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tv   Journalists Discuss 2019 World Press Freedom Report  CSPAN  April 29, 2019 2:07pm-3:01pm EDT

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reporters without borders washington post cohosted the 2019 oral press freedom index, a report that examines press freedom around the world and journalists and foreign diplomats trust the findings during the hour-long event. >> in morning. welcome to "the washington post". i'm fred ryan publisher and it's my pleasure to welcome you to thank you for joining us this morning to this important discussion on press freedom around the world. every year reporters without borders the world's largest nongovernmental organization devoted to protecting the rights of journalists compiles the world press freedom index. as you know, this is reported the massive undertaking that presents exhaustive research into the media environment of 180 different countries. among the index and many valuable features is its indication of important changes
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and trends raising alarm about places where press freedom is in decline and acknowledging areas of improvement. sadly, as we all know too well, this is a time of growing danger for journalism. as the report indicates journalists around the world are encountering censorship, harassment, violence and every day just for doing their jobs. in every region of the world the grip of the press -- this year's index highlights a particularly disturbing trend in the americas were many countries have seen decline in their press freedom rankings including the united states. "the washington post" we take because of press freedom very seriously and we are no stranger to assault on journalism as we have seen in the cases of [inaudible] and jamaal khashoggi.
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for their friends and colleagues here is a tax of an agonizing eerinder of the dangers that journalists face. to "the washington post" press freedom partnership and an issue we announced last year we have had made a sustained and long-term commitment to raising awareness of cases like these. these abuses are on acceptable l to everyone who appreciates democratic values and human rights. free societies rely on the free flow of information which citizens need to make the most important decisionsfl out to vo, where to invest, where to trav travel, whom to trust and to make these decisions we need accurate information that only about our own countries but about others around the worldhe and in this way an attack against a journalist anywhere is very much an assault on liberty everywhere. today's event feature several accompanist journalists on the front lines of the fight for journalistic independence as well as scholars of the first amendment and other experts on press freedom.
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we are also fortunate to be joined by people who have a positive story to tell and washington post dana priest will moderate a discussion with investors from ethiopia which is this year's most improved country moving up 40 spaces on the list. the ambassador of sweden which consistently ranks high on the index of press freedom. they will share comments about their favorite environments for journalists. in a few minutes reporters without borders will join washington post correspondent mary jordan to release the 2019 index and discuss its findings. before we began i like to think reporters without borders for partnering with us on today's event as well as the northwest university school of journalism. we began to this program with the video featuring filipino journalist who was recently arrested by the government of filipino strongman. maria is currently released on
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bail and is a timely message to share about the importance of press freedom around the world. >> the morning. i maria and thank you so much for listening to our story and we know journalists are under attack globally in the attacks aree coming enabled by technoly and social media bottom-up. a lie told a million times is the truth. the net comes would cut down payments by authoritarian style leaders attacking not just our work but us. we have seen cheap armies of social media really back democracy all around the world and i've been a journalist for more than 30 years and never seen a year like 2018ev . in a little more than 40 months the philippine government filed 11 cases against me and i have had to post bail eight times in order to be free but still been arrested twice, detained once. all of this to intimidate us to silence. how do we fight back?
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with the facts and data. that gives us the grounding to be able to push back and demand our rights. the world press freedom index is a thermometer, global thermometer of the state of the battle where we are winning and losing and how do we fight back. you in the room today, my survival depends onac your attention in the way we fight back as journalists if we shine the light and call attention and demand our rights. please, join us in this battle. [applause] >> hello. i met mary jordan, national correspondent for "the washington post" and sent many years running around the world as a foreign correspondent. i'm delighted this morning to introduce our guests, sabine dolan, executive director of reporters without borderss and' she is going to talk to us about
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the 2019 report on world press freedom. what this index is looked at 180 countries around the world and said how do they rank when you look at the ability of the press to give information to the public? let's take a look. right at the top of the listri t a huge surprise in norway england, sweden. consistently up there. why is that? >> these are our index all ambience and specifically hold the top spots of our index andto press freedoms are long-standing tradition in these countries and reflected in their constitution and also in their shared values, cultural values. you may remember when president trump was visiting helsinki in july 2018y mb there were peoplet
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said welcome mr. presidentsa to the land of the free press.. >> wow. more on that later. [laughter] let's take a look at the bottom of the list. north korea, right there at the bottom of 180 countries. tell us about. >> yeah, we've nicknamed the infernal trio and this is because these three countries have held the bottom spot for many years and they are essentially information black holes and turkmenistan was dropped to the last position and this is a reflection of the violent crackdown on the few remaining independent journalist s reporting consistently and noh korea which is usually or has often been at the last positionn was up by one position just to reflect kim jung-un's openness
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or a little bit of progress in the openness through his meetings with foreign leaders make you see in these countries the people have to go to the border to try to get information coming in from airwaves outside the borders and complete blackhole. how about the united states. what's the news this year? >> the united states dropped three positions this year and for the first time its ranking has been downgraded from satisfactory to problematic. this in the country of the first amendment and you know, there was obviously the tragic newsroom shooting of four journalists and a member of staff at the capital gazette in annapolis and the president in tight press relentless antidepressant rhetoric has also committed. >> so, when you have the president of the united states
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calling journalist the enemy of the people do you thank you are seeing that it matters? >> i think that when this becomes constant is almost normalized and percolates to large segments of the population and this is how it contributed to create this climate of fear for journalists which is the theme of this year's index. >> the problematic state. it's quite surprising that it was even 45 last year and had it dropped last year from before? yes, it had been it's been legibly dropping. >> how would you describe -- >> forty-three in 2017, 85 in 2018 and now this year it is 48. >> what does that mean for the american public? >> i think this has an impact on all of us even in terms of
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information and access to information which is the backbone of democracy so this has significant and america was always seen as the beginning of press freedom, not only here but around the world and this has negative repercussions and negative countries when you think of the labeling of fake news which has been used in authoritarian regimes around the world from the philippines we saw maria beek to putin in russia -- >> i have certainly seen networking and other countrie'at and in asia.in journalists would come up -- i can't publish this but if "the washington post" does then we can say "the washington post" published these things and i know firsthand in my bones how we have really been a beacon of the american press for other countries so it is quite stunning to seeng s that we areo
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low in the pack. let's go back to the world index. numbers are kind of stunning. how many journalists were killed last year? >> last year we had 80 journalists who were killed across the world, 348 were detained and 60 were held hostages. >> wow. right as we speak there are over 300 journalists in jail for writing something. it's a stunning and important figure and we are grateful that you all should up today because you know, it's the fourth estate to keep checks and balances on the other branches of power famously said power corrupts and absolute power is absolutely corrupting. let's look at the other headlines. when you look at the world map there we saw black spaces and in fact, many of the places here
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that have the worst record have dictators basically running the show and is that right? tell us about the worst places in the world. >> you see the blackstone in the middle east and north africa are the most dangerous places to be a journalist so theyey hold the last place in our index and this is due in large part to the wars in the region but also to authoritarian leaders crashing of the arab spring a few years ago. if you look at outside of these blackstone countries like venezuela which is also this year been affected by the authoritarian regime of president maduro.
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>> and they dropped in the spot. some of the other big moment with talk about those there were central african apparent republic dropped 33 south, tanzania dropped 25, nicaragua 224, and now they are running the show and being a leader who is cracking down on the press. hungary also bad news. >> yeah, nicaragua has solved the deepest fall in the americas which was the one that had the steepest fall this year and it's been a big crackdown in nicaragua on independent media and a lot of protests were journalists were systematically considered the opposition and were attacked and there were some journalists who were jailed on terrorism charges and hungary has another interesting place the prime minister basically controls the media and its reach such an extent the critical media are now having difficulties under can't access
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government officials, press conferences and this in turn has an effect even in their possibility to get funding and advertising. this is a bleak landscape for europe. >> the advertisers don't want to be associated with the press because government rules and with pressure. how about china and turkey? >> yeah, china's bottle is internet control censorship and cyber surveillance is gradually being adopted in the neighboring countries and this is whether you talking about countries like vietnam or like cambodia or singapore it's also having an impact as far as africa so this is something --
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>> when you say fiber controlled what do you mean? >> the regime controls the internet and controls all the information that is being communicated and access people's access to websites are curtailed and it is just -- >> is censored and is there anything critical and you don't get it. >> the other element about china is 60 journalists and bloggers are being detained in horrible conditions. this is another. >> tell us about the good news and significant rises. >> you see it here. we're talking earlier about this blackstone in the middle east and tunisia was a very positive and an exception of positive case and this is a reflectiontuf the president commitment to press freedom and if you look at
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armenia then they also are in a very bad zone regarding past freedom and they have jumped 19 points and this was -- these changes you see are often the change of a refection of change in government and this applies to ethiopia. >> and often the one leader in charge can change a country. >> exactly. this was the case in ethiopia which jumped 40 points for the first time -- >> forty points. nice to have good news. we are going to bring on the next panel that will talk further about good news and come back with another discussion but before we leave the stagean when you look at the index for 2019 what is the state of journalism around the world? >> that is one point in the theme this year is fear in the state of journalism press
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freedom around the world are declining and this is really a matter of great concern to us and declining all over the world but also in the traditional press freedom ally, if you want, countries like here in the united states and a stunning picture. thank you. we will go to good news about what is going on and that people are doing right and then we come back and talk about the state and the way forward. thank you very much. [applause] >> i think all journalists are in the same vote. we all have to call for democracy and asked for democracy and until we have democracy every and that's what allows -- >> one [inaudible] then was taken of us [inaudible] ♪
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♪ into. >> welcome. i've been at "the washington post" now for literally half my life. i also teach journalism at the university of maryland. it's allowed me to understand
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just how bad parts of the world are. but today we have a mixed group and we are calling them the pre- mueller report report and if you stick around long enough we might release the report before you leave but let's see. [laughter] would like to introduce to my left ambassadorou daughter from sweden and one of the countries of the best rights record and very happy to have his excellency the master from ethiopia here and one of the countries that have made the most improvement in the last year or two. >> jamil who is probably familiar to most of you here is an executive director of the new night for cement institute and call me at university and long time with the aclu. welcome, everybody. thank you. >> i wanted to start with ambassador, ethiopia the first
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time in almost 15 years has no prisoners or has note realism prison and it's unblocked most of this previously blocked sites which is hundreds and it's allowing bloggers and nongovernmental journalists to report so it is really aside from tunisia probably the brightest light in the world right now so i want to plug you for that. [applause] >> were speaking on the phone about the situation there he was talking about capacity building being something that is in need right now. can you talk a bit that about the. >> thank you so much. i'm delighted to be here and this is my third week as ambassador. [laughter] i was privileged to be chief of staff of the reformist prime
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minister and i have seen and am a witness to what he has been doing since he came to power in 2018 and it took him just a hundred days to reverse some of the challenges human rights issues and press freedom that we are criticized for so long by human rights and different international media so i think he is now taking us in the right direction and is being championing everything through due process of law and now we had a serious problem in terms of accommodating this government and exercising democracy so it
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is part of the hold the market a process that we need and also freedom of press is the main one to deepen our democracy. journalists were not free in many ways and with the capacity building in terms of how to use the press exclusively at the same time and also the people at large were not aware of how to understand everything from media and they get easily confused and countries you have democracy we judge what is in it and you take
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a second opinion but that is the case in ethiopia. it is related to the experience and it takes time to trickle down to the society. education is also very important and also press freedom plays most of -- we need capacity building in many areas delivering the news and creating different platforms unless we are exposed to different environments unless we get a chance to debate there's no other shortcuts to get to what is to be. so, there are many things we need to think about. >> i know facebook is the largest social platform social media platform and we know that that is caused a lot of trouble in other countries where it was newly introduced and have you
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had discussions with them about trying to standdown his speech or misinformation which is unfortunately a problem not just in ethiopia but everywhere now? >> yes, social media has created a wonderful platform for people for ethiopia to penetrate f the majority of people because it's an easy infrastructure and medium and passing information and as connectivity is going that is highly welcomed but the negative side of social mediaias there are baseless people who can say anything they want had speeches that is in fact violence is and in some cases take it for granted and create some conflict and in some cases and not create some panic which
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may grow at alarming rates. so, i don't think the western countries have also money to deal with this and i think it's a challenge for everyone but the west the way the western countries of salt and like ethiopia is totally different. yes, it's important to regulate but how and hate speech is seen as silencing defense and we had some challenges in the past like antiterrorism laws in society and charity law which are now totally repealed and replaced by other modest [inaudible] so it's
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under discussion where we havecu to have a speech flow or not ane what is the best practice and how can we narrowly so that it doesn't silence distance and discourage prepress. we need support on this as well and we are enjoying what we have so we want to continue to deepen our democracy. >> likely we have the leader in the world heree and how do you deal with -- >> i think we really can help you but we've been at 250 years. that is one of the reasons why we are ranked so highly because it has been part of our culture with access to information from the public and we also have lower function were government officials like myself cannot get
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proceeded if wenm give informatn to media that is not a national security. this is built to trust in society where we always scrutinize our public officials. this has led to that were one of the least corrupt countries in the world when one of the most formative countries in europe it goes together both democracy and economy. and how we can prosper if you have h the proper institutions f you are really going the way where you are going and this will help you in so many ways both democracy and economically. we have put in large efforts to educate the public the new public for school teach kids how to be media literate and how to. >> is that a mandatory part of the curriculum? >> yes, we only have public schools with basically the same curriculum.
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we really need to work in confidence because we now have a new environment we need to train our young kids to be aware of what is real news and not in use and how do you how do you learn because it is very difficult even for adults and they are now toldld tech savvy they know more than we do but this is i think something we constantly need to work on. you probably jump straight into social media and technology. >> to regulate social media or do you rely on media literacy among the relation? >> we have been stationed but that is the same flagellation for media and [inaudible] it's a technology that is different but not the content.er legislation is a look at that technology.
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>> there have been discussions here and elsewhere about the rules regulate in the media and we basically have the first amendment that our regulator. in media , all three countries, i believe, have a media regulator of some sort. can you talk broadly -- there is a state agency that if you feel like you have been missed for trade or so you can how do you say, go to that agency and the journalists can be for the media outlets can be how do you say judged or find and if it is considered that they have they not been to train the facts correctly. >> is that a government panel? >> in sort of a way because some of the governmental system but independent like all her judicial. >> that would be a scary thought here.
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i think. [laughter] you must do it in some way that we need to study the work there. >> finally, you have a program called troll cultures guess. >> yes, and it's like those program we find find a predator or find the troll and you go to the person figure this out and go with the camera and confront them so troll hunting is something that even doing for a while back. >> it's fairly new but is important that we can show this to public media who they are and how they operate. this is part of learning about the system and what isle troll s that people in the country or in other countries and why do they do it thatat we have the understanding of it. good to have a troll hunting program so you can learn about it because most of us quite hard to understand how it operates. >> we have the swedish master here and let's talk about julian vens who overlaps in both these
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areas possible extradition to sweden to talk about that in a minute but what is your take on the arrest and indictment and how it could play out here in the united statest, for indicatn for press freedom here. >> well, i should start by saying that the indictment is for a violation of the computer fraud and abuse act so a hacking that you and there's in my view no argument here that the hacking was constitutionally protected and so the charges themselves again in my view -- they don't raise constitutional concerns. the indictment is much broader than the charges in the indictment lifts as the means and manner of the conspiracy and many things that legitimate journalists engage in every day
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so protecting the identity of a source for mitigating securely with the force and those kinds of things are presented as evidence of a criminal conspiracy and if you are reading it 90% of it things that legitimate do everyday so much attention is hard for reader not to come away with the impression that the justice department believes those things are problematic and so i guess i am conflicted about the charges and i don't believe the charges themselves problematic the indictment is quite scary and i think that any journalists reset indictment specially had a basket of journalists work on the security issues there is no way to do more about the journalism without doing the verym things that the justice department is describing are part of the criminal conspiracy.
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we see that indictment against a background in which the in ministration has stepped up leak investigations and has stigmatized it or stigmatized whistleblowers and is made clear published caused by information or suggested that the magician publish and so especially against the background the indictment is -- >> one step you say it's constitutionally protected and that you would putti julian in e category of a journalist or publisher. >> i don't actually think that you need to believe that julian sans is a journalist to be worried about this indictment and the supreme court here has never distinguished journalists from everybody else in terms of
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the protection that the people get under the first amendment but the protections are the same. there is no legal elements to this question of whether julian assigned is a journalist or not and i'm not saying it's not regiment topic of debate but it does not have legal relevance oe the indictment does not turn on the fact that julian is not a journalist and the indictment is again describes all the things that julian sans is alleged to have done and almost all those things but almost all of the things are things that legitimate journalists do everydayse. >> wanted to talk to you about another case the democracy of the case and we talk back and back about the responsibility to warn and that brings in possible
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u.s. you tell them what that is. >> sure, as all of us unfortunately no democracy is a u.s. resident of the saudi national washington post journalist who was murdered in the saudi embassy in istanbul last year and we might have expected the united states to call out this act as a middle act that was and that is not what happened is the trump magician has been very enthusiastic about participating in the cover-up of the killing and one thread in the story i think has not gone gotten quite enough attention has to do with the duty to warn which is a duty that u.s. intelligence agencies have recognized that they intercept or acquire evidence that there is a threat to
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somebody's life or liberty and in the course of surveillance and they run across evidence that somebody, journalist, for example is under a threat to his or her life liberty and they have an obligation to alert that journalist to the threat. tthwe, the institute to protect journalists from heaven litigating for the release of records relating to the duty to warn because they want to know what did u.s. intelligence agencies know before the killing about the threat to democracy and if they didn't know about the threat to his life liberty what do they do about it.ll thus far intelligent agencies, for the most part, stonewalled that request and it provided was called a [inaudible] response their views to confirm or deny even the existence of records responsive to the request but i find that very troubling and think the united states on this kind of issue should be at the
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opposite end of the poll of where we are. we should be calling for accountability and demanding a credible investigation, transparent investigation and instead, the most senior t erican officials are effectively participating in a cover-up. >> okay. since we mentioned julian sans is there an update on whether sweden is considering -- >> the prosecutive agency is looking into the case. they're looking to see if there is a case for his extradition from united kingdom and the accusation is [inaudible] >> so they are we opening the case to look at it for the judges -- >> yes, they will look into it again. it's a prestudy to a case study. i guess we will know in a couple of weeks.
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>> okay. i guess i want to end again with ambassador and ask about whether the environment in the united estates especially at the top vis-à-vis press freedom and embracing it as an important part of democracy does that resonate in any way positive or negative in ethiopia? >> i thank you have a strong institution. it tells you to balance whatever administration comes in and we are looking to how we can have such a institution so that whoever comes won't -- that's how i say it. >> thank you all for being here. thank you for coming. you will have our next panel will be following us in just a minute.we
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we decided to release the mueller report and you'll just have to wait. stay in your chairs. [laughter] mac. [applause] ... f i remember all those women we met who told us their stories, who told us there horror. it was unbelievable. >> every time i went public and told about my i they made new stories and attack me viciously just to show me that they were following me and that they would retaliate any time i would publish a new piece. >> are reportede. and country leaders not only complaint about a critical press but also try to shut it down, the ring reporters in prison, or worse. as long as american democracy remains healthy, they will be
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reporters willing to pursue the truth. even if that means incurring the wrath of the most powerful person in the world. >> important topic this morning, freedom of the press, freedom of the press to bring information and facts faxed to the public. i mary jordan, i do national correspondent for theco "washington post," and delighted to introduce our guests. we have jessica, award-winning finish back investigative reporter. she works for the finish back broadcasting company and she is going to tell you what she personally has had to endure to write about russia's propaganda machine. we also have t -- from legendary radio correspondent in the congo. for 20 years she has been talking about something that was once unmentionable, rape, as a
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weapon of war. doing this since 1998 against and deathof odds threats. jonathan karl could not be herea display because of an unexpectedly busy morning news cycle but we are really delighted to have bill plante here. bill is well known, a thoughtful person who is actually been writing about washington politics since nixon's campaign, and as a great perspective. fact i want to start with bill. what do you make of where the u.s. is at its drop in the index? >> previous presidents have always tried to steer news coverage and it tried to limit press access. now we have a president who actually threatens press freedom. so we are a very dangerous place, and i'm not at all surprised, given his influence that the u.s. dropped in the
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index this year. >> did you see this coming? was it inevitable? was it really changed my by whs in the white house, or do you see something from having looked for decades covering politics? >> whether you blame it on this president defends as opposed on your own political inclinations, that the fact is that what he has done is to legitimize, worldwide, this business of beating up on the press and threatening. is the president who actively said it's, quote, frankly disgusting the way the press is able to write whatever they want to write. excuse me? [laughing] we do have the first amendment here. which is either unaware or uncaring. jessikka, you are based in helsinki, right? >> yes. >> and you have done heroic work
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talking about what's going on in russia. can youou just give us can tells what happened to you when you started writing these critical stories from russia. what happened? >> definitely. thank you for the good faith. keeps me going. so in 2014 i started to m investigate the thin u.s. phenomena of russian information warfare that social media propaganda trolls spreading false messages also internationally. some wanted to find out specifically how does this information by putin's regime influence' and impact actual rel people ideas, attitude and even behavior. so that was my core interest, and i decide to investigate that. i was made a smearing target first in russian fake news media. its spread almost ten different site saying that i'm not a journalist at all. instead, i'm some kind of famous
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-- of nato so they bring us some kind of foreign agent. >> this is 2014, before the use election that you were on this, right? and so do discredit you they were saying you were an agent of the united states. >> basically. >> because there's nothing worse to be said, but beyond that, so how did it affect you? how did it affect you? it was even worse, they called every name in the book, demeaned you. didn't make it hard to work, to keep going? >> of course. that was the whole point. after the continued basically their smearing campaign, for example, today i believe they have made around 250 fake news stories about me, only at one probe kremlin, pro neo-nazi new site in finnish and they're all the other fake news and fake news, , that a criminal, drug
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dealer, mentally disabled and made up all these troll or just get what the causes is it gets real people into hating me and real people into sending death threats to be. for example, my former friends turned into enemies and tried to threatening. someone who even knows me from the history, they try to hate me as well. >> this is where it gets scary. because this is where it works, right? you say something often enough in people think it's true. and this is kind of the sad fact of why this index is so important that we can take a look, take a breath and try to figure out where we go from here. i want to talk to chouchou. what an amazing story you have to tell. when you went on the radio,gr graphically and explaining something that people were not supposed to -- it was taboo to talk about this, the women were getting raped by malicious.
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what happened to you? >> thank you very much. it really wasn't easy and i remember at that time in 1998 -- 1996, first, after the broken down of the war. nobody talked about rape and violence. the second war it was in 1998. in 1999, some women started denouncing the rape and sexual violence. and i remember when we wanted to talk about this on the radio, we didn't even have a word to talkl about it. we tried -- >> because it was so socially taboo to save? >> yes, we try to look in our local languages like swahili from congo, from local
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languages. there was explanations of the phenomenon. so we had o to borrow a word frm tanzania, and this is -- and to me a tell people about it. i remember the first time we broadcasted the testimony from women who was raped. it was a shock in the communitya people called us and said how are youar talking about sex on e radio? i said if not a problem of sex. it truly a big problem of community. because the woman explains how she was raped, how after the rate she got tortured. they put foreign branches and her vagina. she explained everything and people were a shocked. >> and, of course, by writing about the problem, you bring eyes on the problem and the world cameld to realize this
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wasn't just in your country but in many countries. so the effect is clear. >> yes. >> but what happened to you personally? since were talking about the courage it takes these days to write things. what did you endure? >> yeah, i quickly realized that our microphone was a weapon to fight that phenomenon. and really at the time we started giving our microphone to women tocr tell their stories. because when the results were attacking the village, they called it a silent war, and quickly my colleagues, we turned our microphone to women.ne we became theom loudspeaker of these women, and we denounced it. >> did you have the same experience as jessikka that some of your friends and why are you doing that? >> yes. so sometimes it was crazy, what
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are you talking about? shame, it's a shame even for women. you highlighted the problem of women. you should not talk about it. we said no, we have to talk about it, is to act. so was with that a campaign caa challenging silence. women against rape and sexual violence. we went to the national criminal court andto yeah, with such opportunities to testify and to bring the spotlight on the problem. and women were really sensitize, even the communities, the congolese committee were rejecting the survivors. they were rejected by the family. they were stigmatized but we have to sensitize, to train even their families to accept them. >> so accepted. would asking them come back to bill.
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for 15 years i was a correspondent around the world, andd many times i felt very prod that other countries would take oh, you're from the "washington post," you can do anything. you have such freedom. and irritated, gosh, i wish i could work there. these days, as we dropped into thee problematic area for press freedom, have you noticed in the last years from other countries looking at the state facing a problem here? jessikka? >> we are seeing a problem that is coming from your presidential leadership against -- [laughing] -- press at the moment. but we're also seeing that the truth is you guys are doing is sort of brave, israeli expert on you still show a lot of example to the rest of the world. so keep on doing what you were doing.
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>> nice. thank you. and bill, reagan, i mean, since reagan you've actually been in the white house, and where do you see the country going now as we move to 2020 campaign? >> it's one thing to try to steer news coverage by placing things out there while making certain stories, by trying to avoid coverage of other things. it's entirely another to threaten reporters, and to say that news coverage shouldn't be allowed. so the only weapon we have is w truth. the problem is that in today's media environment, with social media, we can be overwhelmed. so we have to come out there with more effort than ever to get the truth out. and i think part of the way to do that is for reporters to avoid expressing their own opinions on social media. i think that's a mistake,
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because it then doesn't differentiate reporters from people who are giving opinion. >> right. if you try into it. anything else that reporters should be doing to try to move up on this index? what we need to do ourselves? i mean, i know what other people need to do but we have control about what we should be doing. >> part of it is simply making sure that the united states government doesn't move to suppress press freedom in any way. there is a a danger working out there in today's world, which we discussed at length here. we don't know what they would do if they could, but this presidentt always suggests that it would be a good idea if we didn't have so much quote fake news. most of which is not fake. >> yes -- >> we believe the last couple of
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minutes of this press freedom form. you can watch at any time you would like a corset c-span.org. take your life to the floor of the senate. they are just about to gavel in. live coverage here on c-span2. our lawmakers to the joy and beauty of your providence. provide them with a greater appreciation of your favor, wisdom, and grace. remind them of your plans to keep them from stumbling, and present them before your glory with great joy. in their weakness, impart your strength. in their fatigue, give them renewal. empower them with

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