not
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some cases sufficiently utilized and we got to do better. thank you for that, for your responses to that. mr. morhard, nasa is one of the countries greatest resources when it comes to inspiring young americans to study s.t.e.m. related fields. what do you view nasa's role to be an inspiring the next generation of s.t.e.m. professionals? >> senator, thank you for the question. i've been looking at this try to get up to speed on it, and i sat on the senate floor in the 1980s with barry goldwater and sam nunn talking about the same issue. they were not talking about s.t.e.m. but they were talking about the concern of the growth in education outside of the united states, and we were not there. we were losing it and we're still talking about it now. the role of nasa is the core
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mission for nasa. and as you know, in the appropriations process, there's the house put in 19 million and the senate has put in 110 last year. this year's budget is 100, and so i expect we'll see somewhere a level playing field but the real question is, for me is, is the money being used for the best purposes of providing that inspiration? .. if i've confirmed, it is looking at how it is being used, i have seen hearsay evidence that it is much more ,ffective in middle school verses in colleges, because people are already making their decisions when they are getting to college. it is really inspiring people
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thatmy granddaughter, sweet spot, i think come family through your questions correctly, it is what i am trying to focus on, are we using it correctly. space grants are a consortium. i put togeth >> and i saw over time consortiums take on a life of their own and they began to expect the money and i think that we still need to provide funding, but it has to be effectively used. >> absolutely don't disagree with that and i do think that figuring out, yeah, how to get to that next generation of young people who might aspire to these fields is really critical and so we look forward to working with you and,
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obviously, with dr. droegemeier and others in that endeavor because i think that it's an important one to have the work force of the future, those young people who hope and dream to be a part of something that's greater than themselves and to serve those higher purposes and i think that this is certainly a field where that's been true for previous generations of americans and we want to make sure that it's available in the future. dr. droegemeier in aica we directed ostp omb for federally funded researchers to maximize our basic research dollars. how will you ensure that this ongoing effort continues and is prioritized at ostp? >> thank you for that, senator thune, and thank you for doing that. when i was on the national science board we wrote on the
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burden and national economies have opined on that report as well. it's got to be a great priority because it's wasteful. we talk about wasting taxpayers' money, but this is a waste in not only money, but intellectual capacity. the wasting of talent is a horrible thing. my colleague has opined on this as well, a lot to be save to free up time, recapture a lot of the funding that is now being spent on wasteless -- on wasteful activities. and this would be a high priority as you say and it's also something that is in the gun fights of ostp with the interagency working group that you mentioned. ostp is definitely working on it and we've got to see it over the finish line and we're not there yet. >> i hope you will. >> i think we've exhausted the members questions and we appreciate your responses.
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i do-- will ask unanimous consent to include in the record an introductory letter from mr. jim morhard and dr. kelvin droegemeier, association of of american publishers, american psychological association, american association for cancer research, association for american medical colleges, council, graduate schools, consortium for owner leadership, eesa, a letter from retired chairman and ceo of lockheed martin, norman augustine. and neil lane, epic and research america. so, obviously, you're very well supported out there and we'll be asked that those be included without objection as part of the record. and i would say to our nominees that we hope to at our next
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markup process your nominations and i would ask that as quick as you can, as we get questions for the record from members of the committee that you respond as quickly and ask you to turn those if you can. i know it's asking a lot, but we're going to try to keep the record open until tomorrow and if our senators can get those questions for the record to you as soon as you receive them, submit your written answers so that we can move forward and we're going to ask you to try to get those back to us by monday of next week. i know that's a compressed time frame, but it is possible that if we are here next week, and it looks like we will be, we might be able to schedule a markup and keep in process moving forward. so, if we want to do that as quickly as we can, so we would appreciate your timely response. with that, again, thank you to you and to your families for your willingness to serve and to sacrifice on behalf of our great nation.
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many of you have in the past, but we appreciate your continued service and look forward to getting you installed in these important positions where you can make a difference for the country. this hearing is adjourned. >> thank you, senator. [inaudible conversations] [inaudible conversations] [inaudible conversations]
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[inaudible conversations] [inaudible conversations] [inaudible conversations] [inaudible conversations] [inaudible conversations] [inaudible conversations] >> look to his counsel and advice and a lot to draw on.
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we've seen a lot of revelations between twitter, facebook, microsoft, whoever with informati information, were you concerned that the administration-- >> i think a lot of that is going on and i appreciate what the tech companies are doing and trying to do and their platforms hijacked by bad actors trying to influence elections and the community is working full swing coordinating with our tech companies. i hope that continues, but, obviously, we want to take every step that we can to prevent any kind of outside meddling or interference in our election, but i think it's going to be important that it
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will be a collaborative effort. i think that the private sector, the tech companies themselves working with the agencies of government that are tasked with making sure that these sorts of actions don't happen on a regular basis and that there is a real confrontation going on. my impression is that's the case, but we can always do better. >> what's the role for congress in 2018. we've had hearings, but it's not like there's a new office or law passed-- >> i think a lot of it is oversight and making sure that the agencies and the tech community are working closely together when it comes to that aspect of it. the other aspect of it, of course, is attempts to hack into actual infrastructure, whether that be data bases that maintain voter registration, that type of thing or somehow to hack into calculating
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machines and all sorts of things, but i think at least right now, i feel pretty confident that the efforts that are being made are really, i think, geared toward preventing -- i can't wait to do better yet. i think that congress appropriated a lot of money, we want to make sure it's well hadden used and well-spent and coordination between dhs and other agencies of government and local elections offices and officials. so, as that process continues to get refined and improved and perfected, i think that the chances that we will succeed in preventing any kind of undue tampering with american elections will succeed. >> and how we should be responding to chinese bullying tactics on taiwan, on senator
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gardner wanting to impose required airlines to not -- and do their own thing. is mr. gardner's amendment going to be in the f.a.a. bill, do you know? and which position do you support? >> yeah, we -- it's not in the base bill and i know it's something that cory is something very interested in. and in i suggestions and ideas that our members have for f.a.a., but it's kind of a controversial issue and we've got members who have strong feelings about making sure that the airlines aren't being coerced by the chinese and so we'll take a look at it, but at this point i don't know if it's been filed. i don't know if any in terms of the f.a.a. --.
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>> do you have any plans to work on any data legislation. do you have anything in the works? >> yeah, we actually do, but we haven't-- we're still kind of working. >> yeah, we've got -- we are hoping to have a hearing probably now, maybe in september, maybe. >> yes. >> and we've got some-- our folks are looking at central ideas when it comes to a legislative path. as you know, there have been a number of bills filed all of of which take slightly different tacts and approaches to this, but we want to-- we simply want to do something that's not just cosmetic, that actually gets at the heart of the issue and sometimes it's hard to know exactly what the best way to do that is, but we've got some good ideas in the mix and there being, i guess-- they're being, i guess,
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discussed and we're trying to put together something that we might be able to move, but we want to make sure that we hear from all of the folks, the stakeholders and that's why the hearings would proceed in the legislation. >> an f.a.a. bill passed by the senate, passed into law by september 30th? >> of course it is, right? yeah, i mean, i think it's possible. we're still waiting right now for this sort of outstanding issue to get resolved on f-4-a. once that happened, it can be vetted by both sides and we have a package we'd like to get cleared and other amendments we may have to process, but we're looking at all potential avenues to get the bill signed or -- signed into law by september 30th.
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>> election tax, pay back, it seems like there's a division what is the best way to go about that is. what is the best way to go about protecting-- >> well, i think the big kind of philosophical divide is over whether or not elections need to be centrally sort of run, nationalized, so to speak, or continue to have a very decentralized system and i think one of the reasons that it's very hard to manipulate american elections because we have a decentralized system. democrats would like to have more control over the money, how it gets used and more authority over some of the state and local election processes. but, i think that what has made american elections historically, i think, very difficult for anybody to try and control is the fact that it's decentralized.
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so i think that we have a system that works and we want to make sure we have the checks and balances in place and the guardrails around and i think that that's happening. there's a lot of conversation going on now between state and local election officials and the federal government. but to me, that point of control when it comes to elections, i think, is best kept at that local level and, obviously, supported by resources and technology and all the things that the federal government provides, some of which are about $300 million in funding. >> eventually the nominations to the floor. are you expecting we might see another package-- >> another package of-- possibly. i mean, i think it depends. they're negotiating a package.
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if that becomes a big robust package it might take some of the pressure off. if it doesn't, there are a lot of nominees waiting to move. i think there's going to be, always going to be pressure to try and get various packages together. we've got some under your jurisdiction -- a whole bunch of important agencies awaiting action and we're trying to get as many of them teed up and in that package as we can, but at the moment they don't have-- i know that's negotiating, and i talked to the players, i talked to senator schumer had morning and i think it all depends on whether or not we can come to an agreement on a big package this week as to whether or not we're here next week doing these sort of pieces. >> all right. >> thank you, guys. [inaudible conversations]
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[inaudible conversations] >> tonight, book tv is in prime time with the look at fiction authors featured on our 2018 fiction edition of in depth. a novelist include "typical america" "mona in the promised land", and "down and out in the magic kingdom" "little brother", and recently "walk away". and one of 30 books, "devil in a blue dress", "fearless jones" "down the river under the sea". book tv all this week on prime time here on c-span2.
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>> sunday night on q & a, national constitution center president and ceo jeffrey rosen talks about his biography of william howard taft. >> he never learned politics. he never learned politics. he told his aide, archie butt, who served both as an intermad aide. i will not play popularity. if people reject him-- his heroes are john madison and the 0 authors of the papers and he believed that majority should rule, but only thoughtfully and slowly over time so reason and passion could prevail and taft believes the entire system is set up to slow the direct expression of popular passion so that the people can be governed in the public interest rather than through faction, that is mobs that favor self-interest rather than the public good. >> sunday night at 8:00 eastern
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on c-span's q & a. . >> hey, hey, kavanaugh has got to go. >> he's one of the most qualified nominees ever picked for the supreme court and he's contributed a great deal to his community and the legal profession, besides being an outstanding judge on the d.c. circuit court of appeals. >> judge kavanaugh has a special obligation to make his views on this topic clear, given the president's litmus test that he would only appoint judges who would overturn roe. on that obligation, judge kavanaugh failed spectacularly. >> i look forward to watching judge kavanaugh's confirmation hearing and after conducting a thorough review of his nomination, i'm confident that judge kavanaugh will be an
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excellent addition to this nation's highest court. >> watch day one of the nomination hearings for judge bret kavanaugh, live on c-span 3. watch anytime on or listen on the free c-span radio app. >> various organizations that oppose the president's supreme court nominee judge brett kavanaugh held a rally in front of the court. speechers, richard blumenthal of connecticut and kirsten gillibrand of new york and women's equal rights advocate lilly ledbetter. this is an hour and 15 minutes. >> hi, everyone, welcome to working women top kavanaugh. give it up. i'm with the women's law center and we have an amazing program here for you and i'm sure


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