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tv   Jill Lepore These Truths  CSPAN  December 9, 2018 4:47pm-5:46pm EST

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>> thank you everyone. please leave your chairs where they are. if you'd like to purchase the book they are available up at the register otherwise signing will be right in front of me. thank you. [inaudible conversations] >> you're watching but to be, did you know you can listen on the go. download the c-span radio app from your device's app store. on the weekends click on the bantu button to hear everything airing on the tv, life. >> good evening everyone. thank you so much for joining us this evening.
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my name is megan and i'm behalf of the bookstore i'm pleased to welcome you to this evening's event with joe discussing her latest book, these truths, a history of the united states. harvard bookstore all series is now in full swing. in the following weeks letter steven johnson, stevie robinson, pete souza among many others. the details tickets and full schedule visit us online at harvard .com -- events. tonight's event will conclude with time for questions for the audience and those asking questions will form a line at this microphone in the center aisle and get to as many questions as time allows. we are pleased to have c-span's book tv here taping today's event so when asking questions in the q&a please know you will be recorded. when q&a concludes the signing line will form down this far i'll and will wrap around the back of the hall. those joining from the center aisle or section to my left will
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proceed to the back of the hall to join the fine line. you will purchase copies of tonight's featured book at the top of the hall right here at the table to my right. before we begin a quick reminder to take a moment to silence your cell phones. and now i am so pleased to introduce tonight speaker. joe laporte is the professor of american history at harvard university and a staff writer at the new yorker. she is the acclaimed author of many books including new york burning, a finalist for the pulitzer prize, time magazine's best nonfiction book of the year and a finalist for the national book award. and the secret history of wonder woman, a national bestseller. tonight she will be discussing her latest book, published just this past tuesday, these truths, a history of the united states. henry louis gates junior called it and epic work.
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[laughter] [applause] he calls it and epic work of grand, logical suite, brilliantly illuminating the idea of truth in history of our republic. ncr writes joe laporte is an extra ordinarily gifted writer in these truths is nothing short of a masterpiece of american history. by engaging with our country's painful past and present an intellectually honest way she has created a book that truly does encapsulate the american story in all its pain and triumph. we are so pleased to host her here in harvard square tonight. please join me in welcoming her back. [applause] >> hello. thank you. that was more applause and wonder woman.
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good start to the evening. thank you for coming out. this is a thrill to talk about this book in my hometown, the great city of cambridge. it will be one of my goals assuming not to say these words again, supreme court and -. i what i want to do is in the short time we have is to give you a glimpse of why i decided to write a book that would cover sweep of american history and its a question about school. what i want to do and the reason i want to write this one book that covers because i was supposed to buy what i think of the prison of the present. we are trapped in a moment by moment, second by second new cycle that editor is shrinking and accelerating experience of breaking news and so distracted that it can be hard to get any
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longview on any canterbury problem. i wanted to extract myself from the present and cover the loan story of american history. it has become clear to me that as little as there is genuine conversation about the past in american life today but almost all our political arguments are essentially our historical arguments. they are scrunched into the smallest to make america great again is argument about the past and future and so are the arguments made on the left. all ways of thinking about the relationship between the present and future. much of our politics makes paris is between the time that was in it and imagine future comparing george washington and barack obama in 20 -- 2009.
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the way our partisanship articulates itself is by suggesting that on one side of the biblical i'll are people who believe in the future and in change and on the other side of the political aisle people who want to stop change. these very crazy slogan oriented understanding of the past are everywhere i find myself most pathetic with this. [laughter] slightly doctored albert stewart portrait of george washington. to some degree do we really change in army opposed to change? what do those words mean anymore. what meaning we talk about american history. how are we to reckon with the fact that our present date is so polarized that the past are two different paths and we can't even imagine sharing a common ancestry as a people. that seems a very perilous state
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of affairs. i decided to undertake this project to cover all american history what i want to do tonight to give you a little taste of what it means to cover that many centuries and what are the insights and what can you see that was invisible to you before. i made an argument is read a book that is nearly a thousand pages long i now will show you this in 30 minutes. bear with me and think about these things as placeholders for a much bigger set of ideas and full of contradictions. we will begin with inches of the world. i want to show you representations of america and some of the earliest surviving repartee stations of america are what has been left behind by the indigenous people. it's incredibly beautiful conceptual map of the world made by aztec people for directions of a compass in these four
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corners. quite similar in many ways to the way europeans perceive the world before 1492 because this was the first printed map printed in 1472 although it was originally drawn in the seventh century and in the centuries in the 15th century europeans idea of the world remained fairly stable called a -- where the world was divided into three landmasses in the mediterranean connects them all. this is not meant to be a geographic or representation but they understood the world but this is a representation and a christian one because the world is essentially a trinity. trinity in which there is unity. it was a big boon to mapmakers when everyone had to write, paint or draw new maps. this map is important drawn by
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the term and mapmaker in 1507. he was trying really hard to update the map with the latest cartographic information and you can see down at the bottom late breaking news found in the tip of africa and added the map has been essentially drawn. you can do that and but what we also were doing was trying to reckon with what europeans called the fourth part of the world. they thought the world was the parts. on the left is this big green mass because they knew nothing about it and he also did not know what the cause because the europeans do not have a name that had just read a book by the italian explorer amerigo vespucci called the new world and i think they're in first person to call this part of the new world and he decided in honor of the future to invent the word and the word he
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invented was america. first time part of the world we live in which we refer to as america and the name stuck. mainly because the map was popular and a good illustration of what we think about the world is a product of -- what last and what survives and what maps people happen to have much influence on. a lot of other things people wanted to call these lands are lost to history. in thinking about how to represent america the place europeans very quickly turned to iconographic representations. this is a dutch engraving that the speech he awakened america and this is from about 6200 and this is integrally popular engraving and i often think as harvey weinstein awakens that he is very this is essentially an
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image of rape. this beauty is adorned with all the agreements of european civilization and with especially technology and the ships and cartographic geographic transportation technology and america rendered would become fully conventional even on the on state of massachusetts, the naked woman. lacking everything. lacking cultural and religion and technology and lacking language and lacking shame. there's a real confusion here between mother the americas are a garden of eden or a land of savages. look at the scene and the back scene is cannibalism which is important because it imagines backed up cannibalism that so many europeans justified to conquest.
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and a cessation of the world of native americans. this is an early representation of the idea of america that had currency in europe at the time. this is the lovely queen elizabeth making her own attempt to take possession in america in a very different graphic way. she has her hand resting on the globe right over north america. this is mine and i call this portrait [inaudible]. this is a time when england has nothing. ...
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>> americas perceive their own world. this is quite beautiful. it's several deerskin stitched together made by the algonquin people. -- was the father of pocahontas. it is thought that he is pictured here. in the seashells, he was a it's quite a bit like elizabeth's >> it is completely erased by the way of european strother
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map. they have a real influence on how columnist leaders represent the spirit representations. you can see this in what benjamin franklin printed in 74 and what he is urging the colonies to unite we think about this as a political cartoon. it is also a map. you have to turn your head. this is a map. at a time when the first maps are being made and sold as jigsaw puzzles. this is a jigsaw puzzle that looks like a map. they also have interesting native influences in it. spend any time looking at
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it's here in 74 that looks like boston for the dumping of the tea in boston. but a representation of american and british eyes. we don't always think of the as a representation. remember it's a charter and the map is a chart and chart charter have the same use. the constitution is the constitution of the body of the american people. we talk about you have a healthy constitution. the word constitution comes from the body. the body. document that becomes the united states of america. i put this in there because it cheered me up . this is an early political
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cartoon depicting the battle between anti- federalist. i don't know if you can see it here. c-span would be unhappy with it. these two guys over here is a federalist and anti- federalist defecating on one another. the reason it gives me comfort is it is just so vicious. so, to bear in mind the degree of impetuous notice of viciousness of american political division from the start is worthwhile. from the start, this is an early representation of using america as a woman here now clothed and become liberty herself. as an indictment of the continuation of slavery in the united states after the
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revolution. slavery was about to be abolished before the american revolution. the fact that union out laid the push for the evolution of slavery in 18th century colonies in north america. in this representation liberty with arts and sciences to an audience of enslaved africans who are at her feet. and behind her in the background there is another scene of what appears to be enslaved men, women, and children engaging in their own dance about liberty. there will be ways in which this is used to critique the limitations of the constitution. and the way in which the constitution and state law sanctions the enslavement of people's property. i want to remind you that it is
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important to think about the degree to which representation of the country and the leaders have from the start. they are engaged in a deep and painful conversation about race in the united states. and about race and family in particular. this is a cartoon from 1804. four years after thomas jefferson was elected president. here jefferson is pictured alongside sally hemmings. he had many children which he denied probably for the entirety of his life. this incredibly interesting painting from 1848 is called the war news from mexico. i haven't seen another representation of the united states in this form. the united states is a hotel. it's called the american hotel. here on the porch are these
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guys, it's a bunch of white men. they are reading the newspaper which is what you do when you are in franchise. they get the news from mexico and they have news about it and can vote one way or another. depending on what they know about mexico. it's a little celebration. if you are a live you would look at them and say those are like rich guys and poor guys. they're old and young, it is protecting children to depict a different class ring. a celebration of what is a brand-new. which is all white men can vote. then you look more closely at this incredible piece of art. the porch is all decayed. i do a lot of home renovation and that's a worry for me.
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[laughter] over here, can you see who this is? this is a white woman leaning out of the will window trying to hear what they're trying to say. she can't vote, it's the first year that they publicly demand the right to vote. but she is not there. she is depicted and then down here on the steps like really close to the porch but not on the porch as a man and presumably his daughter son as if they are is late. but the thing that knocks me out, they are in red, white, and blue. it's their country. they are not on that porch but, this is a painting about the united states that ask us to think very differently than you might at first suppose. the 1850s as a nation you get
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this sort of thing we should look really familiar to you now. that is because these divisions between the free and the slave states which come to represent in this way with different colors, let's call the confederacy gray. you can see it here the coloring of the united states dividing the political persuasions. as if what you had is a uniformity of belief. we think now about the country or the red and blue states. this is as artificial representation as any other that we look at. it's conventional is so familiar that we take it and it speaks a deeper truth rather than being another form of message. this is my favorite slide.
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this is sojourner truth, the great abolitionists. can you see what she is knitting? zero my gosh. here's man, here's florida, taxes. this is cooler than the american hotel. this is my country. i made this country. of course i belong here. this is a path to a claim of ancestry. this is a really deep and subversive visual argument that you can really feel like it has this it explodes before your eyes and this really important way that to our great detriment we have lost sight of. in other ways in which
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cartoonists and others represent the united states that began in the 1880s on that last or have been resurrected. one is the idea that the country should have a wall on its borders. there is no federal law restricting immigration before 1881. the borders were open and then they were closed only to chinese immigrants. which is being critiqued in this image in which china is dismantling the great wall and a chain of racially caricatured americans, irish, african-american, german, et cetera are building a new wall to keep out the chinese. at the same time in the 1880s, there's a tremendous celebration of immigration in the united states is a land of liberty and
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as a beacon of liberty in the world. the erection of the statue of liberty in new york. the other iconography that makes its appearance, we have not resurrected the balloon. someone could give a killer speech about the blue. populism in the 19th century was a critical movement of the left. an indictment of the crop plutocracy and governments stealing political power from the poor. that's what populism was and it was much ridiculed by eastern and west coast elites making fun of the patching us on the american political order. this plutocracy was much represented in political cartoons from the progressive era when progressive era began trying to bust the trust and think differently about the challenge to the constitutional era. the great campaigns of the
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suffrage campaign of the 19th century go back to that icon of america as a woman, merrick has liberty. then, they shackle liberty and have her break free of her bonds which is where wonder woman comes from. but this is a set of representations from the abolitionist movement. another way of thinking about the united states in the area of mass production comes to pictures of this. henry ford's first plant which elicits in society about mass democracy. is it possible in a mass society for the equality that is promised in the declaration of independence to be possible and realize? at the same time, there is a new movement to restrict immigration in the united states which is at its peak in the 1920s and 24
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on which this is being a funnel is being introduced. we don't talk about the funnel, no one is going to build a funnel anytime soon. this was a prominent way of thinking about the nature of the border during the 1920s. there is a new way of thinking about the united states representation only during the second world war one america comes to understand itself as a superpower. mostly because it was spared and will also be spared at home the devastation of the second world war begins to merge with the sensibility of comic books and superheroes and wonder woman in 1941. at the same time, there are these unsettling challenges to the idea that as one woman would
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say it's the last hope for democracy or captain america would say the same thing. it's during these decades of 20 century with jim crow segregation in the south, the biggest might gratian in history is going on. largely underwritten is the great migration of african-americans from the south, the west, the midwest. depicted here is this beautiful painting. and has a sense of continental expansion. almost a sense of manifest destiny. this great sense of people extending themselves across the continent. you now get a different representation of what you saw with queen elizabeth holding her hand over the globe in 1580 when fdr hasn't been photographed with the globe and looking to a post world order in which the united states will become the leader of the free world.
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as the protector of a liberal world order advancing open borders and open markets and free trade. on the backs of this incredible military strength of the united states as the arsenal of democracy. after the war though, there begins to be representation of the united states that intersects with the history of technology. the first general-purpose computers are built during the war to calculate missile projectors. this machine is in the science center on the other side of the square. you can look at it, what these computers will do is count the population. in represent the population quantitatequantitatively. as we know now from our vantage, the counting of the population in this instantaneous way and
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sorting of people to demographically is a necessary precondition for our present political agony. the very first time that one of those computers sold commercially as used in 1952 to predict the election. this is walter cronkite on the right. they're kind of pretending to use it. other people are really using it. they also do look like they don't know what they're doing. they're trying to ask it to predict the election. remember 1948, the presidential election. >> dewey did not beat truman but everything predicted they would be. two things went wrong, they made the wrong call and it was incredibly boring. if you watch the election coverage from 1948 it will make you weep. it's the cutest thing. it's like cameras on empty podiums and a voiceover hearing
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them say, what time is it now, fred? nobody has any idea what to do or to make it interesting. the like will get people to watch because we have a computer but then they don't know what to do. think about the degree to which technological urgency of sputnik in 1958 begins to drive how much investment the federal government makes into the technology that is now in your back pocket. and that we expect should be on regulated by the federal government as if your iphone wasn't built by the federal government. it was built by the federal government. with a lot of ingenuity by apple. this really begins in 1957 with this new panic. the particular atlas like obligation and burden of the united states is less of a
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political one than technological one. effort should be directed and engineers will save the world. that's an unsettling notion of order. we are all just bits and a giant machine. by the 1960s you see a new generation of challenges. this unsettling and beautiful mask of the united states. very different from the political maps we have seen before. maps become a political protest over the vietnam war and during the civil rights movement as well. a whole different generation of the use of the map the iconography of the flag takes on a different role as well. the great change in the 70s is the first photographs of the
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world and planet from space which is an integral part of the movement. but this is not met from the political order. when i teach american history when i get to 1968 i just set up the slide. it's a handy shorthand for the last few decades. it has a few things. it helps us to understand how fully we understand our own time quantitatively. this is a map that is income inequality. you can study it for a long time and still be puzzled by it. it is quite fascinating.
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the things you will notice is there is a fair degree of flatness between 47 in 1972. where income inequality is quite low. that is to say, there is just not a huge wide gap between the wealthy and the poor. the large distance due to the g.i. bill. the degree to which it works as a full welfare state for white men who are veterans. those benefits are often denied and not offered to women. but a generational man go to college, buy loans, they pay back in taxes ten times what they get. the economy grows but it also grows in a way that distributes income significantly across the population. never incredible economic growth but low income inequality.
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you also flow political polarization if you look at members of the house and called them by their polar position and then to roll call. both of these measures begin to go up around 19681972 and have gone up ever since. the question of political scientists come i think there are many important questions and we can spend time thinking about it. representation only to look at this forces you to ask, which of these things is driving the other or are they they don't just correlate magically. can't be seen but we can ask questions about what is going on. at the end of that time or toward the end represented you have this representation of the
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united states and of the world as above all, wired. the internet opens to commercial traffic and 96 bringing united states into the world and every household into this global network of international netwo network. an wired magazine another dedicated boosters of the internet and the age of silicon valley entrepreneurship want to assure americans through representations like this. but it's the united states wired together. any problems like the political polarization or the income inequality that we have been suffering it will be solved. you read this from 1999 in 2000, even into 2001 there is a no restraint to end the utopianism.
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it's quite interesting. and quite unparalleled in history. the sense there is a disaster that has befallen the otherwise never before attack, consonants of the united states challenges pictorial representations of the united states after 9/11. it really challenges america and its role in the world as well. you can see different ways it manifests itself. where i find some of the most provocative forms of expressions about the last few decades in american history. that is in public art. has anyone seen this? the electronic superhighway it is a giant installation. it's hard to do it justice. it is all neon tubing in each state there is video screens and
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there's this giants, what is that. as you get closer it gets louder. but it becomes more difficult to hear what anybody's saying. you can see television screens or playing snippets of things in a constant loop representative of the state. then you go over to massachusetts then there singing there. if you try you can hear a little bit but but it's a great commute korean american artists taken his.was among many, everybody is broadcasting and nobody can hear a thing. i find it one of the more powerful indictments of the promise of the internet. in our contemporary culture just to circle back, we invoke the american past all the time.
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but, to what end? to invoke that past in the interest of building together better future? or do we invoke that in the interest of fortifying our own political position? broadcasting and not listening. what is it and the way that we see our elected officials do so? can we demand a little bit more of them. from left to right we see in vocations and resurrection of past moments. we see the conversation and glimpses representational way of deeper divides and promising connections. we see the constant recycling of a representation of a country as deeply divided. and what draws viewers and keeps television stations and networks in business.
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i want to and with a piece of art i find speaks best to the present political moment. it's a beautiful work again and neon by glenn called double america. there's a whole series of these. he was inspired to do these works and the to look at our world in dickinson's world of a tale of two cities. it was the best of times, it was the worst of times. thank you. [applause] [applause] >> i hope there are some questions. please come up to the mic. do not be shy.
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>> i made an argument for inquiry. they have to be inquiring. thank you. >> in your research, have you seen a pattern of what helps change things? is it a person? is it a movement? maybe it's technology, maybe it is a combination of things. do you see what i'm thinking about. what can we learn from the past that will help us maybe give hope for the future? i have read many of your books and i see there is often a
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really strong powerful person that makes a big difference. i'm sure it is other things too. i wonder if you had thoughts about that. >> you ask a very hard question. there are patterns. one pattern is that technology tends to break existing order and then people think the next technology will fix it. it's not a positive story in the sense that it's too many expectations. but what tends to make a difference from the vantage of history is hard to know what that was like at the time. but powerful calls for behaving decency. i don't mean like the meaningless chant of civility. i mean, heartfelt, sincere beautifully composed stirring remarks delivered in a public
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venue, often at great personal cost, those are the things that most often change. the thing people think of it when joseph welch says that last you think nobody has decency. it was televised, it was not an easy thing to do. people think of lincoln's second inaugural address in that same way. not to be moments of purely honorific. the getty's address is very powerful. but, it's not quite that same thing. i tend to find that to be a necessary ingredient of change. >> i heard you interviewed and i loved what she said about the correlation with the map. on the advent of the political
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consultants and how we change the idea when it comes to voti voting, the idea people going from reasoning to mainly about persuasion. i'm wondering if in this correlation you might also be thinking about the advent of the mad men era when it comes to advertising and telling us how much we need to own and a reframing of the american dream going from it what it had originally been to consuming more and more. >> i'll separate that into two questions. with regard to the mad men piece, i am fascinated by that story but it's not really a 1960s stories. it's a 1930 stories. the first consulting firm
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founding in 1943 called campaign inc. it's responsible for transforming -- this was proposed by truman in 1945 after defeating california statewide initiatives proposed by the governor. it's largely responsible for nixon's and how the married couple it is very much what creates what is so interesting is it's also closely tied to the polling industry if you think
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between the political of the 19th century of buying votes, the decades of progressive era reform labored to thwart and dismantle the party machine and succeeded. almost as soon as they were done political consulting replace party bosses. we have no reform movement in this country. nor ever had for indicting political consulting for what it has done. >> thank you. >> with questions about consumerism i think we should be quite alarms. when a country was founded, the idea that progress that animated the framers was chiefly -- it
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had an enlightenment cast on it which was about improvement. that is to say every day the world is getting better in every way. the sense that you should be making decisions as a people, as leaders in a republic about the commonweal. over the course of the 19th century, progress in that sense progress for the commonweal was replaced by progress as technological advancement and into the 20th century as progress is prosperity. we talk about economic growth but that doesn't mean progress of the world isn't becoming better. that's not what they meant. you can trace actually significant shifting of concern.
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and when we make that from moral progress to consumer satisfaction you go from the politics of inquiry like who should we vote for, do you know? to a politics of consumption. i, we are just to be persuaded about who to vote for because were consumers in any political operator is just another product that we have to buy. >> i am thrilled to be here. on that you are a part of this community. the question i have is, the quote that you put at the very beginning of the volume about we must just enthrall ourselves. i wanted you to impact that a little bit. the second piece is the idea that there some arc in history,
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a belief in history that somehow we are on an arc that eventually will take us to a better place. in terms of a historical destiny. it seems to me that those two things go up against one another. >> thank you for that. i think you can think about the two competing historical narratives that work in the culture and align with our two parties. on one side there is a great man like the march of the presiden presidents, we need to think about going back to whatever was the greatest moment in american history. on the other side, american history involves a story of groups of people in conflict with one another and experiencing different forms of oppression. we need to chronicle those things. what i tried to do in the sweeping narrative is review
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those binaries. why do you think you should only study the presidents or social movements. you can have one without the other. they're constantly interacting with one another. why should you have segregated history. like on one you're gonna tell slavery and emancipation. when you do that, you allow people to have a version of american history which there are no women, no people of color, you have a very eviscerated past. where the other version is you have no path to electoral power. like all change happens. the question is about the opening and i quote abraham
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lincoln, we must just enthrall ourselves and then we can save our country. i love it. but also in that spirit, we are all drawn to different versions of the nation's pass. the you actually have to give up what you're thinking and be willing to think about how other people think about it and what they know when what their ancestors had is a different experience of your own and be willing to just enthrall yourself from the belief that you are only the descendents of one. thank you. >> this is more along the lines of things you decided, lenses you decided not to use continuing on long that. the two that come to mind, one is economic forces that shape things which i'm sure you talk about some. some people take that is the major thing. the second is the role of wars,
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including for example in 1962 we were lucky that we were not all killed and we have been lucky ever since that we have not been killed. so, i am interested why you avoid those two particular lenses. >> i think avoidance is the wrong way to describe it. and the way the narrative works, economic explanations are not the driving agents of change. i would just say, i spent a lot of time on how the american economy is organized. what the federal or state governments do to regulate them. what the history of taxation is. there is an enormous amount of history in the book. more than i would have preferred. it does have such a status that
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is important and for me that's a question. i need to provide enough information. it the book has to cover taxes. they are also really deep ways we need to understand debt and slavery. there is a lot on the history of capitalism. for me, as an organizing principle that's not how the book works. the same is true of war. it's not a deep part of my chronicle. it is not where the contribution that i can make to call attention to things that have not been seen. when you read history books that emphasize history there no woman, no people of color and family life, no struggle with difference on that is the narrative divine.
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[applause] >> i got that book today. i haven't read it yet. i was skimming through the index and i notice puerto rico wasn't included. i noticed the territories are not included. my question is, what was your thought process not to include territories? >> if you were writing a u.s. history textbook what you think needs to be in their about puerto rico? >> colonialism. >> i agree. i spent time instead on cuba and the philippines so that i could call leaders attention to the debate over what they can do.
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i spent a lot on the mexican war which is the first set of conversations about whether the united states as an empire should be an empire. i spend i don't know. i don't talk a lot about alaska or hawaii either. it's really just a question of scale and scope. i think it is a very good. >> thank you. the use of maps and imagery is so interesting. your title of course makes me think of independence. so what is it that you are declaring and what are you calling us to do. in both of those documents there is a clear trust as to what is
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needed. >> of course the declaration of independence we hold these truths to be self evident. my reading of that is that we remember about it the promise of equality but we forget about inquiry that the nation is founded on inquiry. we let that be part of a candid world. so the founding of the country is an enlightened experiment and it demands everybody very hard work of inquiry. is the work of inquiry. thank you very much. >> thank you everyone. if you'd like to join the signing line i asked that you hold your seats for a second while we moved the screen in the books.
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>> your watching book tv on c-span2. for a complete television schedule visit booktv.org. you can also follow along on the scenes on book tv on twitter, instagram, and facebook. >> michelle obama is on tour for her best-selling autobiography, becoming. selling 2 million copies in her first 15 days. >> we were poor folks. we lived in a home above a great aunt. that's how we grew up on the south side. everybody lived within 5-mile radius. everybody lived with an elder. so my grandmother lived with them not. my grandfather lived with an uncle and we were all a part of this big unit. you gather in one place and they gathering place in my family was southside -- my maternal grandfather who is like the heart and soul of the family, he
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was a lover of jazz and i would spend saturdays with him and his dog because i still wanted a dog. southside let me have his dog. we would play music and he would fry chicken and people would drop by and pick up again. there's a lot of things that we know but i want to go back to the beginning as you see in this little girl in your journey to how you became a coco cooley c. >> anybody watch game of thrones? >> i told you when you mention that i am not a game of thrones person. >> so, michelle is a white woman but you are a coco cooley c.
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the number one. >> is it a powerful woman? >> you are like the bomb. >> that was just a portion of her talk in philadelphia. watch for more coverage of michelle obama's book tour saturday december 15 and saturday december 16 on book tv. >> my name is peggy clark with aspen institute. i am excited for us to have this conversation this morning to talk about the new book, climate justice. we have copies on the table. this is a really critical issue. it is so important that we have mary to tell us about some work she has been doing on the frontline. i want to start by recognizing the ambassador. thank you for being with us. >> we also have the honorable

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