tv Author Discussion on World War II CSPAN September 15, 2019 5:00pm-6:01pm EDT
they are available at this table the back. i am sure if you asked nicely, when he might actually sign it for you.ta the factnd thank you very much everybody. [inaudible conversation] >> every year otb covers books fairs and festivals around the country. here's a look at some coming up. next weekend will be live at the brooklyn folk festival. the largest brief literary if it in new york city. that on october 11th, to the 13th, is the seven festival of books in nashville. the following weekend, the boston book festival welcomes over 300 speakers. it was because the book festival anticipates more than 18000 people in attendance. and later in the month, to date for our coverage of the texas book festival in austin. for more information about
upcoming book fairs and festivals. and watch our previous full coverage, but the book fairs down on her website. we put tv .org. cspan2. [background sounds] >> good afternoon. thank you for coming to our last panel. the 4:00 o'clock panel. world war ii. i'm professor we put the university, this will last about 45 minutes. then we'll have about 15 minutes for q&a. an responses for our panel, bank representatives, do we have any in the room. let's take them. now i have the pleasure [applause] now i have the pleasure of introducing our moderator.
james, who it's not only an attorney we put the jackson law firm, but recently retired as a regular general we put the mississippi air national guard. thank you for your service. [applause] loud [applause]. >> welcome everyone to this panel of the afternoon. we want to extend a special welcome to those who might be watching us on cspan2. i'm not sure how i ended up being the moderator hereur, i understand that john evans the owner of the bookstore from whom i've purchased many books on world war ii, suggested that i might be appropriate moderator. so i think john for that. i was born on april 24th, 1944, during world war ii. i was born six weeks before d-day. my father was serving overseas
as a staff sergeant in the army national guard. i'm sorry in the u.s. army. world war ii is always in profound influence upon my family. upon my childhood and indeed upon my entire life. in just a moment i will introduce all three of the distinguished authors who constitute our panel this afternoon. however before i do that, i would like to recognize anyone in the audience who may be a veteran of the united states armed forces. if you serve the united states army navy air force marine corps or coast guard or national guard or reserve, would you please stand and be recognized. [applause] b anyone who might've served during world war two is veteran of that conflict.
let me now proceed we put the introduction of our three panelists. after i've introduced them, i will call upon each of themce to say a few words about his most recent book or other books about world war ii. we will then have a general discussion on significant conflict of the work. i know that everyone in the audience is actually want to hear about the panelists. we will try to save time at the end to receive your questions. let me now introduce our panelists for medical leak. i'm so looking at brief. but they have such impressive biographies that is very difficult to do. our first panelist is michael dobbs, when he is the british american it was born in the press brother island in 1950. when he was educated at the university of york in england. when he was awarded a bachelor of arts degree in economic and social history in 1972. when he completed fellowships in
both harvard and princeton and became an american citizen and 2010. mr. dobbs spent much of his career as a foreign correspondent. when he was covering the mean is him. when he served as the correspondent for agencies of the 1970s, when he then joined the washington post in 1980, and served as in the post eastern europe, when he also served as bureau chief for the newspaper in paris and in moscow when he is now a staff member of the us holocaust memorial museum. mr. dobbs who now lives in maryland, is the author of numerous books including one minute to midnight about the cuban missile crisis in 1962. his most recent book is entitled the unwanted. america and the village caught in between. this book is the story of jewish
families in the small german village of oppenheim, in the southwestern portion of germany. his narrative fresh swiss and french quarters. during the 1930s, the jewish and the community saw what was coming. hitler was gaining increasing powder. many of these jewish families attempted to escape to america. some were successful and some are not. and ended up being murdered. the book discusses also, the immigration policies of the united states during that time. it raises troubling questions. but the immigration policy of the united states governmentn on president roosevelt. our second author his mr. kershaw, was born in york england in 1966, when he attended university college of
oxford where when he studied and economics. when he taught history for a while before becomingcs a journalist for several british newspapers including the guardian. in the sunday times, his articles were appeared in numerous newspapers and manganese and when he has worked as a screenwriter and in television. including being the narrator fon the history channel last days of world war ii. mr. kirchoff has led several battlefields you wrote the national world war ii museum in new orleans, when he is the author of several books on world war ii including the longest rotor about the bolo battle of the bulge and the bedford voice about to sacrifice extraordinarily large number of young scholz soldiers. in virginia. mr. kershaw his latest book is the first wave about the d-day. in this book when he focuses upon the experiences of the very
first american british and canadian soldiers who landed in normandy on june 6, 1944. our third author down at the end is samuel, raised in tucson arizona, when he holds a bachelors degree from northwestern university. a doctorate degree and master relations from the university of oxford where when he was a marshall scholar and holds a law degree from ewell law school. when he served as a law clerk to judge lynch, on the us court of appeals for the second circuit, and is an advisor on international trade negotiations in the office of the united states trade representative. when he is now an attorney we put distinguished new york city law firm. of the american piloto
waged a secret war against japan. this book was published just last year. i think most of you know light in tigers is the adventurous name given to the american volunteer group. american military pilots lived by the it gave medic in the flying thought they japanese and the skies of berlin, and in the skies of china. both before and after pearl harbor. the flying tigers we put the passive approval of president roosevelt, and the american government, called on contract we put the chinese government led by shanghai. mr. kleiner, you completed most distinguished of authors. i would like to add to each of a hellenists intern, to say something about the recent book
and perhaps some of the challenges you faced in writing the book. mr. dobbs would you go first. mr. dobbs: thank you very much, it's wonderful to be here. my book is about us immigration policy on president roosevelt. his during the years leading up to the holocaust in the early of world war ii. it's a very controversial subject. there's been a lot of books attacking the president and others defending him. what i wanted to do was to integrate the story of what was happening in washington, the politicals of all that was goinn on in those years. and over immigration and refugee policy we put the stories of a specific group of people we put whom we could identify. people who are trying to reach the united states from nazi germany whose lives were in danger.
who are trying in order to survive, they need it to obtain what the american journalist bertha thompson called a piece of paper we put a stamp. both of you lived or died, frequently depended on both of you could obtain this document. i looked at one single community, in the southwest of germany, given nine, the jewish family village. particularly of the crystal it, the horrifying thing against the jews in november of 1938, they all understand that there only option is to get out of germany as quickly as possible. they all applied for american pieces. i describepp the challenges they face in getting the pieces and some succeed and some don't. people don't, end up being
deported in 1942. i'm trying to connect this political story, the chronic story and make it a human story. when i was a journalist, and eastern europe and the soviet union, covering the communism, i was often struck by the fact that the political debates in washington had very little to do we put what is actually happening on the ground. so i tried to connect the political storyne to the human story that was difficult to me. on one of the elements was of course, the assumption we put national security. it would appear that if we let refugees into the country, they could pose a threat to us national security. the germans could be trying to l filtrate the colonists. i nazi agents into the us.ge
closely enough another book i wrote about world war ii, it was about nazi agents who landed since here by submarine in 1943 and they landed in one group in florida and another group in long island. there were attempts by the germans to infiltrate the united states. this wasn't just a fantasy. it wasn't just the literal rhetoric. the question is did i try to examine in the book i think is still a topical question. is one of the right to balance between humanitarianism and national security policy. i think if you are in my book, it will come away we put your own ideas on that. there's probably enough for now. thank you. so that we just celebrated the 75th anniversary of d-day.
one flew more than two months ago. mr. kershaw is written about d-day in the first wave. telling us a story of a lighter pilots and paratroopers rangers and other soldiers who led the invasion of normandy. mr. kershaw to tell us about your book in the challenges you face in writing it. kirchoff: it's great to be he here. 98 degrees. [laughter] it was 57 degrees on d-day. that was cold. i think i prefer that. i am a worshiper, i spent 25 years of my life celebrating and spending a lot of time we put actually mostly working-class americans who liberated europe a place we all love. and for the 75th anniversary, i was unashamed of the commercial because i have to make a living because writing about world war ii and i thought what a fantastic opportunity on
the 75th anniversary to celebrate the guys that i've always worshiped most. or i thought i did. the most important jobs so i took 12 combat commanders and six american or british into canadian, central bit. and i added one frenchman. [laughter] actually commander a french commander who landed in the first way. my idea was that i was going to take these 12 junior combat commanders and have them in the highest rank was a colonel. you hear me. and i was going to tell a story of these amazing combat mammanders who have the toughest missions in the highest stake in the most likely to die if they did it. indeed they would've failed. and to celebrate them. i the first american come ashore in utah, 28 -year-old shame in from maryland. zero, this one.
sorry. anyway, it's about d-day. thank you. [laughter] coolest guys on d-day. >> the flying tire card tigers the pilots who in their short nosese aircraft, often japanesen the early days of work. their exploits were highly publicized. in 1951 when i was a seven -year-old boy, living at fort knox kentucky, my father 7 was then called to active duty. i first saw television on louisville television station. there was a w program entitled e flying tigers. i ordered through that television program my own flying tigers secret decoder ring. [laughter] s from the cereal
companies box ring. i remember as a boy seeing the movie the flying tigers starring john wayne. please tell us a bit about your book. >> thank you so much is wonderful to be here in jacksonr to see so many friends here. my book as you mentioned is about this very famouss at the very beginning of world war ii. actually there for pearl harbor, sitting american pilots in these before the planes to help the chinese who are fighting against the japanese. i tell that mary mythologized story through the lens of the men and some women who were part of that unit. i was led by the egg make mattie to us from the backwoods of louisiana. young guys who sign up for the sense of adventure. they find themselves in training
in a remote base in vermont. when pearl harbor happens, they are essentially stuck on the strong side of the world. they quickly become the first americans pilots to fight back against the japanese after the devastating attack in pearl harbor. they are short nose p40s quickly become quickly become one of the iconic images. hollywood recognizes them and the rush out in 1941 the john wayne movie, based on their stories. they quickly became some of the most famous americans in world war ii. and when i wanted to do we put this book which shame out of some of my graduate work at oxford, was really to write the true story of this unit so i got to meet the last survivor. when he is still living down in georgia. his name is frankeo, i got to mt the families of so many of these pilots are going to flying
tigers reunion. through assembling primary documents, letters, diaries, combat reports and looking at old newspaper clippings i was able to put together the two story what it wasf like to be oe of these flying tigers. burma china and early days of world war ii. really for me, the book is dedicated to both of my grandfathers. i believey there watching on to cspan2 right now. )hi and father otis miller it ws a dr. during the war, and a grandfather her recliner was navigator on the 25 in the pacific. and growing up, i would get to go we put her into see a lot of the planes that were in the airspace museum in tucson arizona where i grew up. i want to acknowledge we put the generation had done. i think is the animating theme for all of us here. this is every really important moment in history wherever you know. it truly was a global war in our book stand the globe.
but there was a lot of heroism and a lot of important stories that are still worth remembering many years later. soon i thank you. world war ii was the most cataclysmic if it of the 20 century and perhaps of all time. the work was unrelenting in his destruction of property and into the depths of a person his all over the world. no one knows how many people died in world war ii. the best range between 55 million peoplero in 60 millin people. including many civilians. there are approximately 30 million deaths in the soviet union alone. we put two thirds of those being soviets civilians. there were approximately 15 million chinese killed. approximately 6 million holes killed. many of them are ap by the nazis
but also they were jews. deaths in yugoslavia totaling proximally 2 million. germany lost 4 million and upon loss of million. italy's casualties were. about 300,000. britain lost some 400,000 soldiers and civilians. after the united states entered the war, in 1941, approximately 400 or 500,000 servicemen died. before the japanese surrendered in 1945. the work forever changed americans. the united states the most powerful nation in the world. in the were brought united states on the world stage as the leading player. the effects of world war ii are still being felt today. more than 5000 books have been
published on world war ii. in books continued to come off of the presses and illustrated by the books that are authors have just published. i like to ask a palace to discuss the current state of o world war ii historiography. set a lot of secret government archives opened recent years. information is now available it would've not been available 15 or 20 years ago. mr. dobbs would you like to comment upon about that and any problems that you had finding sources for your work. mr. dobbs: the oral histories are no longer the most important after all the people have participated in d-day, have passed away. in my own field, fewer and fewer survivors of the holocaust. by contrast,t, there is still a
huge amount that one can discover new things. whenever you go to the archives, and begin the archives, they give us a better understanding of what actually happened. i think that we are getting more balanced view of world war of the events of the work. i was a reporter as you mentioned it in the soviet union for a long time. a lot of books that were written about the war, t that are focu d focused-from the washington po post, the cactus can wrote three books about how the dill liberation trilogy. it is about the american role in the second world war.er i think we are now beginning to explore the role of other countries, the role of the soviet union. we are beginning to sort of
integrate the last few years particularly since a huge amount of material is coming from the hard times of the soviet bloc. we are trying to integrate their stories we put the stories that are being familiar we put in the west.it i think you are a lot more to be done that. i think there's more to be understood about the relative sacrifices of russia and ameri america. in historiography, the kind of faces,in pays were the victors write their own history. there's the phase where the phase of questioning. and there is finally a base that is a sort of synthesis of trying to draw on all of the evidence. i think that's the phase we are in at the moment.
>> kershaw: i think some of the institutions have done amazing jobs in the last 20 to 30 years knowing that officially, the year is 2023 when the us government will accept that world war ii veterans for all intensive purposes existed. we are really at the very end of the so-called greatest generation which is the book title and marketing term by the way i work for and quite often the imperial war by using sam, the list is very long, i did a fantastic job of putting down endless oral history. so although the actual participant tents are not there tragically anymore very sadly for me. i will have to move on. because it has been my great sleasure talking to the people who were actually there. for example i really sample i
read a book about the liberator about the american officer who was the first guy to command americans when they liberated. 1945 so that was c the first concentration camp in nazi germany, very symbolic. integrated in great length, interviews and a book. so i wrote the liberator in 2012 i spent four and a off hours going through an interview. so what i am staying is that we have a treasure trove that should be explored that is been given to us by historians in terms of oral history that we have an export yet. then you'll notice there's been a wave of female spying on nonfiction from world war ii. because in britain, in particular we put the files, there's a rule being caused by now you will see soon a wave of books about escaping invasion. escaping invasion is one of the coolest things of world war ii.
for example if eyes were were to tell you this, this is amazing. there were over 2000 americansng who did what was called a homerun in world war ii. they went into a pubub in cambridge, they are forced predominantly and went into a palm in 1943, had a drink in the lead in the bombing mission the next day. i got shot down. they mayday homerun which was to say they went through at least 15 or more people in the french resistance. they were taken from where they were shot down. went through france and escape line, it is pain and then taken back by the british americans to and all of their cases, to the air force base. scully homerun. all of those intelligence, those guys shame back and they were interrogated for weeks. because they were highly suspect. the british and americans,
thought they had been turned by the gestapo. they spent a year of the on the run near. you've got heavier, you could've been arrested and sent back is the double agent. they had to grade the hell of them. they were classified untilth the mid- 2000 his. so there only being you can only read those last ten years. the reason was,s, because during the cold war, in 1945, it already begun and before was even ended you wrote, it began. we knew we had this network of guys of ages and resistance workers all over that helped found american and british pilots. so if the war becameor the cold war became a hot war, it would immediately use that network. all of that was classified. you had over 2000 americans who
formed a miracle who couldn't talk about it for most their entire lives. many of those guys never talk to about their family or anybody about it because ity was officil secret. there's stuff like that that we are constantly discovering. amazing stories that are coming out and will continue to give up. amazing stories. >> thank you. i think 75 years after world war ii, i thinker we are nearing the point where people are wheeling to engage in different types of narratives about the war that were of less interest in the first wave a history after the war. so the flying tigers, which i am writing about were extremely popular going all the way back to 1941 in the first wave of writers to address them really is straight up figueroa worship. the number of japanese planes that shut down were probably inflated. and we are not really and
broader history of that theater. and i think now or at a time where people are wheeling to evaluate a more transnational and global scope of the war. so in my book, talk a lot about the chinese because they were working we put and the british, who were there because burma was at that time a british colony as i think we are starting to more of a global scope of the war. . . . >> and those letters are in
the basement of an archive where i was studying for my law degree nobody ever look to the purpose of the flying tigers over a couple of years that is a different family some of the private collection would have a trove of reports that tells the minute by minute account of the battle for go there is a rich amount of history still out there and will make it into the museum so that the story can continue to be told that's one of the most important places in the world for preserving the stories so with a very quick digression my fiancé's grandmother was a survive a london survivor from a
concentration camp and survived through the war on a ring that her friends gave her that is in the holocaust museum as is her oral history and that needs to be preserved for many years to come is important work that museums orare doing. >> as i was growing up i learned the dangers of appeasement what lessons have we learned and what lessons are we still learning? >> when of the important things for old word to is the importance of alliances that was touched on earlier.
we think of world war ii and a predominant context but if you read the book on the day he will see not just americans but canadians and british and i writing about america with china which is that what you typically think of that china has been called the forgotten ally of the war so roosevelt was carefully navigating worldces all over the with japan and italy and germany with a whole host of other countries through a series of summits with the emissaries and ambassadors working on the diplomatic relations.
i don't want to get slightly political but you hear a lot about americaow. first right now and that's from the 1930s from that isolationist movement before world war ii they did not want america to get involved in the european war in many ways that is diametrically opposed to how we won the war which was through establishing a series of alliances that allowed us to form a coalition so we need to think very carefully about the importance of alliances and national institutionsia in the wake of world war ii which is worth preserving today. >> and some of the beliefs of the foundation of civilization with the alliance between
europe and north america it is the m most important thing that we have any damages profound to the future of my son and other generations. the working class that died to liberate europe through 1945 and they created a legacy of western democracy of 75 years ofof peace. never in european history has that ever happened. seventy-five years is a long time if you look at the barbarism in the killingngtiha t has scarred the continent. so yes we were allies arguably with stalinism and three quarters was still on the eastern front so the germans
are basically beaten by the red army and the soviets and barbarism if you went to germany and berlin they acted barbaric lee as a woman you had a very good chance of being raped in a matter where you were in vienna there is one every 12 minutes they were barbarians but they were our allies you can vote in france and holland in western germany because of the sacrifice and in particular to the end of the war america sacrifice in europe on d-day majority of americans were fighting on the western front in europe by december 44 over 70 percent of the killing and dying was dead
by americans to liberate western europe. we entered the war after pearl harbor, way too late if you are a brit but you finished the job certainly but if not you would not have the protection and the civilization that we enjoy as europeans and i am 52 years old and without that a great sacrifice and contribution toward the end of the war they were going to go communist anyway absolutely it would be communist. >> i agree with everything that was said. gron the one hand the importance of the western alliance but we shouldn't forget the eastern
alliance and to have that more sophisticated understanding and the fact is in order to defeat hitler the united states and united kingdom aligned themselves with the dictator who was as arguably as evil as hitler i wrote a book called six months in 1945 describing the last few months of the war and the beginning of the cold war very quickly we whipping from allied to the soviet union to the enemy. and in subsequent years we tend to suppress the fact that most of the killing was taking place on the eastern front
there was a moral ambiguity at the heart of western strategy in the second world war we beat the nazis because we aligned ourselves with the communist now somehow we have to grapple with that central moral ambiguity of the war. >> in 1930s the united states was a nation divided with the america first movement half was isolationist another half to be drawn into the war president roosevelt led the united states to become the arsenal of democracy on the things that were done by the united states government to
fight the nazis and after the japanese attacked pearl harbor , the division of the country went away over night we were a united nation. can you comment upon that quick. >> dad is a great question and the focus of a lot of myy book because he was very focused on taking measure short for roosevelt had made very vocal statements condemning japanese and german aggression before pearl harbor including a quarantine speech at 37 talking about the need of quarantine against aggressors but by a large there was not publicas support for america getting entangled as another european conflict there was a lot of opposition to those
didn't want to see america to get involved in the asian conflict between japan and china and roosevelt was taking measures where he could. swear what i am writing about is to assist china as they have been invaded by japan 1937 and particularly the secretary of the treasury took a great interest in china to ensure they could get loans for the purchases and then to the staff which is is extraordinary to authorize spending and released from their service in the us military to fight against the japanese and morgan without in his diary chronicled these incredible meetings talking actively about sending over
american planes and pilots as a covert mission because many were shot down you could say they were not official american military forces so that was extraordinaryry steps taken to help the allies and with that democracy reference was the important speech he gave before pearl harbor. >> fdr was the assistant secretary of the navy and saw public opinion turned against
woodrow wilson somehow he didn't manage wilson didn't manage to deliver the lasting peace that heo promised so that central idea was to set up a system of international institutions with the united nations that would make good from the first world war of the league of nations it's very important to him in these negotiations and with churchill and stalin with roosevelt it was absolutely essential that these international institutions would be set up to show that
the war was worth all the sacrifices. >> i'm sure the british people were impatient for the united states to get into the war would you talk about that quick. >> from the first day that churchill enters ten downing street they can't do a very good english accent. i can do a good boris impression because i can ruffle my hair. [laughter] that back in 1940? apparently he does that before he speaks publicly i think it
was the 14th of may and in modern british history the news from europe was disastrous and we were alone during the battle of britain in fact i wrote a book for those 11 americans that flew the battle of britain in 1940 but even around his underlings around his secretary and son and in may he was shaping and his son was talking to him he was completely naked and he threw his razor into the sink
and the son was there he says i've got it the son said what have you got and he said how they will win the war and his son said how? we will drag in the united states so from the very first day that churchill was in power he did everything bagged and borrowed there is nothing he wouldn't do to bring them into the war because without them we had no chance and no hope but everything was about that so he was celebrating when pearl harbor came along but everything the british could do they did. y>> talk briefly about the
flying tigers in shang kai-shek. >> yes it is a fascinating story and it was an honor to tell in the book this is one of the most fascinating commanders from world war ii. he was basically an army air force fighter pilots grew up in the backwoods of louisiana essentially became a predecessor to the blue angels he had a group called the flying trapeze stationed at maxwell army base that would travel the country doing these acrobatic performances that some of the most well known and in the miami airshow he was approached by a chinese military officer and said how would you like to fly for us
in china? that was pretty extraordinary at first he declined because he had a wife and seven kids but over the course over the next couple of years he saw his career was getting stalled and s concerned about ended up flying a desk and since he accepted the invitation going to china in 1937 and into becoming a close advisor to shang kai-shek and his wife madame who was educated in the us and fluent in english and she really thought china's position which started july 1937 was tied up getting roosevelt not so much as
churchill's posture but to get out from underneath this massive japanese invasion and the chinese air force was destroyed in the early fighting like in shanghai in china was pushed back up against the himalayas and was given the extraordinary task in 1942 go back to washington dc to lobby the administration to set up a group that was the american volunteer group and then known as the flying tigers and rose to great prominence and his personal story is remarkable ultimately
came to feel more at home in china than he did in the us and went back to his wife and saw that's not the life that he wanted so he returned to china and married a chinese woman who was fascinating in her own right and spent the rest of his life working through shang kai-shek through the fifties when he passed away. >> thank you we are just about to get to questions would you like to say anything else before we go to questions. >> how many invasions in the pacific? but americans alone that was
four / four d day and then two days ago and basic - - invading southern france. >> and i would remind our audience just a few weeks after d-day massive american t fleet in the pacific planted marines to begin the liberation of the islands so we were mounting multiple major invasions around the world. >> it really boiled down to one thing the landing craft in the pacific and in europe that's why eisenhower said the guy that one world war ii. >> do you have any final thoughts quick. >> yes there are many more stories to be told of the second world war you think the subject is exhausted but then every year books break new
ground and it is amazing the second world war holds a fascination that is comparable to the civil war in this country actually is a specialist in the cold war to admit it doesn't have the same fascinationoe as the second world war is inexhaustible. >> i think there is a wonderful story of the higgins landing craft built in new orleans with the ingenuity that what was so important so many wonderful stories of what americans did a home. >> if you have questions please go to the microphone.
all knew where they were going at all had detailed maps to do a fantastic job with great intelligence. >> in your opinion with the u-boat war was that a successor do you feel that europe would not have been cut off from the supply i line. >> if you look at the north atlantic had that campaign succeeded you would not have had a d day so a very critical
time so that shows the allies ingenuity because it was an allied effort and i look very carefully on that and intelligence obviously that was far from the battlefield to show we had best use so for four years almost as long as president trump has been in power he won two wars from he's sitting right now and in 1941 you had a federal law that limited u.s. army at 125,000 me men. it was a miracle it's amazing.
>> i think to understand to crack the german code and why suddenly these were sunk in the atlantic because the us and the uk new where they were and they could sink them so without the cracking of the german code that simply would not have happened. >> so to confess they were9, baseball teammates in 1959. >> and we haveey local history club meeting but on the
technological side since the flying tigers operation was covert did they like those non- covert as a technological advantage to have the more modern state-of-the-art planes to work with quick. >> that's a>> great question those that were set out as a covert unit and they were set over inboxes and craters and essentially on the wrong side of japan when pearl harbor happened and they were left oith those supplies so talking to the last surviving mechanic it's remarkable to hear what they did when they didn't
really have those supplies for the entire supply operation to get all of the supplies to fly across the himalayas is a remarkable story one of the more amazing feats that america accomplished. >> we have time for one more question. >> this is been a memorable and informative session. [applause] we are adjourned at. [inaudible conversations]