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tv   C-SPAN Cities Tour Visits Palo Alto CA  CSPAN  May 4, 2019 12:00pm-1:30pm EDT

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quality of those in the army which was a myth. thanks. any others? .. our events online if you like to come tomorrow. most of all i want to thank pamela for being here tonight and we got books at the register and we will do an author signing here and thank you again. have a good night. [applause] welcome to palo alto california with help from our comcast
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cable partners for the next hour and 40 minutes we will explore this community's literary life. located in the san francisco bay area, the city of 66,000 is in the heart of silicon valley and, stanford university. we begin with a trip to the hp garage where william hubert dominic hewitt and david packard started the technology company. >> this is the area palo alto called professor bill because of stanford professors who came in the early 1900s, late 1890s, who did not want to buy on stanford campus where they can own their house but not the land bought in the newly formed town of palo alto. this house, this garage, is where hewlett-packard did their experiments in 1988 called the birthplace of silicon valley. if palo alto is the bethlehem of silicon valley, this is the
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major. in the national register of history's plaque and this is a california state historic landmark this garage is the birthplace of the world's first high technological region silicon valley the idea for such a region originated with doctor fragment dominic frederick chairman who encouraged students to start their own electronics company in the area instead of joining established firms in the east. the first two students who follow his device where william r hewlett ãb >> we continue or look at palo alto as headquarters of a number of high-technology companies next year the story of seven influential pioneers of silicon valley. >> people think about silicon valley and i think they think
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silicon valley started with the invention of the iphone or maybe the birth of facebook. what they don't understand, although interestingly to people in silicon valley understand, is that every generation of technology has been built on the generation that came before it. troublemakers is about this incredible period in the history, not just of silicon valley but the united states and the world. it's this time when we had several major industries launch all in the same little window so from 1968 to 1976 he had the invention of the personal computer, the invention of the michael trip, the invention of the video games, the biotech came on the scene yet modern venture-capital showing up. the birth of apple, intel, atari, genentech, the major
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venture capital firm and ãb you had the first internet transmission all this happening in the space of about 30 miles in eight years this book is about how that happened and people who made it happen. what was exciting about this time in silicon valley was that so many things were happening at once. i had to figure out how do i tell all the stories between two covers and i decided the way to do that was to write about seven individuals, the first one that i mentioned is bob taylor. bob taylor is the guy who convinced the department of defense to start the arpanet, that today we would call the internet. for most people that would be enough but not for bob taylor. bob taylor's act 2 was to start the lamp at xerox park that was
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the place that steve jobs came in 1979 and for the first time saw a mouse, saw the graphical user interface, saw a screen, saw laser printers, saw computers talking to each other, all of this was developed at xerox park and the person running the lab was bob taylor. that's where ethernet was invented. so that's taylor's impact. everyone years of apple and they think steve jobs and steve wozniak what they don't know is there was another guy who owned the third of apple at the beginning this is a guy name mike markkula.mike macola had been at intel before it had its ipo and watched the company grow from basically a room or two in a warehouse into this incredibly successful company and mike recruited, let me tell you who came to apple because of mike markkula, their
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president, the chairman of their board, their vp of marketing, their vp of sales, their vp of human resources, their head of legal and their two most important investors all were involved with apple because of mike markkula. his story is fascinating because his this very quiet man, wonderful guy is perfectly happy to be back in the shadows because he felt like jobs and wozniak and particularly jobs were just much better front men for this company and yet he was quietly in the back building this company. that's mike markkula an amazing guy. the third person i write about is the fabulous sandy kurt sick. sandra kurt sick is the first woman to take a tech company public and she at the time that i'm writing about her is starting this little software
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company which is called ask and she is this double outsider, silicon valley at that time is all about hardware. it's all about computers, it's all about disk drives, it's all about sophisticated telephone systems it is not about software. sandy is trying to do a software company at the time that it's hardware everywhere in silicon valley. the second thing about sandy as an outsider is that she is a woman. so she didn't start her company in a garage, she started her company at her kitchen table. she wasn't like jobs and wozniak where there were experienced people like mike markkula who would come and say, i can help you, she completely bootstrap this company. she would read the hewlett-packard annual report and try to figure out how they allocated their money for research versus manufacturing and emulate that for her
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company. and consequently, because she was in software and because she was a woman, people literally when she said she sold software thought that she sold andre. the story of how someone who starts out that much of an outsider and ends up with an incredibly successful ipo in the early 80s is just such a fascinating story when people hear atari, they think, of course i think ãbut i think you think people they think a guy named nolan bush is a great guy, six foot four inches, prone to wearing polkadot shirts and talking about how he's ill or resistible to women and they held meetings and hot tubs and all of this is true.
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this is all true about atari, it turns out there was a relationship that atari between the showman who was nolan bush now and the engineer, a guy named ll court, very similar to the relationship between jobs and wozniak. i wrote about ll corn and studying their relationship was just fascinating because nolan was one of these guys who had a million dreams a day and really no ability to build it at all. and al was someone who could build anything but constrain himself all the time. he would tell him what to do and he would do it and what's fascinating about al's story is first of all it's the story of how a little silicon valley company takes off, ends up getting acquired by warner bros. and what happens when the east coast company gets its
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hands on this silicon valley company especially with a rather uptight and stayed east coast company gets its hands on a company that literally held board meetings and hot tubs and getting al's perspective on all that is great and it's also really the story of his own development from a guy who had to be told what to build to realizing, i can do this. and starting his own inventions and own company and that's ll corn. another person i write about is a woman named fawn alvarez. fawn is a fascinating person because she started out right out of high school working on the manufacturing line and a company called rome. rome was rome is the origin of everything now when you think
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about silicon valley culture and these beautiful campuses and roots to play ping-pong and subsidized food and incredible gems that all started at role people came from all over the world to see this campus and phone is an incredible storyteller and the story that she tells us about how she went from working on the manufacturing line to being this supervisor on the line to deciding she had to get a job behind a desk is the way she put it. remember she didn't have any college degree at all she ends up rising to the ranks until by the end of her career at rome, which gets acquired by ibm she's the chief of staff to the president of ibm rome and tells us about a time that there is no equivalent to it now in silicon valley which is silicon
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valley used to build things and that means there were factories here and that means there were people who used to work in the factory and these people had very good jobs and like fawn they could bill ãbbuild houses. houses in silicon valley with high school degree. they were able to work a 9 to 5 type shift and come home to their families and have really great, great lives.that is all gone now. there is no equivalent to that sort of middle-class in silicon valley. there are no assembly-line jobs in silicon valley anymore. two other people i write about, i think of as a pair, though they wouldn't have thought of themselves as that way. the first one is a guy named mills ramos. niels started at stanford a little office called the office of technology licensing.
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in this space between when he started that office in 1972 and now, the exact same thing that had in the past earned stanford $3000 namely the licensing of inventions out of stanford today that office has brought in $2 billion to stanford. the office of technology licensing that neil started is the reason that stanford owned a piece of google. it's the reason that stanford owned a piece of the vmware and its reason that stanford owned, along with the university of california, san francisco, the competent vna matin at the heart of the modern biotech industry there. this is what niels did and his path quickly intercepted with that of another troublemaker i
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write about who is a guy name bob swanson. bob swanson is the cofounder of genentech with herbert boyer. bob swanson is one of these people who was an absolute golden boy who got hired at criner perkins, this brand-new venture capital firm at the time, and gets fired as soon as they hit a rocky period and doesn't know what to do with himself. this is someone who is succeeded in every single thing he's ever done in his entire life. he literally goes on welfare and he reads scientific american, here's about the recombinant dna process in the conference that's been held at fillmore. and literally opens the phone book and starts calling the different scientists who had attended this conference to see if they thought there was any chance a company might be able to come out of this invention.
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that this could be commercialized in a short enough period of time. one of the first people he reached was herbert boyer, who agreed to talk to him and ended up starting a company that is genentech, one of the most successful biotech companies in history. started by this guy on welfare driving around trying to get biologists to talk to him about this breakthrough process. that's neil raymer and that's bob swanson. the name troublemakers came from the famous apple add in when steve jobs returned to apple in 1987 that starts, here's to the crazy ones, the troublemakers, the square pegs and round holes. i love what it connoted, which was someone who's a bit
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mischievous. someone who had a goal in mind that might not necessarily be the same goal as everybody else. it's interesting because if i could put parentheses on the title and the title is already long enough, i would have called it something like "troublemakers for a reason". i think that now when we look at the problems that silicon valley is facing in a lot of ways in some ways it can be boiled down to troublemaking for the sake of troublemaking in this sort of disruption because there is an industry that could be disrupted. that was not what was going on at this time. when we think about the accusations that silicon valley is facing today around being arrogant, thinking that it's above the law, kind of going into places where it doesn't
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belong and messing everything up. i read an analogy once that said that silicon valley was like the kool-aid man breaking through the walls around him and wreaking havoc into the existing space. when we think about that sort of sense of silicon valley today, in some ways it's the troublemakers ideal gone wrong. i think that part of what we've seen is a necessary audacity that you have to possess to think that you could build something entirely new and in some cases you can build something new you can build a new company and you can build a whole new industry. but that kind of necessary audacity can shade into an arrogance that is really problematic. i think that a lot of the suspicions that people have
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about silicon valley right now comes from feeling like there is an arrogance here, a sense of knowing better than anybody else. that is not okay and that's what i think we are seeing a lot of pushback about. this troublemakers is about people right on the cusp of that they've never cross that line. >> the c-span cities tour is exploring the american story with a visit to palo alto. next we traveled to the hoover institution on the campus of stanford university is the author of the vietnam war related book "we shop the war" takes us through a museum exhibit of the same name. ãbearned a reputation for its rabble rousing on content. at the home of this publication was stanford educated woman by the name of marion from
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rothbart. she was the owner and founder of the overseas weekly media corm, corporation. at the heart of the overseas weekly edition marion trusted colleagues she's the only female bureau chief in vietnam and saigon during the time of the more and this is the paper that had a specific purpose of allowing the troops to share their own stories in their own words without fear from repercussions of the military. when we were cataloguing overseas weekly negative collection ãb what was unknown about his career in vietnam was that and brian actually gave him his journalistic start in vietnam by giving and granting him a press credential.
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in 1968 during the battle of way, ãbhis photograph documents this particular period of this particular photo is of the charlie comes the company moving through silicon valley. it's a very from afar it looks like a very tranquil photo. you get to see the beauty and the scenery of vietnam and you sort of sense the humidity in the ambience and it allows us to experience the environment in which the american troops were actually in. it sets the landscape in which the troops were fighting their battles. these photographs are exemplary of the type of the schematic areas explored by the overseas
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weekly. they did not shy away from scenes such as racial presence in the army and try to get the voice of the soldiers and captures the images that depicted the tension between the white soldiers and african american and black soldiers and the prejudices amongst other racial groups and also with educated soldiers who were in college versus those who overseas were drafted in high school. these particular photographs were taken at buyer-based tennessee and you can see mary to opposing messages, a message from a black man and a message from a white man. ãweekly had a reputation of showing shocking content. the covers were graced with scantily clad women but the content within the pages also depicted to humanity of the humanity that emerged from the war. this particular story charlie's
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attacks sparks tragedy, demonstrates the sort of humanity and story that captures the hardships in which the vietnamese civilians suffered during the war. even though the goal of the paper was to follow the u.s. troops they also documented this civilian life. here we can see photographs taken by saul lockhart, this particular contact sheet demonstrates the sequence of events and of those and so vietnam with which a bomb was exploded upon on this city we can see the villagers morning and scrapping through the debris trying to find evidence of loved ones or evidence of their personal belongings in this village. and brian who also served as a photo editor would mark each of
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the frames in which she felt would be suitable for publication. the markings represent the editorial intent and creativity behind the selection process. we also see how the photographs were then displayed in the publication itself and here you can also see the deep emotion and sorrow in the english that the vietnamese suffered during this particular attack on their village. here we have the villagers grieving, weeping, and standing over the bodies of their relatives and loved ones who were killed during the showing attack. this particular grouping was taken by and brian the editor-in-chief of the overseas weekly pacific edition she
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would follow the troops not only the battlefield but also follow them into the humanitarian missions and in these particular photographs were taken in some way and south vietnam it's in celebration of christmas the troops bought the christmas cheer into the villages dressed up as santa they distributed gifts and they interacted very closely with the villagers hoping to bring the hearts and minds of the people the vietnamese people. this particular photograph was taken by john hurst. the overseas weekly edition not only followed stories in vietnam but they also followed the troops into cambodia this photograph was taken right around the time in which the united states military had not quite broadcast their military in cambodia at the time.
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this particular photograph is especially powerful because it demonstrates the hardships, the physical toils that it took on these very young soldiers as they went into the battlefield it's very graphic in which you see the bullets thrown on a log. you can see he's resting we don't know how long he's able to rest but at least he's able to take a moment just to rest. we see his helmet which is turned in a gun that is laying there ready for whatever he needs to get up. when people visit the exhibition there's three particular messages we would hope they walk away with. the first is reflecting on the personal sacrifices and the challenges and the roles in
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which journalists, soldiers and civilians played in the war. the toilet in the trauma and reflecting back upon how war was depicted at the time and how we can build upon understanding of war to prevent war in the future, which is the core of herbert huber's message. secondly i would hope they would have a glimpse of the collections of the hoover institution library and archives themselves we are in an institution whose mission is to preserve and document and provide access to documents, photographs and archival materials on war revolution and peace and this exhibition represents a small representation of the types of materials we have for scholarly use. we have a vast collection on the vietnam war itself and we
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would hope it will encourage anyone is interested in this topic to come into our reading rooms and do more research. thirdly, we, i would hope that the visitors walk away with thinking of their own stories often times the images we see of the vietnam war are of unidentified vietnamese people the santa fe region is a particular area in which the vietnamese-american never really settled and found new lives. it's one of the largest communities vietnamese americans and the lot of the second generation, third generation, beating his americans are trying to find out more about what happened in that time period for the generation that came here in 1975 and early 1980s this is a period that was very much
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unspoken and the families we do not speak about the war, the war was not a topic that was a part of daily conversations, in fact, it was an unspoken recognition that it was a hurtful period, we moved on, we do not speak about it. but it also raised a lot of questions for our younger generation who was sought to understand the experience of their parents, of their uncles, of the amps, and their siblings and loved ones. this particular exhibition offers an opportunity for them to see the experience of the vietnamese civilians themselves. the overseas weekly and did a fantastic job of depicting the relationships between the american troops and the south vietnamese troops. we see them these interactions and the names that come forth through the captions of the overseas to allow a new
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generation of researchers to look back upon the collections and find their own selves in the photographs. as part of our 2019 cities tour, we explore the palo alto literary community. coming up, the story of 300 americans sent to aid the russian famine of 1921 the following program has images some viewers may find disturbing. viewer discretion is advised. >> the book is the ãbthe subtitle is the american relief expedition to soviet russia and the famine of 1921. the first thing i realize is that there was no book about the 19 2122 famine in english. no one had really serious book on famine. so i would have to do double
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duty and the thing that happens to me and a lot of people i get into the archives, he opened up and archival box and in doing that opened up an entire world to me. i realized that when huber's men were keeping records of their humanitarian activities it wasn't simply the amount of food going in, the amount of people fed, lives saved, where the kitchens were set up, those americans documented everything. these ara collection also shines a light on this new thing called soviet russia. it's politics. it's turning russian society upside down. the changes that are taking place. the suffering, the new winners, the old losers, people had fled, people who have starved because they were on the wrong side of history. the russian-american cultural
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contrast the americans had not expected but which was extreme, to different mentalities. and also as i say, the sort of americans and these are young american men former doughboys. who had fought in the great war and they were out for a great adventure, they wanted to continue the adventure they had begun in the world war but a lot of them were prepared for the scenes of horrific suffering that they encountered. there were few people had to be sent out in breakdowns, nervous breakdowns, there are others who deal with the catastrophe, step up, they've got the right mentality about it, they've got the stamina to deal with it and they become among the heroes of the story. these americans were spread out across the heartland's and they were stationed in remote villages. provincial towns, provincial
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capital, they are reporting to us what was going on, contains some of the most detailed reporting about soviet life in the period, we see the aftermath of the resolution, it was still going on in this period it's the most extraordinary documentation available anywhere he really can't understand the obstacles facing the americans unless you see the famine up close. these are the kinds of images and will make your book talks i'm always very careful about which ones to use these americans are posing and smiling but behind them is the mass grave piles of bodies these are three corpses of children and these are this is a horrific scene in saudi and the volga the famine is centered in the volga region what triggered the famine was a drought in fact, two years of drought, this in the lingo of
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people who study famines today is called bang bang famine. the two failed harvest in a row will produce a famine no matter what you do to try to counter it. but in the background let's not forget we have a world war that caused tremendous economic dislocation in russia and then in soviet russia. so that's 1914 ã17. then we have two revolutions in 1917 so there's a tendency, russia is becoming a failed state in a sense already in 1917, 1918 in 1918 in the memorable civil war the so-called reds are trying to hold onto power and on the periphery the white armies are trying to dislodge them from power. the whites as we know will inevitably or eventually be
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unsuccessful. but for a time the whites controlled the gringa regions of russia and the reds led by lenin and trotsky control only a very small piece of territory, people in the city of soviet russia starved in 1918 in particular in 1919 ã 1920, to add to all these problems the war revolution and civil war the bolsheviks have an idea when they come in to wipe out the free market, in other words, to prevent peasants from trading their surplus grain. the bolsheviks began requisitioning grain with the idea that of course they are a communist government, trade should be outlawed under a communist regime so this is well forces presence to stop planting grain because they know it's can be confiscated. in the peasants russia has known famines over the
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centuries and about every seven years there are pockets of famines in russia but the peasants are prepared. they have something they put away for a rainy day. they have a surplus. 1921 they had nothing. by the summer of 1921 probably upwards of 20 to 25 to 30 by some estimates, 30 million people are threatened with starvation in soviet russia and very briefly, this is a soviet government, it does not want to ask the outside world for help. but the writer maxim gorky issues a call for help. the only country that was capable of doing it and the only person capable of organizing it and undertaking the relief was the united states and herbert hoover. by 1921 the cities are doing okay.
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the americans think we are going to open up kitchens, a number of kitchens to kitchens in petrograd, several dozen in moscow and that's the kind of operation we are going to have pretty similar to what we had across europe then a scouting party of the american relief workers gets to the volga region and beyond him and sees witnesses scenes of horror such as this and you can see they do the equivalent of waving their hands to moscow. this is actually inside a children's home and these children are still going. these are among the toughest to look at because this is a what you might think as an old person is actually a girl. who seems to be at the end of her life and is actually looking at the camera person here. this is pretty bad. these children here are mercifully beyond suffering at
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this point. so at that point when the americans get to the volga and realize the extent of the problem they know that two things have to happen. the main feeding will have to go on in the heartland it's the grain producers this time you are the chief victims of the famine, that's one, and two, very important, the americans will have to feed adults as well as children. the original plan was to feed 3 million children. they establish a medical program because they realize food alone won't do it, there's ãball type droid beaver, all kinds of disease going around and what they need to do is begin an inoculation program and scurvy, they need to bring the medications in because russia has nothing. i like showing a photo of the young, dynamic hoover, it's hard for americans to imagine but this hoover had a certain
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charisma. and was adored by the people who worked under him. he was called the chief. the nickname most of the men wouldn't call him back to his name but a lot of letters to hoover by his associates dear chief he was much loved, a great loyalty by the men under him to hoover, do it for hoover was the slogan of the american relief workers for example in russia. he's already at this time in 1921 considered presidential material. he had both parties wanted to draft him to run for president in the 1920 so the kind of photographs that herbert hoover wanted americans to see is, it's one of my favorite photographs. this photograph here of a provincial kitchen.
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these happen to be all-girls. in one of the volga towns some great faces in this photo. this was the kind of photograph herbert hoover wanted to publicize across the united states, by late spring of 1922 the seed has arrived, the food is beginning to arrive, the american corn is arriving in large quantities. the skeletal figures, the piles of corpses, those are the horrible early days and those are gone. i was surprised to find the american relief workers were surprised to find that in the towns the cities and towns along the volga river there were campbells that were doing duty as beast of burden. it was the site of campbell carolinians taking off from
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various cities and heading into the providences. heading into the interior that became for the americans and for me as well, a symbol of the relief mission. improvised, there is a heroic dimension to this. it looks very exotic. that's what the americans felt about it. i think the book provides a window into the soviet society at the time that really gets across the point that the both ãbbolsheviks were true economists in their society. reading music counts of these americans tells you they were dealing with, and using the word in a neutral fashion, phonetics.these were fanatical marxist leninist.
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they believed in the coming utopia, they believed that capitalism was doomed. even though there was poverty and want all around, history is on our side. there is that dimension to the story. that's one. two, herbert hoover really did hope that by bringing food into soviet russia somehow he could overturn, or help overturned, the soviet government. by the end of the mission it's pretty clear that hoover was disappointed that that was not going to happen. for me one of the surprises is that the chief americans on the ground, hoover didn't go to soviet russia during this mission, he was in washington at the time. but the chief americans who were administering the relief actually wanted to renew united states to grant soviet russia
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official diplomatic relations. so u.s. soviet relations. hoover was against this. officially u.s. soviet relations would not be introduced until hoover left the white house and franklin delano roosevelt introduced that. the americans who were saying this had seemed bolshevism up close. they hated it. they were not friends of lenin their idea was that if you want to undermine the bolsheviks government, kill with kindness. engagement is what we would call this in a later day. here's the third unpleasant surprise and the americans league those russians, particularly the ones who worked with the americans in their offices were suspect they were vulnerable. the american protectors were leaving and they were seen as having sided with the americans
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against the soviets in the great terror of the 1930s and the great trials purge trials they were, that we documented, several victims of the terror who had worked for abba as they call the ara in russia, this was used against them at their trial. they must be spies of some kind. they must have engaged in some kind of espionage. on the soviet side initially while they actually celebrated the american relief and tried to be nice about it, try to be civil about it as long as the americans were there within a few years he can see the soviet history books rewriting the history and it really gets completed under stalin in the 1930s so that the american relief effort was not humanitarianism. it was espionage under the cloak of humanitarianism.
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these were spies. the types of records and told you that i studied in the hoover archives it's in part that record-keeping that lends credibility to the charge that this was some kind of espionage or a kind of testing the ground for american business down the road. but mostly by the 1940s to 50s the episode is forgotten. i'm studying soviet history in the 1970s for the first time and i'm reading through these years and i'm reading soviet history books you would never see the ara, you never see the hoover relief mission, it's not there. so that's one. that's one factor on the soviet side. on the american side it's because of herbert hoover's disgrace. his failing reputation after the great depression and after he leaves office that his work
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as the great humanitarian becomes obscured by the great depression. americans don't want to hear about him anymore even if they kind of knew about it by the 1950s 60s and certainly when i came on board studying history in the 1970s, people could barely remember this, if you brought up herbert hoover it was an awkward topic because he was the great depression guy. this story was in archives waiting to be brought out and brought to life in a book, in a film, and that was my mission. >> the c-span cities tour is traveling the country as we explore the american story. continuing our visit to palo alto, will go inside the hoover institution as author john a farrow talks about researching his upcoming biography on senator edward kennedy. >> we are at the hoover
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institution in stanford university this is one of the great scholarly resources in the united states. it's named after american president herbert hoover in the institution itself is sort of a conservative incorporated tank but over the years many republican and conservative figures and other people have donated their papers here and so the archives are particularly rich for scholars and biographers. >> why are we here today? >> we are here because i'm writing a biography of senator edward kennedy of massachusetts. the youngest of the three kennedy brothers who participated in american politics and 20th-century president john kennedy, senator robert kennedy, and the youngest of the boys in the family was senator edward kennedy also known as ted or teddy. there's a collection here left
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to the hoover institution by their father by her for. their father's name was joseph p kennedy and he was at one time one of the richest men in the united states. journalist and biographer and sometimes republican speechwriter named richard whalen wrote a biography of joe kennedy called the founding father. richard whalen's papers were left to the hoover institution. i came across them when i was working on a book on richard nixon here he also wrote two books by richard nixon. i'm sort of familiar with what's here but i don't know what's actually in the joseph kennedy boxes. there is a chance that we be finding excellent gold or just
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a bunch of media clips that will help me very much. >> can you tell me a little bit about richard whalen and what kind of items you hope to find in his boxers? >> sure. richard whalen was in new york journalist, a magazine journalist. he spent some time, i believe, working for fortune magazine. he was also a liberal republican and he got caught up in the nixon campaign, richard nixon's presidential campaign in 1968. as a speechwriter. it did not go well. he clashed with some of the other aides and left the campaign and ended up writing two books about republican politics in the late 1960s. that's what brought me here last time. because he had that business background he also was very interested and he went for richard nixon who famously lost to jack kennedy in 1960. he also had an interest in the kennedys. especially in joseph kennedy.
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so what i'm hoping to find here are excerpts from his research. original documents that can be found elsewhere but i'm especially looking hopefully to find transcripts of the interviews he did for his book because those people are obviously long dead. they were contemporaries of joe kennedy who died in 1969. >> can you walk us through that process? >> sure. i came to an institution like the hoover institution, ask for the boxes that i want to see the come out a little cart i take one at a time because these are fragile records but in addition to being fragile he also don't want to miss file. you don't want to by mistake but something that's another scholars expected to find in this box in another box where it will be lost.
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so show we do some treasure hunting? >> yes. >> as i said, joseph kennedy was john f. kennedy, ted kennedy, and robert kennedy's death. the controversial figure because he made lots of money on wall street right before the crash of 1929, he was one of the pioneering tycoons out in hollywood he was rumored to have been a bootlegger during prohibition and he was always a lone wolf. the flipside was that franklin roosevelt needed somebody after the stock market crash to head up the new regulatory commission called the securities and exchange commission so he had the brilliant idea of taking a fox and putting a fox among the foxes. he selected joseph kennedy had much of our security regulation today is based on the work that
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kennedy did setting up securities and exchange commission back then. he was also an ambassador to great britain. if i'm correct the first catholic and deftly the first irish catholic ambassador to great britain. there's a famous scene in his wife's memoir where having arrived there from these two irish catholic families in boston and invited to windsor castle and going up to see this amazing bedroom while they were waiting, changing into clothes to go down and meet the king and queen and he turns to his wife and smiles and said, it's a long way from east boston, isn't it rosie? which captures the spirit of him, he was sort of a bit of a pirate, very proud and a driven man. also someone who was renowned for his extramarital affairs.
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in hollywood in particular he had a long-lasting notorious affair with gloria swanson who was a famous film actress at the time. that's basically what we are looking for is things especially about his children, teddy was the youngest but you can find patterns and how he raised the other children. also he was a very controversial figure because he had these nine kids and he was terrified that they would be lost in a stupid war so he identified world war ii as that kind of catastrophe. he said once, i have nine hostages to fortune, meaning his children. he didn't want any of the lost because america got involved in the european war. after the war breaks out and before the war breaks out
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especially after the war breaks out in europe in 1939 joseph kennedy is a voice against american involvement and this puts him at odds with franklin roosevelt, the man who appointed him as ambassador and it also has left him down to the ages as with the reputation he was left him down through the ages with a reputation as an appeaser as a follower of appeasement. with adolf hitler and mussolini. in particularly given what happened with the holocaust in the concentration camps what happened to the jews in europe this is one of the major black marks against him. it was said that part of the reason that his two eldest sons went to war and volunteered for dangerous duty one of them in
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navy aviation who was lost in the other john f. kennedy with pt boats and south pacific who underwent an ordeal after his boat was rammed by a japanese destroyer that one of the things they were trying to do was remove the stain of appeasement from the kennedy name. here's the first file and fdr, jews, 1938. richard whalen back when he's writing this book in the 1960s obviously looking at just exactly what was kennedy's position on appeasement and especially the fate of the europeans jews under hitler. >> here's the folder file number 24 of joseph kennedy as ambassador to great britain the american ambassador to great britain at the time of the rise of adolf hitler and a time when joseph kennedy desperate to keep the united states out of war was recommending to the
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american and british governments that both of them try to strike a deal with hitler rather than face him down. there were two famous english prime ministers at the time that joe kennedy was there, the first was neville chamberlain, who was an appeaser and actually went and tried to cut a deal with hitler. he was very close friends with joseph and succeeded by winston churchill who was no appeaser at all and did not get along well with joe kennedy and ended up taking britain into war and being the rock of strength for democracy and for civilization really, when you think about what hitler has stood for. this is a folder that is marked kennedy's antiwar campaign, there are several intriguing
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things jp kennedy letters to burns, don't know who burns is. arthur can't memo. he was the bureau chief in washington and close friend of joseph kennedy. and then joan whalen research i guess was his wife was his researcher. here we start off with a memo from arthur kraft to richard whalen and arthur kroc was a friend of kennedy and also a news man had to cover him. it says at the top, confidential. it says, in recalling incident about joseph p kennedy so arthur kroc is a good news man had interviewed senator neil maclean who had told him the story about joseph kennedy
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"both my brother and mr. robinson were extremely friendly toward franklin roosevelt, spent much who over the years had spent much time in new brunswick. when my brother and mr. robinson ãbcame home to st. john's they were understandably upset over conversations they had had with employees and nurses at the clinic. he reported that mr. kennedy was doing a lot of talking against president roosevelt and saying he must be stopped from getting the united states into war. hitler, kennedy reportedly said was already master of europe and the united states should simply try to make the best piece possible. stick kennedy, who had extensive interest in advancements in hollywood had said he was going to see about having a stop put to some of the propaganda pictures then being made depicting hitler's cruelty to jews. so that's a private confidential memo from united
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states senator to the new york times bureau chief in washington that gives credence to the view that joseph kennedy, if he was an anti-somatic at least felt that the plight of the jews was not worth going to war and taking hitler on in 1939 and 1940. what does this have to do with edward kennedy? throughout his years in office, throughout all of this years in office you find the study migration away from this appeasement point of view is conservative businessman's point of view the sort of selfish point of view toward a more liberal theology first jet kennedy becomes elected president and begins to push for festival rights and
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medicare. he is assassinated and lyndon johnson his successor to push them through the senate with both robert kennedy and ted kennedy in the senate he find robert kennedy in 1968 becoming even more liberal and running against lyndon johnson for president and then you find ted kennedy in 1979 challenging the more conservative jimmy carter and going on to become the great liberal lion of the sudden passing legislation on healthcare, on civil rights, on aids, on women's rights on a host of issues that matter to families trying to get through the day. this is an example of where the kennedys began, ted kennedy's career is where the kennedy
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influence headed up and it's a far different place, time kennedy was much more of a nationalist. you never hear him say something like this about say an underdog group in the united states. he was a champion of the underdog ... 600 pages. a lot of standard stuck have to get in there. when he was born, he would to school, what he sponsored in congress. just the basic chronology of
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that part of the book. what you're looking for are intriguing, revealing anecdotes like this one that casts light in a new way on the figures in the book. if you can only find one or two day and you do research of 100 days a year or four years, but still 400. some speed of these negative, do you have any figured favorite in here or other archives? >> headlines tomorrow, i recently came across a story that shows his sense of humor. he had a playful sense of humor.
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when he was a young senator, he had been in a race for democratic by the west virginia senate. he was everything kennedy was not. he was a protestant, from west virginia, from a family that was very, very poor and he always carried a feeling of grievance about him against the rich boys in the senate. he was happy in that position. he didn't like being almost servile to the other senators. a little modest favors that made their lives easier. so in the end, they became very close friends because they both were liberal democrats. but for a while, the relationship was sort of lucky. there is another senator who was in the chamber and decided he
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would play a practical joke on the senator and he called them over and said you know, bob's dog just died. he probably could score some points if you over to him and said has are you are that he lost his dog. he's very devout to him. the dog's name was pixie. he said thanks a lot, ted. he went over and talked to bob and came storming back across the senate for, steam coming out of his ears. holding his sides because i guess that was not the norm name of his dog, it was his daughter's name. so the senator has gone over there and put his arm around him and said how sad he was about his full animal.
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>> it's one of those stories i will have to nail down that story. it's a kind of practical joke that teddy liked to play. i came across that one very much like this going through an archive. >> without make the book? >> it's got to be confirmed. the senator may say it never actually happened that way, it could be that he never had a daughter named that but have to narrow it down. the great story because it captures his personality. >> we are looking at your previous biography figures and looking forward to kennedy, the biographies together?
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>> the mast practical goal is to make a list, had to have a certain commercial appeal, asked to be an enjoyable experience. i was think my books are a failure if you couldn't take them. they should be something you read on vacation for pleasure, learning something innocent be something you take because you have to learn something. so that's right off the bat. he also have your reputation as a story, particularly i came from journalism, a lot of biographers come from that background. it was the academic community, more skeptical, you have to leave if you're not trained in academic if you have a phd. that's something i try to keep in mind as well. was looking at this for something along the lines of that.
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in the next book is able to find an important piece of the puzzle in vietnam and i would like to be up to say there's something in all of these book that he's even somebody who's read two or three books that they would come. thousand chasing, that tells me something. >> doesn't offer, what you want your leadership to know about this book making process? >> we are in a time now where little snippets attached to wisdom get thrown around. i understand the attraction but there's no substitute for scientific truth. and for reason to argue other
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than knee-jerk glandular debate. so one thing i am always cheered to see is that the market for good readers is so devoured these big books, kind of come to terms up with what it means, how did people get to a crisis like the ones we face today? there is such a thing as objective truth. historians and scientists struggle for all the time. we couldn't have gone to the moon if it wasn't mathematical scientific group proof that showed us that we could cut go to the satellite income back. when you hear about scientists
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being ridiculed for their warnings about global warming or politicians try to rewrite history, it's reassuring, i think, makes my job or rewarding to know that americans to have that whole basis like the wright brothers and figuring out what objective truth is and then acting on it and that's what historians try to do, through all this stuff and put in an appealing story, the truth of what they find.
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>> look at the literary community continues with local offer, then on his book, why cities loose. the deep roots of the political divide. >> why -- it's a book, it tries to understand why did the u.s. become so polarized along lines of population density, why is there a divide between cities, suburbs, areas it's that questions and a lot of countries where a similar divide has emerged. the second thing, it tries to understand the implications of the divide for representation and in particular looking at parties of the left and right, the left become urban in many places. because voters for those parties are clustered in cities, it makes a difference in how their ports are transformed in the seats and ultimately
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representation in legislature government. look at the u.s., the best way to see is take data whether it's at the level of precincts or we can see that there's a correlation in population density and vote for the parties. it's astounding. that correlation has been there for quite some time. it has increased quite a bit since 1980s and one of the other things that is interesting is the relationship that shows up at many different levels, the county level it's clear but what is perhaps especially interesting is the global level. you can work with the county in pennsylvania or ohio and take a precinct level data and see that we got from a sparse rural place to be a town that has the county seat in a courthouse, we'll see intermatic increase in the
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voucher even in that setting. this correlation between density and democratic voting pops up. it's been like a process, he keeps showing up again and again at lower levels, then we see that in other countries as well. i argue in the book that this started already in the 1920s, democrats started to become a party of cities in the late 1920s and this took off in the new deal. the event is the industrial revolution itself. that's where it starts. same thing is true in europe, we see all of a sudden these parties of left emerge in the era of industrialization and mobilization. they become powerful in cities. but if that was the end of the story, we would see the industrialization take place in labor unions decline and people move away from industrial citi
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cities, we expect the phenomenon to disgrace that we see the opposite. becomes what happens starting in the 80s, this relationship between density voting was pretty flat from around world war ii to around the 80s. it takes off. one of the things that happens is that the parties start to politicize these social issues. in the 70s if you were opponent of abortion, it was unclear if you should vote democrat or republican. that has become clear around 1980. that issue gets politicized, the party starts to take positions on something they previously hadn't in positions and. so then it happens that people's preferences on abortion and related issues are pretty correlated with preparation density. that was already true back then.
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when that new issue became politicized, it led to urban people soaring in the democratic party and rural people going into the party. that was one of those moments. i think the other important one is more recently, the rise of the knowledge economy. we can think massachusetts process where the mit and harvard start to collaborate with industries and entrepreneurs and start to build new startups, new industries and this is something that happened in a place like boston or the democrats had the dominant party ever since the days of industrialized. the democrats start to form an alliance with these groups. places like san francisco and
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seattle had been democratic dominated industrial cities, they transitioned to becoming very wealthy, knowledge economy cities. what's fascinating is that the democratic vote chair increases. your up with a party that once database that was really mostly working-class, people working at the docks and labor unions, it becomes a party that also starts to represent the interest of these high income, educated professionals that are taking over these cities. the same thing happens to labor parties in places like london and the city in australia. the same thing can happen in canadian cities. these cities have become more diverse of a half transformed. now we have agglomeration economy instead of -- that have emerged. it becomes quite desirable for
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employers to be concentrated in this certain set of cities. it's now the case knowledge economy. so this creates concentration of democrats in those places. a different kind of set of democrats but the same phenomenon. so the second part of the book tries to understand what happens when we drop these districts type of geography described. your up with a real concentration of voters for the party of the left in the urban district. so that creates a situation the parties or it will on the basis of their strength and cities when the popular vote or do very well in state or national elections. but they do much worse integration of seats in the state legislature or national legislature. because of this concentration.
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it's something we associate gerrymandering and that's what gets obligated. this phenomenon is also driven by gerrymandering. there's also a kind of natural gerrymandering, it takes place because of able, these residential when we draw electoral districts, this is something that happens in certain settings without anyone trying to make it happen. one of the things i do in the book is without taking a specific recommendation, i describe how the world can be different and how it is different in some other countries. one of the things i think that's interesting to notice is that in europe, all the countries once had single-member districts like the u.s. in the early 20th century, they had this type of system. all of them, sometime around world war i in part because of
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the entry of left parties and what that was doing to the system, the entry of social democratic and socialist parties, these countries and up transitioning in the systems. one of the nice things representation is that it doesn't force all of these different dimensions in politics i was discussing earlier, it abortion, gay rights, knowledge a constant, the distribution. it doesn't force them all into one twice between two very diverse parties that represent these different geographic places. it creates a wider menu of choices and i think it has the impact of reducing this type of polarization, urban rural pluralization. so in european countries with representation, there are urban parties on the right, we don't have any such thing in the u.s. there are no places that are
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densely populated. republicans get majority outside of perhaps little of anna in miami. maybe sometimes son island. for the most part, we don't have a party of the right to compete in the cities. so the victories is really a victory for ex- urban and rural areas. that's not the case in europe. like government will have lots of representatives. they vote for a type of party that is different than the voters in floral but they are able to form a coalition. photos and rural sweden want to vote for a party of the left have an option that is acceptable to them. so again, the left government is not to simply earn urban government. the question is one potential answer, but i think many americans are not especially
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interested in trying out. it seems to have a bad arbitration in the u.s. i'm not optimistic about that form being adopted. although it may have a lot of advantages. we'll see if we ever get there where people are willing to take that seriously as an option. >> many of the things we think are unique to the u.s. are not necessarily. that this pattern is a global pattern. this concentration of affluence and economic activity in densely populated areas and having that drive, growing economically, is that something we are seeing around the web. the understanding of how the u.s. fits into the broader pattern. the bigger picture, some things that seem in the moment to be on connected or one off events or especially in the u.s. context,
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things that seem to be driven exclusively by gerrymandering or may be part of something bigger seeing that for picture is what i hope people come away from the book with. >> we continue to look at palo alto contributions to rock 'n roll and pop culture. >> it's incorporated section, by menlo park. this was known as perry lane, this is one of the few colleges, maybe the last one left on this line. graduate students which included mary who came in 1958 to take creative writing classes.
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becoming part of drug tests being conducted, by the cia and use that money and the drugs he found there to have parties in his living room. he didn't live at this one but one like it. the parties there spread all over the world. this is part of the story of palo alto, one of the things that made palo alto in the history of law that were developing for our books, a story that we are telling because also has its place in the history of rock, beginning with developing folk music, and they continued it. a grateful dead who introduced
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that element, she brought her own version of it in her song by rabbit. ♪ ♪ palo alto was the leading ways of this whole music cultural change, acceptance of palo alto, a key factor in the whole part of our history. garcia loved lived a few blocks away. he was under 21. he'd come down with friends from their pad and crashed the parties got to know each other and a band for his acid test in 1965 and had garcia's band which had just been recently named the
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grateful dead and they kept for the next 30 years until garcia died 1995. so the grateful dead, their origin was on this cottage here was garcia sitting on his living room partaking in the parties going on. we are in an l.a. we in palo alto, is a district next-door, there's a new city hall, it's about 30 years old. as a building with your back in 1963 when garcia was working in a music store. new year's eve, he had them come in to see him for music lessons, didn't show, he came out back, started playing in a friend walking on hamilton street, they
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came back, bob sat next to jerry, picked up the guitar and started playing and bob became an integral member of the grateful dead. >> the top floor of the hotel, they stayed after the concert august 31, 1965. the beatles really injected our current rock 'n roll, never seen anything like the beatles but the fact in 1965, the beatles were on top of the world and
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palo alto was sleepy and quiet so the whole town was crazy for the beatles. the parking lot was full of people, just wanting to be here. this was what was happening in 1965. it's part of american history that has stayed with us. it's a time that has gone by but it's an important part is best for people in the 60s and 70s and 80s, they remember it well. >> twice a month, c-span's tours take booktv in american history on the board road. history of selected city. working with our cable partners, we visit various literary historic sites as we interview local historians, authors and civic leaders. you can watch any of our past interviews into is online by going to booktv.org and selecting c-span city store on
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the series chapter at the top of the page. or by visiting c-span.org/city store. you can also follow the c-span city store on twitter or behind the scenes in the video for more visits. the handle is at c-span cities. >> watching booktv on c-span2, top nonfiction books and authors every weekend. booktv, television for serious readers. booktv covers hundreds of offers every year end recently harvard university, berger provided a critical look at congress. >> i think the story illustrates two things i would like to talk about today. i was sitting in a hearing one morning and the preceding was just like any other hearing. making comments and asking questions to the witnesses. he finished his comments, pack
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up his papers and turned to go and that's he went, he was hesitating. i was down to this because i could see why he was hesitating. there were two doorstep. both grand doors. way too large, i could see but not sure which door led to the hall. one did, the other went away small on the supply closet hours maybe 4 feet by 6 feet in dimension. i'm sure you can see quite a story that's where the story is headed. our senator towards the wrong door. he opened the door to the wrong door. he did something, rather than making a mistake, announcing he made a mistake publicly, i've only seen maybe two or three times rather than to acknowledge publicly he made a mistake, he opened the door in the closet
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and pulled the door closed behind him. i was hooked then. i was not concerned anymore with a hearing is watching him. fifteen or 20 seconds elapsed, i hobbled the guy next to me and i said, there's a senator in the closet. he said it couldn't be in i said yes, just look. twenty seconds elapsed again, my friend is going down rapidly. once the door opened, at that time, i could not have guessed what happened next. the door opened, the center backed up and said audibly, so everybody could hear, every other staff matter, the witness at the witness table, a couple friends of the public he said okay, good, great, it's been good talking with you. [laughter] closed the door, walked out the door. i thought to myself, when he medical recovery. i wondered what this was really
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about in congress, people who represent us. i thought if it couple things that i'd like to talk about today. both are well and stated by our senate in the closet. one is, what is the quality of these people the process? second, what can we say about the rules and processes and procedures they adopt to do their own work? >> is the book is the finishing congress and to what the rest of this talk, visit our website book type booktv.org and search of his name at the top of the page. booktv in prime time, he argues large corporations play an important role in our society. valerie recounts her path to the white house. sonia tells the story of a baltimore socialite spy during
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world war ii. stanford university professor jennifer discusses implicit racial bias and representatives adam schiff and mark meadows by going to washington reporters to discuss the mueller report. adult night booktv, check your cable guide for the full weekend schedule. >> we are pleased to be joined by the current president of the university of california. former secretary of homeland security, former governor of arizona and attorney general on author of this book, how safe are we? coming to garrity, since 9/11. secretary, what's the semi- short answer you asked on the cover of your book? >> short answer is that in some areas we are safer.

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