tv Lectures in History CSPAN October 12, 2014 12:00am-12:51am EDT
north, once again it is a french and indian war, a war that occurred just before the french indian wars. was again, as always, i put up a couple of words up here for spelling. these are not words you necessarily need to remember. often time i like to mention these, and students want to get the spelling. so you will be able to get the spellings off there. we are going to start off the word "utrecht," which ended queen anne's war, and it ushered in a relative peace in europe and in the colonies. but war interrupted in late 70 39, and this was when britain declared war on spain -- 1739. this was when britain declared war on spain. this is a listing that was posted in 1738, saying, look, the spanish are seizing our ships on the high seas, this is an insult, there is an increasing clamor in britain, and we need to do something about it. also, the tension between the british and the spanish is between a slave contract that
was a 30 year contract. there was some specific numbers on that. so the bottom line was there was tension between 10 and spain, and there was one incident in particular that later gave this conflict its name. and you will think, that is an odd day. the war of jenkins' ear, where did that come from? the rebecca was one of the ships that had been seized by the spanish, a british merchant ship, and the captive of -- the captain of that ship was robert jenkins, and in the process of being or day, his ear was cut off. jenkins took it upon himself to carry the ear around, he would put in a jar, may be taken to a bar to get free drink, i don't know. but to jenkins, that ear was symbolic. he had a cut off in 1741, and you can see in the cartoon here he is talking to the prime
minister, and he is taking off his wig to show his ear. the primary string is dismissing him. he would rather talk to a lady there than to deal with this issue. -- the prime minister is dismissing him. he would rather talk to a lady there, then to deal with this issue. we are going to focus on events in the colonies and we are going to start with this fellow here, james olglethorpe. we might think of him as being the colonial governor of that area. seizing the opportunity, he saw a war between britain and spain to have broken out, oglethorpe sees an opportunity in the area what is now the state of florida
and georgia, and -- well, there is a claim by both the spanish and the british colonists -- and oglethorpe thought it would be great to season for the crown. crown.e it for the he puts together a force of british regulars and colonial militia and indian allies in the summer of 1739. and they begin marching towards -- where were the begin marching? saint augustine, right? saint augustine. so oglethorpe put this together, he captures several small spanish forts, and in late june, he enters say augustine -- saint augustine. here is a picture of the little tour guide you can get there.
this is a fort in response to the drake raid. oglethorpe and history of the going to seize that fort, at the same time the royal navy from the west indies squadron are going to come in for some fresh supplies. the local spanish population was going to withdraw into the four, and it will be easy to take over. and that is exactly what took place. the fort was run by manuel de montiano, and he said we are going to hang out here in the fort and defend it for the king.
we actually have really good records of this. we have an interesting slide here. this is the digital library in georgia. and you can see this document and you can wonder why montiano wrote in english? somebody transcribed all of his documents. it is a great resource if you don't speak spanish. i brought this up because i wanted to talk about this letter that he wrote on the 24th of june, the day the oglethorpe began his siege. he says about halfway down here, "i cannot express to you the confusion of this place. it is pitiable to behold." i'm not sure if you talking
about the fort or the landscape nearby, but he says, " if you cannot aid us, we will surely perish." in fact, the supplies that they asked for were able to reach the fort. the seize failed, oglethorpe realized that he was not going to be able to continue it, and he recuses to return to georgia, or what will become of georgia. what you think will happen? that's right, a counterattack. so manuel de montiano contacted the spanish government and said that they have been attacked and would like to re-attack, and they give him about 5000 troops. 5000 is a large number of troops in the 18th century. so montiano is in charge of these troops, and they sail up
to what is now georgia, and they actually outnumber the georgian defenders, which is a combination of colonial militia, british defenders, and indians by about four and a half to one. and yet, oglethorpe is able to defeat the invasion, there are two battles that take place in july. the more significant of which is the battle of the bloody marsh, and that is why they have a statue of him, a nine foot tall statue, because he saved the colonies there from an invasion by the spanish. essentially, that is the end of
major operations in the war of jenkins' ear in north america. montiano decides to withdraw his forces after he is defeated, that nothing ever comes of oglethorpe bosch plans -- oglethorpe's plans, and at the end of the day nothing really changes. on your slide here, at the inset right here, he goes back up and the spanish are defeated there at the bloody marsh. so as far as american history is concerned, it was inconclusive. it was essentially a draw. in the war between -- the border between florida and georgia remains as a rough line between the wilderness, and it would stay that way and tell -- until 1763, which would be the treaty of paris, which we will talk about next week. so that was a conflict, the
conflict of jenkins' ear in north america, but then there's others. france is supporting spain, but there is largely a maritime war. britain is not a just to get any land war with france. but if we go back to 1740, there are some things going on in europe. one of those things occurs in the spring of 1740, a new monarch sits on the prussian throne. he is also known as project -- frederick the great. his father passes away in the may of 1740. the emperor of the holy roman empire, charles vi, passes away. and frederick recognizes a good opportunity. he is a prussian with growing power, and he saw the secession crisis in austria as an opportunity. maria theresa was his daughter,
and during his lifetime, he had tried to kind of get a whole bunch of stuff lined up, with the idea that that a woman could rule the throne. that was not possible, but in other places like a good it was, but it was contested. so maria theresa was fine, but others said that is not ok, but it was about her gender but it was also about power. so frederick is using this as somewhat as an excuse to attack the holy roman empire, and essentially war breaks out between the habsburg monarchy and their allies and the prussians. britain tends to side with the austrian habsburgs, while france
tends to side with prussia. ultimately this cold war between france and britain ends in march of 1744 when france declares war on britain. 11 days later, britain responds in kind, and then we have a major war in europe. really, it is almost a world war. it is known as the war of austrian succession in european history. once again, there is an opportunity. not just for the english colonist, but for the french colonist. of course as you recall, in the treaty of utrecht, this was the opportunity for france to reclaim its lost territory of acadia. that is what the french governor of canada does, he launches an
expedition to recapture the capital of it nova scotia, which is annapolis royal. the french have, and we talked about this in the last class, a master forest -- fortress here at louisbourg. there is a big fortress with almost 150 cannons, it took a number of years to build, so not only is it a great place to launch an expedition, it is also a great place to house your privateers. not only are the french interested in retaking acadia, they are interested in making some money. and a privateer is a pirate who has been authorized by the government, the french government has given a letter of mark saying that you are authorized to commit private --
piracy against the british. one man's pirate is another man's privateer. so if we can get some protection by the fortress, we are in great shape. so the colonists are unhappy about this. the new england colonists like a buffer zone, they do like the fact that acadia has been renamed nova scotia, a means it is in british hands, they're not happy about these privateers, there are merchants in the business of making money. if a ship is captured, that is not good. so the french launch this expedition. the british are unhappy about the effort to recapture nova
scotia, or acadia, and the french siege of annapolis royal was supported by the local indian tribe. this tribe was allied -- they were not treated well by the british in nova scotia -- so they allied with the french. the m'kraq wanted peace, so the bottom line is that the effort by the french to recapture is not particular successful. if that, it is not successful at all. fail. win nova scotia/acadia is threatened by privateers, a politician decides that this is an opportunity for him. william shirley proposes a bold
proposal. he takes this to the massachusetts general court, and he says, look. we can help our english brothers over in nova scotia, and equally but not more import, we can take louisbourg. what he supposed the massachusetts general court said? [indiscernible] yes that is exactly what they said! they said, are you crazy? but he is persuasive and he gets a number of people in the boston area to support him, and they offered to support this expedition, and he goes back and he goes back to the general -- and eventually by one vote, they approve the expedition. he is also, at the same time, responding -- corresponding with the british government. he is writing to the general of
the west indies station, and he is trying to get people to help them. basically this is sometimes called shirley's war. but what is important is that people in the colonies come together. massachusetts, connecticut, rhode island, new hampshire, they all contribute troops. even some of the mid-atlantic states, although they do not all commit troops, they support. new york said they would give cannons, they will help you out there. pennsylvania, which was quaker, they would provide food and clothing and equipped for you guys. so the interesting thing about this is is that they are very focused on a specific colony. this is really pan-colonial, if
you will, to recapture louisbourg. the background, there are 2.0 -- two points i to make. it was a close vote. the last guy i voted for, the guy it was going to come to vote, he broke his leg, and he was not able to vote, but what is more important and what we do know is that shirley had good intelligence. right? he knew that morale in louisbourg was low. at one point, prior to his request there was a mutiny. it is not uncommon for governments to be unable to pay their armies.
if that happened, it was entirely ok to mutiny. the mutiny was essentially, i am not doing anything until you pay me. so there was low morale. shirley knew this. he has to choose a leader for this expedition. he has already talked to peter warren. warren convenes a council of the captains, and he says he would like to help, but he needs the king to buy into this, and he does not have that yet. eventually, shirley is willing to take the expedition without royal support. he is still looking around and trying to find somebody who can
lead the expedition. this is an aerial view. this gives you an idea of the difficulty of capturing this area. at the time, this was also filled little towns and batteries, and you have land somewhere, if you come to the land side, it can be difficult, and if you come from the seaside, you are are going to be shot by the batteries there, so this is a very difficult operation. so you need just the right guy for this. in fact, shirley finds the man in william pepperrell. i love this portrait. pepperrell was a great choice. he was described as a gentleman of sterling but not perfect qualities. but the point about his wealth is also not a significance.
in addition to that, he also provided money to pay for bounties. what they you have to do is to pay bounty to get people to join your expedition. so clearly the money that was contributed by william pepperrell and others was very important. but he did not have any significant military background. warren said, yes, we will support this expedition. although the money helped in raising troops for the expedition, there is another factor i want to introduce, and that is the role of the local merchant. they played a large role drumming up the support in attacking as what many saw as england's papist enemies. the participants themselves believed wholeheartedly that they were doing god -- work. -- god's work. for example, this is a letter that was written during the
time, "i am willing to stay until god's time comes." his wife writes, "i leave you in the hand of god." these are available on google books, there are number of things were published in the 18th century, letters that were published between soldiers writing back home, and they -- a majority of them -- invoke this believe in god, a belief in god's work, that god was on their side. there are a lot of factors that go into this. there are a lot of soldiers that we go and fight in this conflict. well, shirley was able to put together a large expedition. the first contingent of which arrived on the 11th of may of
1745. there were also ships under the control of peter warren. warren and shirley did not get along very well -- they got along well enough to make the operation a success. everyone from the higher echelons of society, and a group of soldiers plundered in of french rum, and they replied that it was better than theirs. but by large, these militia men held up, and they are not usually professional soldiers, and the combined forces of the colonial expedition and the royal navy both the siege and the bar to the fortress. this prevented supplies from reaching louisbourg.
in a little under seven weeks, the french capitulated. and here you have a temporary drawing, this is the fortress, you can see here how difficult -- is the area, this is the fortress, but even here, you have guns -- you have land, it stops the ships from coming in, it is a difficult task. that say, modern historians would argue that it probably was not as difficult as it was made out to be. we know from the history of louisbourg that there was some history with the construction, there was problems because of the weather that the masonry was more likely to crumble, and a few other things. the bottom line is that although it was not that as impressive as the colonies turned out to be,
it was still pretty impressive. it was considered the most impressive fortress of the new world. the colonial army was instrumental in achieving this colonial expedition. many have argued that the capture of louisbourg was almost the greatest achievement of colonial troops, and it did have some long-lasting applications. it reduced public opinion of the british army. it led numerous colonists to conclude that british soldiers were superior or equal to british regulars.
you might say, wait a minute, this is the french. but if you have got in your side, so the one thing is that they could beat the professional french army at louisbourg, but you have the contrast of success at louisbourg with two major british beats at the same time. in 1741 the british suffered a massive defeat you what is now known as present-day colombia, and the colonial people were not impressed with the british. and then more recently, and it very stark contrast to the fissile capture of louisbourg -- to the successful capture of louisbourg, there was the capture of the french army in may of 1745. it was still in people's memory. so the british army does not see as impressive, so this
impression develops that citizen soldiers are as equal to the british army. so we are going to come back to that theme as we get to the early years of the revolution. and here is one more for you. this is a sketch of louisbourg done after the occupation -- or during the occupation -- we do not know the exact year. you get a real feel for what it would have looked like. now, louis xvii of france put a commander in charge of a next expedition -- a massive naval expedition -- to go and find a new fort. he gives the commander a lot of latitude, and he wants to find something similar to louisbourg. so the naval minister assembles a force, and it is a massive force.
it consist of 11,000 men and 25,000 pounds of shipping, and it was the largest french force to sail to the new world until the revolution. this is double the size of the spanish ever to take georgia or even the colonial successful attempt at louisbourg. so this is a massive, massive expedition. the naval commander chose the duc d'anville, and d'anville was described by one scholar as virtually without naval experience. he had a very high rank, and you might wonder why the king paid
this guy, and he came to this position as a courtier admiral, and if you look at all the other admirals, there are 80 years old. so he was exley fairly young. he was a middle -- he was actually fairly young. he was a middle-aged guy. but he took his job seriously, and started to work with the naval ministry to put together a plan. but from the beginning of the expedition, it was a set with problems. they were supposed to leave an early spring, and they left in late spring, about a three-month
delay. because they did not get out on time, the winds had shifted, so they were very close -- slow to get there. why is this a problem? when you are on a ship for a longer time, you are more prone to getting diseases, so a lot of people got scurvy. they also got a lot of stormy weather, including a hurricane, as they entered the new world. there was not a lot of good stuff going on. they were slow to get manned provisions, they relate to leave, they were sick, -- they were late to leave, they were sick, they hit a hurricane, so they got there around november or december. so they were late getting there, so they began to ask, do we go back home? occasionally, people wonder, did the ship sink? and what it it shows up in poor -- and one day it shows up in port.
and then the duc d'anville dies surely after arriving. history is fascinated with what killed him. most people think it was probably a stroke, but we are not sure the stroke kill him, he had classic symptoms of a stroke, he mumbled, or mumbled words and stuff, but his doctors were trying to fix them. so how did they fix him in the 18th century? they bled him. he kept getting bled. so eventually he's a comment he died, so now there is -- so eventually he succumbed and he died. and then there was another person put a command. he is overwhelmed with his responsibility. and three days after he takes
over, he resigned. apparently, we do not know the full story, and he tried to commit suicide in a feverish delirium. so the story goes that he was in his room, and they heard a yell, and they try to get in the room and it was locked. they broke the door open, and there he was with his sword going to his belly and sticking out his back. he was mumbling about something. it was a miracle recovery. they actually pulled the sword out he recovered. so then it fell to the third guy. so he looked at quebec, he said it is not going to happen, so they discussed possibly going back, but he knew that was probably not a good idea. so he is quite bellicose, in the demise of his predecessor, there was some question as to what role he played. he force the guy out of the position? most people believe the other one was probably just overwhelmed. but he realized there was not any hope of taking louisbourg, so another effort was taken to
recapture annapolis royal. this effort, too, ended in failure. this was a complete and total fill your. in fact, there is a book entitled "the anatomy of a naval disaster." and it really is. i have talked about these majestic, poor leadership, including weather, -- logistics, poor leadership, bad weather, all of these factors came into play. but the colonists focused on one factor in particular. and i'm going to ask you -- what do you think of these four things, leadership, whether, illness, and other things, what do you think in an 18th-century colonists' mind would be the reason why they did not make it? >> weather? >> and who controls the weather?
>> god. there were rumors spreading throughout england that the armada was coming for boston. they could have attacked the eastern seaboard, but that was not their primary focus, their land was -- there bogus was on acadia. later we will -- their focus was on acadia. later we will talk about that further with the revolution, but there was the fear that the french were coming an attack a city on the east coast. magically -- or, i guess if you are religious -- providentially, this storm comes right before the french arrive.
and there is this great poll by henry wadsworth longfellow the talks about it. it is called "the ballad of the french fleet." and here is a painting by vernet of this kind of incident. let me read this poem really quickly. this is dated october of 1746. longfellow's writing in the 19th century, but we will get back to the and a second. for this, admiral d'anville would go against her helpless boston town. the coming of the fleet and the danger hovering near. i stood in the old south saying humbly, let us pray.
o lord, in thy providence, i make this prayer. even as i pray, it came with mighty power, and it shook the walls. the lightning suddenly unsheathed, and i cried, "stand still and see the salvation of the lord!" the fleet had overtook, and down the reeling decks crash the overwhelming seas. they were carried away and sank like lead and brine. so wadsworth writes in the 19
century, but we are talking about the 18th century, but i think it accurately captures the view of the new englanders during this situation. it shows the religious aspect to conflict that we were talking about. after 1746, there are a few minor actions, at one point, there is an effort to take this little part of nova scotia here. this is another failed attempt. so basically, after this d'anville action, there is the privateering going on, and by the way, the british are also using privateering to fight the
french. but the bottom line is that a kind of guys down in this area. one reason for that is that the french have essentially lost the northeast by the end of 1747. in may and then again in october, there were two very famous naval battles that were disastrous for the french, these were the first and second battles of finisterre. of italy, the convoys were able to stop -- obviously, the convoys were able to stop the french. the war ended in a stalemate. france still had the advantage in europe, and they had the
advantage and the lan side, but the royal navy in britain had achieved the upper hand. so with this kind of stalemate in place, the two sides began negotiations. or it teresa was allowed to regain the throne -- maria theresa was allowed to regain the throne. essentially although the war had been fought, it was a draw essentially, and both sides came back. and a new war breaks out in another decade known as the
seven years' war. the war as with the treaty of aix-la-chapelle, and that assigned in october of 1748. we have seen this before. this ends the status of antebellum. what happens? right. essentially goes back. antebellum returns. right, it goes back to the french. so if you are a british colonist, what you think of that? what you think of that? we does it back all of this treasure. yeah, you are not happy. britain had won the war, french had dominated on the continent, but the british had the maritime advantage. we had this great achievement and you took it away from us with the stroke of a pen.
so that is the perception from the french. this is curated many colonists -- in curated many colonists -- infuriated many colonists. so the colonists are not happy about the return of louisbourg. in the grand geopolitical perspective, you have to take a little perspective, it makes sense from the french perspective, but it is not pleasing for the colonists. in discussing king george's war, what are things we can talk about? there are three things that we can take away from this particular conflict. the british colonist have once again banded together in times of crisis as we talked about before, and they came together in a feeling of solidarity. there is a shared sense of community. maybe it would be like going to
a big football game. by the end of the game, you are all one, you are all cheering for the team. this idea that this crisis comes in the eu are altogether, and there was also panic, the coast is going -- and you are altogether, and there was also panic, the coast is going to be rated. it increased a sense of community. that is one thing. the second thing is that it provides valuable military experience. as we know, because we have seen the future, there are some wars coming up, the french indian war, the american revolution, so it there are colonists who
fought in queen anne's war, that they are not able to fight. but the next war takes place just 10 years later, so there is definitely some valuable military experience that is gained because of this. and lastly, i inc., and we cut -- i think, and we covered this, that providence was on their side. something would allow for the defeat of a regular army. this is something that a lot of people take away. so with that, i will go ahead and open for questions, and i actually have a chronology here, so, any-- yes sir? [indiscernible]
so the question is, the louisbourg four, was there another time it was taken -- fort, was there another time it was taken? yes, the british took it again, and the fact that they took it in 1745, but they take it again in 1748. there is a definite knowledge, and it ties into the idea of military gain. it had it done once, and for provincials had done it, so we will be looking at that next week. yes sir? >> [indiscernible] >> great question. it seems like the royal navy is kind of helpful. two part answer to that. navies are really expensive. really expensive. they are expensive to build and expensive to maintain. one of the problem that the french has is that they don't have money, and this is the king of france. there really is no motivation
for them to invest all this money in the navy, and after all, they are british citizens. why would you build a continental navy if you have the royal navy and you are british. we will see in the 70 -- we will see in the seven years' war that the british citizens and partners will come together, in a way, you are looking ahead, which is great. there is really no reason why a navy would be built by the colonists. >> you are saying that colonists -- [indiscernible] -- the american revolution? >> great question. is this all about the formation of american unity? i want to say yes but it want to say no.
-- but i also want to say no. it is easy to see the colonies as american, but it was really about a regional identity. before you can have a national identity you need a regional identity. one of the interesting things is that there is this disconnect, we have the war down south and then other than mentioning the royal navy, i did not mention the war up north, king george's war. that is not accidental. the carolinas were not -- carolinans were not going to send up troops. what you have in each war is
that they come a little bit closer together, and all of the new england colonies provide troops. and the york and has a mania did not supply troops but supplies. so there is a regional identity more so that we see in other wars. >> is it all good to go or is it more of a slight skirmish to regrab the fort? >> there was no skirmish. pounding then walls. we capture the fort, and they actually start lobbing shells into the city. you can see in this image. this is from the library at the university of michigan. this was done between the occupation. but once the war is over, here are the keys to the fort. in a way, another reason to be
upset, hey, wait a minute, we dispense three years rebuilding a far and we gave it back to all new and improved! that was further angering the colonists. another quick one. >> i don't want to jump too much aheaut -- [indiscernible] >> treaty of paris, that is not very good for the french war with the spanish. all right, thank you everybody for coming, i appreciate it, and let's get those hawkeyes this weekend. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2014] [captioning performed by national captioning institute] >> join us each saturday evening at 8 p.m. and midnight eastern .rom classroom lectures
lectures and history are also available as podcasts. visit our website at www.c-span.org/history, or download them on itunes. cam-span's 2015 student competition is underway should --will award 150 prices prices p create a documentary on the topic -- that tree branches and you fea. by generallymilar 20, 2015. go to studentcam.org. grab a camera and get started today. >> coming up next, author elizabeth cobbs hoffman look at american and umpire or an
empire? she argues the u.s. has played the role of umpires since -- she also argues that umpires cannot win. this program was sponsored by world denver. it is about an hour. >> thank you so much, kay, and thank you all for being here. i can't tell you how pleased and honored i am to be here addressing the world affairs council and especially because what i hope we're going to discuss tonight is i think one of the most critical questions of our time, which is, you're