tv Key Capitol Hill Hearings CSPAN July 8, 2014 11:00pm-1:01am EDT
especially because of this poisonous climate in that i'm 100% morally certain that i would not be up here and have justice kagan delivering that wonderful introduction and i would not have this position of solicitor-general i had not ton the pro bono work that i did. if you had had in the 1980s was that my goal was to become solicitor-general of the united states, one of the things that you would cross off your list was representing death row inmates on an ongoing basis because that was really controversial back then and you didn't want a lot of friends doing it but i decided it was something that i wanted it do. i did a fair amount of it over the years. it wasn't the only kind of pro bono work i did. as it turned out, five of the cases i argued in the supreme court when i was in private practice were cases coming out
of capital punishment for death penalty cases. a big chunk of the experience that qualified me to be even considered sg came out of that work. even more importantly for me, was that boy, that's really how i learned how to be a lawyer. you go down to the county courthouse in jackson georgia or gulfport mississippi sometime and try to argue a case down in one of those things. you will learn a lot about how to be a lawyer that way and you learn a lot about how to be the lawyer when you're the one on the line and it's your judgment. you're deciding which issues to press and which issues not to press. the consequences are as high as they are and it's on you to make the judgments and to carry them out. you learn an awful lot about how to be a lawyer when you're doing that and so without that experience, as i said i'm quite certain i wouldn't be here so i think -- this is not -- i'm not
making an ideological point. whatever you think is in the public interest, we're a public profession. young lawyers ought to understand that the tradition of the lawyer in this country is one that's rooted in responsibilities to the public. in order for them to actually be lawyers and in the american tradition, they ought to have that sense of public responsibility and on top of it, their lives will be a lot better. i guess that's the message i would urge all of us to try to communicate to new lawyers. >> i was wondering if you could share any thoughts or reflections from oral argument from the supreme court particularly if there's any one justice that you dread receiving questions from most. >> you mean other than justice
kagan? oral argument is kind of an amazing experience. justice kagan summed it up pretty well. it's not always as she described. there's some cases where it's a little bit different. one thing i noticed i could be completely wrong in this perception but i've noticed that for example in patent cases which i've actually argued three patent cases. i think i'm the only sg that's argued a patent case. i've argued three of them. the tenor of the argument is a little bit different in those cases because i think they are cases where the members of the court seem to have less of a clear sense of what they think about the right answer going into the argument so their argument has a different tenor as a result of that. most of the time they seem to me the justices seem to have a pretty good sense of what they think and they are asking really probing hard questions which is their job and it's what they should do. there will be some cases it will
be the chief justice really giving me the tough time. some cases it will be justice kagan. that's their job. they should be probing for weaknesses and challenging the position of the united states in particular to try to work through what the implications of agreeing to the united states's view would be. that's what they do. that's their job. this is a really smart group of jurists, the justices who sit on the court. they are incredibly well prepared. so it makes it a great challenge to argue but it also makes an incredibly rewarding experience because you do feel like win or lose, you feel like they understand what's at stake in the case. they understand what the issues are. the case is going to be decided on the basis of the legal issues that are really there and at the heart of the case.
>> all right so i'm done. good. standing between you and the bar. i realize. [ applause ] the white house has requested $3.7 billion aid in border security. on our next washington journal, we will talk about arizona republican congressman david swagert about border security challenges. we'll also talk with doris of the migration policy institute. as part of our spot light on magazine series, entrepreneur and venture capitalist joins us. a piece for political magazine, he said the pitch folks are coming if income inequality continues to rise. washington journal is live each morning on 7:00 eastern on cspan. you can join the conversation on facebook and twitter. 2 . >> wednesday ncaa president
testifies about college athletes and academics. the senate commerce committee is examining whether students are being exploited by college athlete departments. you can see the hearing live at 1130 a.m. eastern on cspan 3. >> tune into tv this weekend with the discussion on the state of african-american literature and the black arts movement. live coverage starts saturday morning at 11:45 eastern on cspan 2's book tv. >> next, former home land security secretary and current university of california system president janet napolitano speaks about issues facing the nation's higher education system from the education commission of the state's conference this 1 hour and 15 minutes.
>> good afternoon. welcome it the 49th annual education commission of the state's national forum. i'm jeremy anderson president of the ecs. it is such an honor to have so many of you with us here today in washington d.c. looking at the room and how the attendance has grown, it's great to know that we have a registration that is the secondesecond highest which shows the growth of ecs. >> over the next three days our conversations and dialogue will be covered with education policy and what we can do best for the states. that's the very nature of what ecs brings to you. i urge you to take advantage of the many education leaders that are here. governors, lieutenant-governors, chiefs, legislatures, board
members, teachers of the year, so we together can share the education policies that can help us most in the states that we serve. the real value added that you will receive from ecs is not just in the research and the analysis that we do for you everyday, but it's rally in what you to engage us, the education of the commission to serve your state. i hope over the next three days you will be sure to engage any of the staff or executive committee h committee how we question better be in your state on certain issues or provide resources to you. >> it's it is a prevalent to introduce brine saan sandoval. without further ado please join me in greeting governor brian sandov sandoval. [ applause
[ applause ] >> good afternoon. thank you jeremy for the very kind introduction. this is my first time that i will have the ability to chair this national forum. i have the distinct privilege and honor of following the governor from the great state of colorado. he did a fabulous job. big hand for john. really heartening to see the turn out today and to have practically a standing room only for this first part of our meeting today. you know, i know like you i'm dedicated to improving education in the state of nevada to make it the best that it could possibly be and together we could make this the strongest educational system in the united states of america. this room holds the best education policy minds and experts in the country. that's powerful the ecs national forum is your meeting.
since 1965, ecs has convened commissioners and other educational leaders to share ideas and best practices across state lines to benefit all of our students. as usual, you will find a variety of sessions. you will see as you look through your booklet, there's such a great diversity in what you can learn and what you can pick up here at this meeting this year. i think through the sessions we can develop a shared understanding about some important issues that can help us move forward together. the break out sessions. another very important opportunity for all of you to participate in. they will allow you to dig deeper on the issues that are particularly important to you and your state. they also afford you the opportunity to meet like minded peers and get your questions answered by the experts. round tables. another great opportunity to quickly learn about an interesting topic that you deeply care about. finally, the receptions. i know everybody loves the
receptions but truly there's another opportunity today. we're sitting here at all of these various tables but at the receptions you'll have an opportunity to chat with experts from around the country and really have an opportunity to have an intimate conversation with them. so today, i'm pleased to be here and look forward to meeting with many of you and also for me, taking back best ideas and practices to the great state of nevada. i hope you truly enjoy this first session. you will get a lost out of it. thank you very much. [ applause ] >> thank you very much governor sandoval. now introduce the first speaker, we've called most of our ted talks ed talks. ted talks are short powerful talks on one key issue. we are very lucky today to have
an expert in the perspective what people across the country are thinking on education policy. the executive director of the gallop education group. he focused on measuring the educational outcomes that matter most. he will share some of the gallops recent research on public views about education reform and tell us why he thinks policy makers like you should care. i can't wait to hear what brandon has to say. please join me in welcoming him to the stage. [ applause ] >> thank you sir. so this is a real privilege for me because it turns out that one of my heroes is former governor terry sandford who was also the president of duke university. i'm a proud graduate of the s
sanford school of public policy. i learned he was one of the founding governors who started all of this a half century ago. it's amazing to see some of the quotes that he had 50 years ago because you could use probably half the things he said during the opening meeting today and they would still be relevant. one of the things he commented upon then in 1965 is that no one fully kprooe hcomprehends the e of children television. i just want to start by grounding us all in this conversation before i share a whirl wind of important research. i want to ask by asking everybody in the room. i want to think about the best teacher that you've ever had. gallop actually asked americans this as one of our daily polling questions a few years ago and we
provided a prompt. we said now put that person's name in your head so i want you to do that right now. think of the best teacher you've ever had. put their name in your head. at the count of three, i'd like you to all same that name outloud in you'll humor me with this. ready? one, two, three. alma blunt. now we asked them an open-ended question which we rarely do on the poll. we said what was it that made that person your best teacher? >> this word is probably in your head right now because it was the most commonly used word that americans used to describe their best teacher. any guesses in what that word was? >> i've heard a couple of say say it. it's care. i just want to pause on this for a minute, right? just ask a couple of simple questions. how are we measuring care in school today, right?
maybe what schools need is common care. so let me transition this to what might be the two most important topics in our country today. education, and the economy. hard to argue that there's two things that we care about and find more precious than those two things. we're worried about both of them right now for very good reason. i might suggest to you that we can fix both of them or improve bo both of them if we think about them as linked systems which we're really not doing right now. so we're very honest critics think about our k 12 system, our higher ed system and our employe employers. the visual that probably bests described them today is castles
with moets between them. what they really ought to be if we're going to do this right the better visual might be the olympic rings where we have a coherent system where all of this is working together dare i say even talking to one another about the needs, et cetera, right? this is our pipe line of what makes our country great. we need to figure it out. so you will recall the famous clip that james carville made that changed the election. it's the economy, stupid. >> it's the edge economy, stupid. >> let me share with you what i first. i would submit right now that we're looking at our educational system through a deficit based lens. the outcome measures we're using that we're thinking of is ultimate outcomes are just inner meditate measures at best. we even use words like reform to talk about the innovators in this work, right? education reformers. if you look up that word in the
dictionary it's a pretty ugly word. how many of you want to be reformed? raise your hand very high, please. we use the term remedial to describe courses that we put students in. how many of you want to be part of a remedial course? maybe an accelerator but not remediation. i think we need to shift our thinking from a deficit based approach where we're constanting focused on what's wrong and what we are really trying to measure here. are these really ultimate outcomes. if you graduate and don't get a good job. is that what we're looking for. the gallop student poll measured more than 650,000 students in fifth through twelfth. by the way this is a poll that every student can take advantage of for free in october. they can sign up, register and take the poll. it measures student hope,
engagement and well being. this is what we know about student engagement in school, the longer they are in school, the less engaged they are. in elementary school, 76% of students are engaged by middle school. dropped to 61% in high school. the only year we see this plateau is 10th and twelfth grade. it's the year most students drop out. if we were doing this right the line would be going toin the opposite direction. we also know that americans are losing confidence. since governor sanford opened this commission up, confidence in education has dropped in half. it probably won't get better any time soon if we don't fix the challenges. i think a lot of us appreciate the concept but it's worth noting at the time in history where the rate of knowledge is expanding exponentially, the cost of knowledge is actually trending towards free. this is something you will hear about tomorrow. conacademy is an example.
google. note i didn't see the cost of a degree is trending toward zero. that's going in the opposite direction. we're never going to compete again on simply what we know. it's going to be how we apply that knowledge that's going to distinguish our kids and our country. this is a troubled one. we asked virtually the same question of three different audiences in three different studies we did this year. we asked chief academic officers of universities of whether they felt confident they are preparing students for success in the world of work. 96% are confident they are doing that well. we asked americans that question, do you think college graduates are well prepared for the work place. 14% strongly agree. we asked business leaders, c level executives from companies around the country. it's even worse.
only 11% strongly agree that the college graduates they see have the skills and experience they need. >> now when you look at this, i don't know how you explain it. it's just impossible for me to get over the fact that we have such a broken linkage between these things. i don't know where the truth lies but even if it's somewhere in the middle it's still something that we shouldn't tolera tolerate. we're always worried about how the country i have doing on international standardized test courses, there are 32 countries where they are overlapping measures on what's called the global entrepreneurship measure. it turns out there's a negative correlation. just on a panel with the ambassador from singapore. he was there to talk about how he they have become number one in the world for standardized testing. the first thing out of his mouth was how they are worried about entrepreneurial energy in thur their country. it's not important for us to strive to be number one on these
tests but should we be as concerned as we are and should this be one of the only ways that we think about how we are measuring what we're doing, definitely not. it turns out when we look at educational outcomes, we're using only a handful of measures to get at this. on the left hand side are inputs which by the way determine a large percentage of the rankings that we use to rank colleges and universities in this country. it's mainly based on inputs, right? the selective selective it of e institutions. the gpa or sat scores no one is measuring the learning growth from freshman to senior year. we have no idea from that perspective. on the outcome side we still have using measures like gradation rate, important measures. these are necessary but horribly insufficient if we look at them in hole. gpa for example is one i'm really challenged by because in the last 30 years gpa has gone
up 1.1 points. if you graduated last year now it would really be a 3.4. there's a lot of people laughing about that so it tells you how old you are. so then we throw a little wrinkle into this. i will give you a finding that's now in 23 published studies that hope is actually a stronger predictor of high school and college completion of sat scores, act scores and high school gpa. think about that. the think i always get is did you say hope. yeah. it's one's ideas and energy for the future. we can reliably measure a construct like hope just how we can grit and a number of other things we thought we couldn't measure. so here is an important question what really is the ultimate outcome on education if we just stepped back and asked that is it a high gpa and test score and gradation rate. those are important intermediate
measures. i would argue there is something well beyond that. we talk about great lives and great careers. we talk about knowledge in the service of society. we talk about a lot of profound things yet we're barely measuring any of it. gallop had some interesting data to weigh in on this. we measure well being. this actually started in the 1930s with george gallop he was obsessed in trying to quantify with a life well lived. we started studies. it really went on turbo charge when we launched the world poll. in 2006 we were statistically sampling 96% of the world's population. these are not soft measures that sound like nice things for us to keep a count of. they are actually very hard predictors of key performance indicators. let me give you one example, health care cost burden may be
bankrupting our country. if you have an employee thriving in a , we don't have to get employees thriving in all five elements. one element, two, three, four drop health care cost burden incrementally. we also measure what we call work place engagement. again it sounds like a nice thing to measure. engageme engagement. the reason why we really about that it is that we found a handful of items that are predictive of key performance indicators in an organization. i will point out the interesting one. you say you have someone who cares about your development. there's that funny word care showing up in the work place. it's always showed up for you in the person that you thought of as your best teacher. we also know it's important for people to say that at some point in the day they get to do what they are best at during the day. this is a true statement for students as well and to know that there is someone who encourages your development.
this is a common thread they want to pull through all of our research. the difference between being engaged and not, lower absenteeism. turn over, profit, revenue. wh whatever we've tested it again. these are really hard measures that we ought to be paying attention to in all of our organizations. >> back to the deficit based approach when thinking about kids in school and teachers. here is something from the work place that will get you. let me explain what this means. so we have engaged and active i disengaged. engaged are the employee that's are driving our economy forward. they show up with energy, they are new ideas. if you tell them to clock in at 8:00 at 7:30. activity disengaged. this is the best way to describe it. has anybody ever seen the movie office space. these people are so miserable that they take their misery everywhere they go. i will come and sit with you until that idea goes away. that's what we mean by an
activity disengaged employee. so here is the importance of a strength based approach. if you have a manager who ignores you entirely. there's virtually no chance that you're engaged as an employee. here is a huge improvement. if you have a manager who does nothing but harp on your warenewar weaknesses, give you critical feed back about what you can do better. that is huge improvement to being ignored. you can see there's a large portion who are activity disengaged. if you have a manager who focuses on what you do best and tries to get you in a place where you can do it once per day. you have to be able to see at least once a day you have a chance to do what you're best at. there's no chance you're activity disengaged. this is how important this mind set is. let me share with you two massive reports we've done in the last 90 days. the first one from the state of america schools n. it we found that only 33% of our students
were success ready. so like our standardized testing scores we've got some work to do on these measures as well. it turns out, though, there's some interesting data from a study we did relative to the entrepreneurial energy in our schools. almost half of all of our students in fifth through twelfth grade say they plan to start their own business some day. think of the entrepreneurial energy that is bottled up nor schools and in our kids. here is the trick. her not getting any practice reps at this because less than 5% are currently having a business. only about 3% are currently running their own business whether that be a lemonade stand or whatever. only 17% have worked an hour or more in the last week. here is a news flash. schools, colleges, universities generally don't have internships and jobs to offer aside from a work/study opportunity. if we're going to improve this
it has to be because of employers of all sizes and types come to the aid of local schools and universities and talk about how they can offer opportunities for internships paid or unpaid. >> here is the most disappointing news. teachers, of all professions in the united states, are the least likely to say that their opinion at work counts. they are also the least likely of all professions behind truck drivers, coal miners and everybody else on saying their supervisor creates an open and trusting environment. what the hell are are we doing america? if we don't fix teacher engagement in schools, how are we ever going to move the needle on student engagement? [ applause ] we should all be ashamed of ourself for letting this happen. i'm ashamed.
we all should feel that in this room. we all have opportunities to own answers to this problem. it's not that difficult. it doesn't cost billions of dollars to fix this. i'm not going to say it's easy to fix but it's not an expensive fix. so in schools that have super high teacher engagement it's what their leaders do and their principals do differently that makes them stand out. in these schools they have principals in the lasts seven days that have recognized them for work they've done. in the last six months they've talked to them about the progress they made and they make them feel that their opinion at work counts. this is a change in what we value. it's a change in how we lead. it's not a change in how many billions of dollars we have to pump into the system for new buildings and other things that may not really move the needle onengagement. our student engagement data this is a 30 x finding. it's special when you find a 3 or 4 x finding. if you're a student who is strongly agreed to two questions you're 30 times more engaged.
that is that you believe your school is focused on building the strength of each student and that you have a teacher who makes you excited about the future. i know there's a lot of state teachers that the year in the room. you can't imagine how powerful your impact is. you really can't. a teacher who makes you excited about the future. if we do that, we can change everything about engagement in school. it turns out that what we've learned about the kinds of circumstance l curriculum and the things we teach, it looks like real work. there were two item that's sorted in this study in being more likely to be successful as a young professional in the united states. that was that you said that you worked on a long term project that took more than a few classes to complete and that you applied what you were learning
to solve a real problem in your community or the world. think about how simple that is. nothing else sorted really in this stewedy. those two things just popped out. if you said strongly agreed to those things, twice as likely to be as successful as a young professional. >> here is an interesting one. if you also said that your teachers cared about your problems and fielding and encouraged your hopes and dreams, you are more likely to have experienced those two things. so again, this idea of care and support, these fluffy little words that we think don't matter that much matter an awful lot. so let's just turn no higher education real quick. here is the good news. demand for higher education is still super high in america. 95% of americans agree that education beyond high school is important. this we also know that a whole bunch of adult americans are thinking about going back for a certificate or degree. that's great news. here is what is in question. quality is in question.
when we ask americans to grade the u.s. higher ed system relative to others around the world or compared to itself in the past, the numbers don't look so good. this is crazy because if you look at international rankings of institution of higher ed, the u.s. has 90% of them on its list but americans aren't feeling it. only 29% strongly agree that traditional colleges and universities provide a quality degree. here is a point that none of us can miss. no one is going to college anymore to get a degree. what are they going to get a degree. they are going to get a job. if you lose site of that we're in trouble. if you ask current college freshman as ucla has done in their survey, the number one reason is to get a good job. if you ask parents of fifth through twelfth graders, it is the same. if we ask parents of fifth through twelfth graders to tell us what they think is the best path to a good job for their child, the number one answer is
career and technical training. number two comes in at no college at all. followed by a liberal arts degree. we will find other path ways to good jobs if our educational system doesn't figure out how to improve on this. so let me wrap up with findings we've learned from the largest study of college graduates in u.s. history. this was a study we reported 60 days ago. 30,000 college graduates in the united states. we were measuring the degree to which they were engaged in their work, and thriving in their well being. yeah, we looked at how much money they make. what their salary was. we already know that college graduates make more money over their lifetime as with a college degree. i don't know how many colleges or universities whose mission statement is to increase the lifetime earnings of the graduates. i still vhaven't one found. they talk about other things and
career well being and having happy successful lives so this is what we measured in this study. here is what we learned. first of all this was the first surprise. that it makes no difference by type of institution where you went public versus private, not a single percentage difference in the likelihood you're engaged in your work or thrilling in your well being. we looked at highly selective institutions according to the data. no difference between highly selective and everybody else. we10 ranked schools. no difference. we learned how you do college makes a difference. if you were a college graduate that was emotionally supported, it doubled your adds of being engaged in work and you were three times as likely to be 35ing in yo3 thriving in your well being. ask yourself these questions. you strongly agree to each of
these three statements. you had at least one professor that made you excited about learning. that the professors cared about you as a person. you had a mentor who encouraged your hopes and dreams. how many of you say strongly agree to all three of those questions? raise your hand high. do you know what percentage of college graduates in the u.s. strongly agree to all three? >> 14%. 14%. by the way, about half of the room here raised your hand. you got lucky. you took advantage of your education perhaps in different ways than others didn't. we also found three other items did deep learning and experiences shorted. they had a slight relationship with well being but with relationships at work. they had a following that you worked on a long term project
that took a semester or more to complete. this sounds similar to the findings i just shared with you. that youed you had a job or internship where you applied what you were learning and that you were extremely involved in extracircular activity. how many say zrostrongly agree all of these. raise your hands. about 30% of the audience. guest what percentage of college graduates in the united states agree to all three, 6%. we have to be doing a better job. when we do this right, it has a profound effect on our life and career prtrajectory. so let me rap up with what i think we need to do. we need to stop focusing all of our time and attention on what's wrong and start figuring out what's strong with students and with our teacher and with our schools. we need to figure out how we value more path ways to success i will tell you right now.
a kid with entrepreneurial energy in our class rooms today are probably more likely to diagnose them with attention deficit disorder than we are to see them as the next mark zuckerberg. i figure to what degree we are thinking about that as a talent and how we embrace and support that in our schools. we're really good at figuring out athletic talent and q. there are so many talents in this country. we need to make sure that we are paying attention to all of them. we need to figure out how we get out of this mode where almost 100% of how we evaluate students is on test scores. they are necessary. we've got all of our eggs in that basket. i can tell you we've probably done a better job of building accountability systems around school than figuring out how to build engagement systems within them. that's the change we need to make real fast.
i think this becomes real simple. if you say i want to improve student engagement. there's only really one answer to that. there's not even a close second place. it's too improve the engagement of teachers. if you want to know what's the number one driver of that, it's a simple answer, too. it's a great principal or college president that drives that forward. when i was a duke student, i never had the opportunity to meet terry sanford. they didn't call on president sanford there. they called him uncle ter ry because he was famous for walking around campus. he would say hello and hang out to students. this was a guy who was cared for many spades. i tell you there are districts that have figured this out too. montgomery county in addition to what they are measuring, they
are measuring the student eng e engagement and the engagement of everybody who reports that. they are working with principals in those buildings to think about how they can move the needle on these measures. we can he do this. it doesn't cost much to figure it out. what i want everybody to try to commit themselves this try to do is to try to help us build the world's greatest education economy. it might look like states focused on engagement systems. not just accountability systems. it might mean a superintendant having a goal to become the silicon valley of great principals for their district. it means schools that are focused on what is strong about students and making sure that they have someone who encourages their development and makes them excited about the future and cares about them as a person. it might mean all of us even adults learning and doing everyday because it's the application of that that is
going to matter so much. it might even 100% of our students having an internship or some work experience because 100% of our employers pitch in to make it happen. it might also mean that mentor duty becomes the new jury duty. i hope more than anything it becomes the case where teaching becomes the most valued profession in america. thank you very much. [ applause ] brandon, thank you. i think we ought to give him a big, big hand. that was extraordinary. [ applause ] if any like me are interested in getting that power point,
brandon has agreed to make it available. i think we can all take that home and make good use of that. thank you for sharing. i can tell you as governor, we used the public's insight when we make education policy decisions. for example, you will see some common wereords used in 2014 st of the state addresses by me and my fellow governors. i think we've got a word cloud that will be going up pretty soon. ecs tracks all of our state of the state addresses an visual e visualizes -- visually demonstrated that we care about the issues across the education spectrum. from early learning to post secondary. this is the type of analysis that makes ecs special. speaking of governor, i want to make an introduction to the chair elect who is the governor of the great state of montana. steve bulluk. would you please stand?
[ applause ] >> i'm very excited about working with the governor and i think you will all see that he's a true leader both in his state and national with regard to education policy. now, that's what is great about this organization. you will see governors, governor's staff, legislatures, le alle legislative staff. education researchers, business leaders, teachers all in one room. i hope you take advantage of this country r opportunity and really use these next few days to introduce yourself to others and to collaborate. so now, it is truly my pleasure to introduce our next session. this next session will discuss how we can control costs and higher education, improve fisk r, fiscal transparency and create meaningful systems. i would like to first introduce janet napolitano where are you
madam secretary, there she is. she currently serves as the president of the university of california, a system with ten campuses and five medical centers. she previously served as the secretary of home land security between 2009 and 2013 and governor arizona from 2003 to 2009. thank you. just from a point of personal experience, i still call her madam secretary but it really was a great amazing experience for me to be able to work with her and truly a leader in the country during some very, very difficult times. >> our next panelist, gym garinger was the governor of wyoming from 1995 to 2003 and served as the chair of ecs between 1999 and 2000.
since 2005, he was served as the chair of their board of trustees. governor. [ applause ] willi he recently announced he will retire after 50 years in higher education. prior to his current position, he served as president of both the ohio state university and i know how to say that because i'm a proud graduate of the ohio state university and university of maryland, college park. >> jeremy anderson is going to
moderate the session. i'm looking forward to another fabulous discussion. thank you very much. >> thank you so much, governor sandoval. i want to thank you all of you for joining us on the panel here today. we will talk about some of the tough issues that are affecting higher education and hopefully some of the country r opportunities that you as leaders see. over the past decade higher education in america has truly evolved. evolved over multiple decades from serving elite students to being a universal system providing access to and serving a wide range of students. that transition happens while we have the convergence of college affordability concerns that are changing the way each of your institutions and entities does business. i would like to start the session but asking each of you to highlight the one o two issues you see effecting education today.
president napolitano, why don't you start with you. >> i will say two. they are interrelated. one is that we need to do a much better job of talking about, explaining, and demonstrating the value add of a quality higher education and what it really does in terms of social mobility but also in terms of adding owe the basic research, the knowledge available for innovation based economy. the second interrelated one is improving the level of public support for our great public -- particularly our public land grant universities which really form the foundation of a large part of the united states economic growth post world war ii. the second will not come before the first. they both need to be done and very urgently now. >> governor geringer.
>> i will take off on the title of this session which is the future of higher education. i envision the higher education community in the future as being something that provides shorter time to degree, access regardless of time, pace, and place. we would hold learning constant and let time vary than what we do today to hold time constant and let learning vary so that competence is the credential and not the degree. we will track student's success with both the employer and society and student engagement which is what we do significantly. we have academic mentors and progress mentors that contact every student, a minimum of once per we're. we have engagement. we know it does work. so i see the future as being flexible, hybrid, on command and to contrast that with the value
pr proposition which is not yielding a lot of financial accountability. we have a business model that is focused on faculty, facilities, courses rather than students engagement and outcome. so for instance, on facilities, sam smith, president of washington state was on a review board. found out that the average utilization of campus assets is less than 20%. the most popular scheduling times are between 10:00 people and 2:00 p.m. for both faculty and students yet we're in an age of technology. yet the ipad that i hold right here is not technology. this represents access. so 24/7 availability. a business model substantially changes and changes with the technology that's there to enable that kind of entrepreneurism that we see in western governors, academy and what maryland has done online and that type of thing. that's what i would see for the
future to make sure that we have the accountability and financial management that we look fore as well as the outcomes. >> well, when i think about the future of higher education, i think the thing that concerns me the most is the fact that we in america are losing our ability to educate our population. if you go back several decades. we led the world in the proportion of young adults with a college degree. now, we're very much middle of the pack. this has two very troubling consequences for the united states. first of all, we all know we're in intensely competitive global economy so the quality and education and innovation level of our work force is going to be everything in america. so if we don't do a better job of preparing more and more
prepare to enter that work force, you have to worry about where we will be in terms of our standing in status as an economic superpower. i think there is a second very profound issue that we all need to think about. like it or not. higher education has been the ticket to a good job and a high quality of life. there were plenty of good jobs decades ago for someone with a high school degree. that isn't the case anymore. maybe it shouldn't be that way but that's the world we live in. the difference in income between someone with a college degree and a high school only degree keeps widening. it's over a million dollars now in a lifetime. here is the troubling statistic. some of you probably know this but if you look at the lowest
part of income, only about 8% of children in that category ever get a college degree. if you look at the upper part of income, it's about 85%. now about the economic differential between a college degree and in the a college degree, we are at real risk if we haven't moved far town tdown panel to creating a caste system built on the economy. we are becoming more and more like the england we left and fought a revolutionary war to build this upperly mobile society we're losing that. so to me, the responsibility of our time is to expand educational opportunities to include more low income students. to do that, yes, we need more public support. but we in higher education have
to find the means of delivering high quality education at a lower cost. >> so let's turn to one of the first important issues that we've outlined with higher education, access. within ten years, the majority of high school graduates will be students of color. yet post secondary education has yet to resolve the discrepancies in performance and achievement between those traditionally under served students. reshearch shows there's less emphasis on access. dr. kirwan you've spent a better part of your degree advocating for access across all lines. >> well, one of the things we've done is we established a goal to
do what we call, close the achievement gap. each of our institutions is measured in part each year on their ability to reduce the retention rate and completion rate between the student body as a whole and under representative minorities and low income students. it's amazing if you establish a goal like that and start measuring results, how much progress you can make. the other thing -- there are any number of initiatives, activities that one should embrace in this regard but one of the things i feel most keenly about is the emperative for providing more need based aid. we are not in a time when we should allow our institutions to buy students who can afford to
go to college anyway. we need to devote more and more of our financial aid resources within our institutions and our states to support students who have financial needs. so those are two things that i would mention that i feel have made a difference in maryland. we've increased the proportion of dollars we spent by 50% over the last five years on knead based aid. i think that's a very important component of what we must do. >> president napolitano, what do you see as the responsibility of higher education, states, and the federal government in improving access it higher education? >> well, again. this is why i'm such a fervent supporter of the great public universities our country but let me give you a thumb scale sketch of the university california. it's ten campuses, 230,000
students. 9 of which take under graduates and have graduate and professional schools. one campus, the one in san francisco is only post graduate basic research and the medical nursing, fapharmacy and dental schools. each of those four schools by the way, ucsf were the number 1 recipient of nih grapts in tnts always among the top three. those are very high quality educations and very competitive to get in. california for 20 years has had a ban on state supported affi affirmative action. it has investmented a lot of resources in how do you comply with the law and yet make sure the door of the university of this type of university remains open. i think we've done an okay job. i'm claiming credit for a lot of work done before me.
46% of our students who graduated last -- who are entering this coming year. about 45, 46% will be first generation students. 42% of our students are pel grant eligible. if you come from a family that makes less than $80,000 a year in california, you pay no tutition at the university of california. how have we done that while the le legislature has slashed the budget. one is tuition went up so now it's about 12,000 a year. it's till a great bargain. i'm hope we get to have a little conversation about some of the things that have been said but i think for the kind of university that uc is, it's a great bargain. it used to be a cheaper great
bargain by a lot. but we have a very aggressive return to aid policy. so 30% of every tuition dollar goes right back into student aid. it makes it kind of a very perpetual loop that happens. that enables us to do be like i said, an engine of social mobility. how are we doing on under represented groups? we're not doing as well. so about a third of our student body would come from historically under represented groups. this year for the first time in the group mission, latinos will exceed white students in california. that is the arc of history. that is coming. we still have a gap between the percentage of latino students who graduate from high school and those that apply for and
then attend the university of california. that's the delta i'm looking at. and than we have had for too long, too low, a representation from our african-american young people in california. there are a lot of reasons for that. we are now looking for and doing a lot of things in terms of outreach pipe lines and with our community colleges and the community college transfer process to try to move that needle. >> can i just add real quickly. i want to offer my congratulations to the university of california because your record, the university's record of serving low income students, the statistic you just gave, that's a benchmark everybody should aspire to achieve. so my hat is off to what the way the state of california and the
university of california has concentrated its effort to support low income students. >> yeah, it's good. thank you. >> one of the top issues that we hear a lot from different states on in higher ed is the governance and the changing nature of governance that many legislatures are considering along with some of the current boards and states. we would like to hear your current insight on governance and where you think that is transitioning in the next two to four years? >> the issue of governance, i guess i would answer that looking at it in at least three different ways. the first way would be how do we coordinate what goes on from p 320 becau through 20. preschool through college. even though 20 -- it's 24 for a lot of places. how do we coordinate that. let me ask out here.
so many of you participate in some sort of flip classroom or hybrid classroom using technology, online courses. how many of do you that that are teachers? >> i'm looking for all the teachers that are out here. >> a significant amount. i would say within the next five years, 50% of all secretariay i secondary classes will be available on line. in many cases available for little or no cost. we are creating a generation of students that expect that of higher education. it's been nippled on the periphery.