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tv   1944 Documentary D- Day to Germany  CSPAN  June 8, 2014 5:00pm-5:46pm EDT

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hearst wasman for assigned to cover the invasion of france in 1944. this was compiled from his color film shot in england, france, and germany. the national archives restored the film. this was his last lecture before he passed away. film and audio were donated to the national archive. >> the place that intrigued me was my trip to london and the house of parliament and big ben. now, these pictures, you must remember, are over 25 years old.
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thing that amused and entertained our boys was westminster abbey. came tofew americans see the sights and westminster abbey. these are the scenes that i want to photograph. another area that intrigued me was the marble arch. it was full of people. you must remember that london was being bombed every night in this particular time. speakerstographing the that were addressing the crowds. every speaker spoke on a different subject. the police stood around and watched. as long as there were no strong arguments, nobody was hurt. the people in the audience were arguing with the speakers. these are just to vocal shots of
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how we passed the time waiting. most of the children who lived in england were sent out of the city. a lot had remained behind. in spite of the war, they found entertainment. i was surprised to see these children drinking out of community drinking cups. candid shots of the children so they did not notice me. every once in a while, they did. this youngster is taking a drink on a sunday afternoon. we discovered that st. paul's cathedral had been hit several times but not badly damaged. one of the other attractions was buckingham palace and the gates protected by british troops.
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not in the hats that they've war in peace time, but in full war uniform. this is the way they went up and down. they were not performing for the camera. they were doing their duty. balloons allrrage over the area. if it was not for the barrage -- they with equipment said the barrage balloons were holding it up. food was pretty scarce in london at this time and was being brought in in whatever way they could and being unloaded. you get aoften that bright day like this in the spring in london and this was an opportunity to show what the soldiers were doing while they were waiting for the invasion.
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this is fleet street. this policeman is guarding the street. we were down on the south coast of england and we met some of the other correspondence who were scheduled to cross the channel with us. you will probably recognize some of the old-timers covering the war in that particular time. i was given a shovel to defend myself and it proved to be a valuable instrument. here we see larry from cbs. he was covering the war for cbs. so was jack thompson of the chicago tribune. this is a close-up of jack thompson and this is larry o'reilly of the associated press. our farewells because we expected to meet again in paris.
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here on the left, we see clark lee and bill from chicago with the daily news. several other correspondents are going on a military truck. we went to small british towns .nd life was going on as usual people were in the marketplace and buying food. it was as though nothing was going on. for 150 miles, that is how we felt in an army vehicle. we found that plymouth was badly damaged and that a lot of the village was completely destroyed. this was all over the area. soon, we approached the dock area and we found american jeeps that were ready to be boarded aboard landing craft.
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notice the bumpers. they are designed to cut wires. we were not allowed to wander around the area. each crossroad point was under guard with an american and a british soldier. you had to show it to them. that wasthe care taken. the secret of the invasion had to be kept as long as it could. of pains the men west -- haynes. we went aboard lci. from boston came and was a photographer for the associated press. we try to keep our mind off of what was coming and we knew that it would be a short time before we would be on board. taste of carest
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rations, which did not taste bad if you were hungry. you could see the beautiful countryside in that area and these are the sort of shots that i want to bring home to show my family and friends. pete carroll used some of his film to make a few shots. soon, we were down at the docks and we found units with the 101st airborne. aircraft --oarding fts.craft -- seacras he we see several units during grenades and bazookas. they did not have an opportunity to load this aboard jeeps
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because they were not fully available at this particular moment. lcis.e aboard a fleet of , theaptain on the right captain of our ship, lieutenant patton, was in command of lci number five. we felt confident that he knew what he was doing. we stayed aboard the ship for almost five days. this is the commander of the squadron. pattonber lieutenant well because we were with him for so long. we were trying to get ready for the trip into paris. these are the unit -- troops
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amusing themselves. i do not have to tell you who this man is intimidating -- imitating. he was a noted football player and killed in the action. we had a mascot. ours was no different. the boys provided for their mascot. they made a light preserver like the ones they wore themselves. afternoon, lieutenant patton briefed the crew and told them that we would be selling this afternoon. they let out a cheer because this was the job they were waiting for. they want to get it done and go home. here is the commander moving out into the channel. this is a tremendous sight to see. ships from one end to the other. ships of all kinds.
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they tell me that there were over 1000 ships. this was just another exercise as we continued on. we felt that we would be turned around and have to go back another day. as we continued on, we knew it was the real thing. there was a scare that said that there was a submarine in the area. there were some bombs thrown into the channel. they exploded. we never saw any attack at all. here are some scenes from the beach where the ships made a turn and headed for the area where we were going to land. that is a de boat in the distance. we were on alert for any kind of attack, even airplane. our air force did their job well
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and, at no time, did the germans attack. planes attempted to strafe the beach and i was in the area. my camera was reduced to 16 millimeter. this seen of men going to shore was taken from an automatic camera on a british aircraft. they were the first men to land. it was taken by an automatic because they want to have a record of what happened if the landing failed. of thee some scenes landing on the utah beach. this is how they went to sure. as the british beach. did you notice that the men did not -- to shore after being on a landing craft or five solid days?
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en did not dash to shore after being on a landing craft for five solid days. a lot of the boys did not make it. haynes pete carroll and carrying the equipment and the ship is grounded on the beach. the section of the beach we were on was attacked by enemy fire. in the previous shot, you could see the bomb landing not far from where we were. there it is again. the bulldozers were trying to clear roads to let our tanks move forward. even though it was june, the area was quite cold, as it usually is in that part of
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normandy. foxholes a little deeper. there was a concrete wall that helped serve as protection. even now, we are taking some of the wounded back to the beach so that it can be transferred -- so that they can be transferred. those who went to ground had to wait. soon, we had some of the first prisoners taken in the area on the first day. they were captured close to the beach and were sent back to england because there was no room to take them -- keep them there. this is general collins, on the left, talking to some of his officers and we were able to get
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some of the first hot food. i did not realize how hungry i was until i saw these pictures. there is larry and bob. bob was covering the war. -- it kept me very busy. i used up all the film i had had and went back to france to get some more. because ihave a bath did not have my close off that entire time. the landing in england almost looks like the cliffs of dover that everyone is familiar with. it is a beautiful site to see the coast of england and know that i could get some rest. i did not realize at that time bombs would come over and here are some of them coming over the english coast line.
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these were a terror weapon. the british were quick to set up machine guns to knock them out of the sky and managed to shoot down quite a few. they sent planes into the sky to knock them out of the air and, of course, sometimes they did get through and, where they fell, they caused considerable damage. you must've missed that good shooting. there is one coming down that landed in the london area. where ever they landed, they caused considerable damage. my second crossing of the .hannel was made on an lst this was with units of the armored division that were bringing more takes in -- tanks and vehicles. was manned by a british
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crew. that is the captain in the british uniform. there was equipment that was sorely needed. the ships are actually waiting for the tide to receipt so that they can send more equipment ashore without going through deepwater. on d-day, they had to go through the deep water. toy are waiting for the rams be rebuilt after a severe storm so that they could go ashore without damage. now, you can see the problems that they had. when the landing craft hit the sand bar, they found deeper water ahead. those who had life preservers to drowned.turtle and this is the army heading in and
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crossing the deep spot ahead of them. ght and a remarkable ships were lined up as far as the eye could see to bring supplies on shore. we thought we could use it as a port. we found that this was badly destroyed by the germans. they had destroyed the docs, which we had thought we could use. it took almost two months before we can bring a ship in. s andset up mine destroyed the famous stocks where the transatlantic landers used to land. they not only destroyed the but they destroy the
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bridges. this was one that was destroyed by the germans. soon, the french people came back into the city and gave us a warm welcome. found prisoners. --ey had taken 16- 16,000-18,000 men out of the area and were holding their belongings. they had to be transported to england and to the united states to be held in pow camps. at this time, those who could talk to us or would talk to us said that we would be back in the channel in less than a week. headquarters, we found hitler and our boys are using it as a pin board. americans had a way of amusing themselves.
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here is the first official ceremony held in france. presented a flag made out of parachute cloth to the mayor, who is holding the microphone. our boys were given clean uniforms for the occasion. soon, the people who came back after the fighting stopped visited with us and talked to us. someone talking to the kernel of the signal corps. , shooting for ap. cecil and john. -- a lot has gosh happened to my memory -- the troops begin to move in the opposite direction and we were
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passing through a city that was completely destroyed. as thehere several times war and it has been rebuilt. the germans try to make a stand , we and, wherever they did had to knock them out and destroy the city. toer on, i had the chance see the construction built by slave labor. all a long the beach in the normandy area, they had the triangles. .any of them had mines, if you touch them, they would explode. i was told after that walk that i should be careful not to step where the ground is soft. this is a church that the germans evacuated because the commander like the little town
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so much that he did not want to see it destroyed. they withdrew, rather than let it be destroyed. it is a fishing boat. the hotel is intact and serves excellent french food. further down the coast, we found fortifications built by slave labor and metal fences to keep us from landing in the area. these heavy fortifications were many feet perfect -- thick. in some areas, the germans sought to it that they were destroyed and that we could not use them against them if we tried to take them back. they even destroyed their own weapons.
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we noticed that the walls and fortifications were very day and strong. and the area was taken over by the navy and there was an observation post. this is near a town and there is the lighthouse at the point that separated normandie from brittany -- normandy from britany. inn, we set up and fired british physicians. people were bringing -- british positions. people were bringing in the crops and this surprised me. there were heavy guns causing terrific concussion and it was difficult to hold a handheld
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camera. the americans built an airstrip in the area not far from the coast. they used a strip that was supported by metal wire to keep the airplanes from sinking into the ground. they are using it as a place to take off from with 500 pound bombs. frequently, the bombs would break loose. even though they were armed, they had to be disarmed and taken off of the runway. p-47s.rp-47's -- are there is a bomb under each wing. notice these planes taking off .nd raising considerable dust
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they managed to get off a short runway. here, you notice a buckle underneath the wheels and the sometimes caused mesh wire to break and hit the plane's propeller, causing it to crash. here is an unfortunate accident with two of our planes. here, we see pictures made by automatic cameras that were installed in fighter planes. when a pilot reports that he had shut down an enemy plane, he was not giving credit unless the pictures prove that the airplane was shut down -- shot down. automatic cameras would operate in conjunction with a machine gun.
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you can see the pilot jumping out of the airplane in the shot. that airplanes are carrying extra fuel tanks underneath the wings and, whenever bullets hit that tank, the airplane would explode, as you see here. when you see shots like this, you know that the pilot never got back. one of the highlights of our on a river that separated places. this is bob of time magazine. i know there is a member of the audience who knew bob and he was eventually killed when he was covering the war in indochina where the french were fighting. by madame. hotel run
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she serves delicious omelettes. that is her and the hotel in the background. a lot of correspondence gathered here. ,e were close to the front line if you can call it that. there, we see the river that separates it. this is a beautiful island and the building at the top is a monastery that is still intact. it was not destroyed at all. some of our gis looking at the sites of the monastery and being shown around by a woman guide. soon, we met some of the other correspondence that we knew and here, we see charles, the gentleman on the right, with joe, ofrkpatrick and
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the new yorker. he had written many stories for the new yorker and died not many years ago. .his is charles and helen this is our earnest hemingway. he was covering it and we met him. here he is talking to bill incidentally, became a fast friend of president kennedy. these are moments where we could take a little time out to rest. and, the man in the center of the picture is ill stringer, who was killed trying to get into paris. one of the things that correspondence try to do was get into paris before anyone else and he was hit by a shell.
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this is a moment of relaxation. are the few and these shots that i want to bring home to the family and friends. the little island it was very quaint. it was a very old place. it was fortified in several ways. we discover that the beaches on the area were high and dry and had sticks in the sand to keep planes from landing. we found a family of brothers. one --e tall blonde their parents were killed at a battle. afternoon, rather late, i walked up behind the island and, as the sun was setting, there was interesting shots of the island. have an extremely high tide
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here and it would leave the island high and dry. the tide would come in fast and there was danger of quicksand. i did not stand in one place for too long. the receding waters left an unusual design in the sand. we continued on and deeper into france. boys had founde a lake there, which we will see in a moment. the countryside was beautiful. it was during the summer and the props were still in the field. our boys have been washing out of the home at four weeks. they decided to use this beautiful latke. dashwear fighting the in of the were fighting an enemy at saint marlowe.
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-- they were fighting the enemy at a place called saint marlowe. it is the american sense of humor that's helped them win the war. here are some of the correspondents that we sometimes found together. proved to be useful as a bath. there are a lot of these small rivers around france. at every moment that we could spare, this is a group of them. they came to normandy to entertain our troops. he held a show right in this
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barn that was not too far from the fighting. found out later the intermission had to be called when the shells came to close. all you have to do is point a camera and he did. we soon are found ourselves in rent today. for allhe headquarters the correspondence that came there. stevens, myself and pete carroll it was shortly after these pictures were taken that decided to return back to the states and then went to the pacific where he was killed. george stevens was the third hollywood direct her. he died only a few years ago. practically every correspondent turned out to try to get into the city of paris.
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we found a general eisenhower had given permission to take the city of paris. the important thing was to destroy the enemy. they did not consider it as a that would delay them if they did try to take the city themselves. they wanted to circumvent the city. they wanted to give the honor to the french. in charge of the second army division. he refused to let the correspondence accompany him to get into the city. want that until he had the city cigar. we are glad to see paris. her it was a city of great ute. itwere amazed at the way
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turned out. these are some of the shots taken. ofid not nearly get enough the shots. there was too much to do. soon the general payment to the city and paraded down. here he is receiving some flowers from a french girl. this was not well known at this time. very few people could listen to the radio reports that told about the reporting in and delay. it seemed as though everybody in paris turned out to see him. down at thisng point. it was a tremendous site to see. later in the day, our own troops paraded down the avenue. this is something that made us all proud. suddenly fire opened up forces
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that were left behind. they fought from some of those that were in the city they were trying to panic the history. if you stuck out your head you are bound to lose it. this was on continuously for several hours. i was in the middle of this thing. these were shots i took a peek will line flat on the ground. we couldn't move the car. they were trying to get to people. it went on continuously. mother was not taken any chances. this is the way the streets of paris look. they did catch some of these people who were responsible for the shooting. they told us that. they beat them to death right on the spot. it was an ugly sight to see.
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how it was the war of nerve. were sworn at by the french. these are some shots made late in the day of the american troops marching through the streets of the city on their way to the front lines. stop to stop and trade champagne for cigarettes and find out what was going on. the city.le to see it was not badly destroyed. there was some small arms fire. the lion lost its tail. all the bridges were intact over the city. this was the opera house. since it was my first trip to paris, i enjoyed seeing the beautiful city.
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soon the people were out the rivergain along with their lives -- and it found liberty. they discovered this, which is reported destroyed was still intact. managed to get permission to go up into the eiffel tower and see what it looked like from up above. there is much to be done. even though it looked beautiful, conditions were very poor. the railroads were practically destroyed. there's no way of bringing in food. laura -- large trucks waiting to get into the city with all kinds of foodstuffs to support the city which was in dire need not only of food but cold. it was getting pretty cold. it was late in the year. there's no way of getting surprise him.
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these are scenes from the eiffel tower showing the same. troops parading through the streets. then i had to leave paris. i found myself in the countryside beyond paris and managedo belgium were a to get into brussels. these are some scenes of the racetrack which we found was opened shortly after the liberation. the surprise everyone. they made them close this after a few days of meeting. one of the things that did surprise everyone with how well just the french women were. they have a way of using whatever they had to make
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themselves look really attractive. i realize this annoys some of the others. it annoyed them to think they could get by like that. they evened up the -- they even opened up the art galleries. not know whether they were permitted to do this prior to our doing there but they certainly opened up for business. shortly after we arrived. work in a painter at the old quarter of paris. i was in an area and the reason i took some of these shot because the weather was turning cold in the trees returning there for colors. destroyed onletely
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the breakthrough that occurred. here just a few days before the big through and was fortunate enough to get out of there, not knowing about the attack. i did think this was a place that the mim -- the enemy could hide troops and they did. of the thirdmand army division. this is general rose on the left. he was killed in cologne. it was unfortunate happening. they have the place protective and there was an enemy troops in the area. he was shot. these are units of the third armored division that were fighting the enemy. shots ifd to get some they were being entertained by german children. letterman this reception all the way through france.
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got to germany the reception was not there. all the homes in the german area, they had white flags in front of them. it is an indication of surrender. are actuallyhere on their way to school. children everywhere that key. they were firing not far away. the were trying to avoid noise. that werehis line built again by slave labor. they were not a fortification. our bulldozers road right over the top. these stretched out from one end of germany to the other. weehow we felt that perhaps would get to germany and they were trying to keep us out. they did not succeed.
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the war was moving rather rapidly. in the town myself of aachen. are is why these scenes devoid of people. there were mortar shells over our head at all times. the enemy was holding the city as we were making the shots. we were just wondering how long the battle would take. we discovered the troops were just on behind that wreckage in the distance. soon we discovered that these reserves were waiting to be called in. that told later on somebody in the audience and in him. they said he was killed in the action that was taken place shortly after that. after all can -- after the city
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flyachen i was asked to home. this is something i was glad to be able to do. they would see some of the cemeteries that were built on the normandy beaches. these are saying -- scenes of berlin. tremendous families that occurred. the bombings were intense. very little was left standing. worse to not seem to prove very much except to destroy property and kill people. sometimes we think that maybe one day we will learn how to avoid it. perhaps we have made war so that we will have to avoid them in the long run to stay alive. soon i was able to photograph some of the events when general eisenhower came back to the states. i was greeted in kansas city. the shots were made with a
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telephoto lens. visit the able to weaponson of some of the germans used just after the invasion. this is the rocket. this was the first time they used rockets. they were able to shoot them great distances. i have heard many of them come overhead. they were like a motorcycle. whenever the motor stop it would cause a on to drop. in germans had jet planes the air before the war ended. is one that they actually use. it showed a record of many american planes. 42 russians were shot down by these planes. exhibit, we see one of
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the, cozzi bonds on exhibition. one of the pilot is looking at the size. they did not like the idea that they only have a one way ticket. destroye intended to what they were after in the pilot with it. enemy fromilt by the new york. the appropriately named it the put. here we see some shots of what the next war may look like. this is the explosion of the atomic bomb into mexico. always like to feel it will remind people what what world war two was like and what world worldhr


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