tv Key Capitol Hill Hearings CSPAN October 17, 2014 2:01am-4:31am EDT
industry and funded by your local cable or satellite provider. watch us in hd, like us on facebook and follow us on twitter. next, the first in a series of discussions from this year's national bullying prevention summit. officials from the national institutes of health and the education department describe trends in bullying behavior over the past year. it is part of an effort to create a national strategy that engages private and public organizations. this is 45 minutes. good morning, everyone. i would like to introduce the first session which is entitled bullying trends where we have
been, where we are now and where we are going. we have three excellent speakers for the session. first up is mr. tom snyder from the department of education. he is the director of annual reports and information staff at the national center for education statistics and is a recognized expert on education statistics. [ applause ] >> thank you for this opportunity to come talk to you about some of the data that we collect and compile at the national center for education statistics. many of the things i am going to talk about to you today you may be familiar with and certainly working with bullying there are many things you are well aware of from your own observations. i think there is something here for everybody that is going to be some new things that we can talk about. there is a lot of new sources coming out with bullying data. there are new sources that you
can take advantage of that may be useful in your presentations. here we go. there is a number of sources for bullying data. some of them go back further in time and some are very recent. in particular there is a survey on school crime and safety that is done based on public schools. this survey has been in process since 1999-2000. this survey unfortunately was terminated in 2009-'10 but there is a process underway to begin the survey again. there is a survey done based on health statistics from the world health organization. and that is on health behavior in school aged children. it covers children in grades six through eight. this particular survey is based on individuals unlike the public school survey which is actually
a survey of schools. also, the traditional survey that we have used at the national center for education statistics and in particular in our indicators of school crime and safety survey is the national crime victimization survey. we use what is called the school crime supplement. this is the specific survey that has the information on the bullying. there is also an excellent survey from cdc, the youth risk behavior surveillance system. we actually use that in our school indicators report, as well. that covers grades 9 through 12. this is an individual level survey. it covers children in grades 9 through 12. one thing i think is interesting, this is an observation in terms of recognition of the problem of bullying across the world is the new surveys that are coming out from some of the international organizations. i do a lot of international educational statistics, as well.
in my work with colleagues i am getting a lot of feedback that people are interested and have many programs going on about bullying and specifically in the nordic countries very aggressive moves towards preventing bullying. i'm looking at charts i have that highlight bullying statistics. this is based on the national crime victimization survey which covers children ages 12 through 18. basically you can see that there is no real trend in terms of bullying going up and down for males and females together. there is a decline over time in bullying for males. however, we don't see that for females. there is really no trend for females. differences there are nonsignificant. we are in position where difference between males and females is not significant in 2005 but now females are more likely to be bullied than males.
if we look at the kinds of bullying that studentstypically report you can see that the ones most frequently reported are being a subject of rumors, having fun made of them. some of the bullying articles i have been reading have focused more on physical bullying but that is actually less of the actual bullying occurrences. we have to recognize it may not be readily observable. perhaps it is worth notice that the differences for males and females is highlight here is rumors and being made fun of is much higher for females than for males. for males they are more likely to be involved in sort of a physical bullying incident. the males are slightly more likely to be pushed or shove or
tripped than a female. if we turn towards the grades that students are most likely to be bullied at. middle school is the period of time where children are most likely to be bullied so grades six and seven. for cyber bullying grades 10 and 11 students are more likely to be cyber bullied than grades 6 and 7. if we look at bullying by race ethnicity white students are more likely to be bullied than hispanic and asian students. black students are also less likely to be cyber bullied than white students. turning towards the locations where children are most likely to be bullied mosttypically it is actually inside the schools.
sometimes people think maybe school buses are more common location. there is certainly bullying on school buses or on school grounds most bullying does occur on hallways or stair wells inside the classrooms. if you are thinking about middle school or high school students you have a lot of potential for things to happen in between classes and that is what the data shows. in terms of differences between males and females the only substantial difference here is between males and females with respect to bullying and bathrooms or locker rooms. it turns out that males are more likely to be bullied in those particular locations. one of the things i think is particularly important as a practitioner or dealing with bullying problems is to know about how often you are actually alerted by the students that a bullying incident has occurred. it turns out that the younger
children are more likely to report a bullying incident than an older child. this is important because it may effect your knowledge about what is actually occurring in the school and when we turn to look at school reported data you will see that there is huge potential for incidents not being reported. even in here in the best case among sixth graders only about half of the incidents are reported. turning now to look at some of the data that is actually reported by schools. this contrasts with what we were just talking about which were actually data reported by students themselves. this does show a decline in terms of the bullying being reported to the schools. what the schools were asked to report back was whether bullying incidents were occurring at least once per week. and i think you have to think in terms of this is what is coming up to the principal's office, something the principal is dealing with at least once a week. it is certainly not reflective
of what is happening for individual students but tells you about the more extreme cases that are arising to the principal's level where they would be logical to report that. we see a decline here between '99-2000 and 2010 dropping from 29% of schools reporting this occurring every week to 23%. you are looking at the same data but at the various types of schools. you can see as might be expected from student reported data that middle schools are most likely to report frequent bullying occurren occurrences. you see about equal percentages of elementary schools and high schools. reinforcing unfortunately we don't have a lot of information about elementary school students. this is one of the few places where we have something. children younger than sixth grade are really not able to report. they don't have the understanding of the
questionnaire instruments, too complicated for them. while they can report to an adult on an individual level they can't fill out survey forms in a large scale survey for something like this. there is also problems with sensitivity, as well. that is another issue with gathering information from very young children. i want to turn now to talk briefly about some of the other data sources that you may be able to use and may be of interest to you. the health behavior survey is done by w.h.o. this survey is not readily extensible. there is important research using this survey but the website doesn't really provide information. you have to obtain raw data sets and do your own analysis. while i think you may encounter this data source looking at journal articles or references it may not be convenient to use. i should note that the survey has identified that there was a
decline in bullying for this age group. it is, again, looking at middle grade students and they have a decline from 12.6% to 7.5%. you will notice that the bullying data don't align across the surveys. some of it has to do with survey methodology. in this case it is also important that the reference period is the past couple of months. it is not a year long reference period. the information we were looking at before was a year long reference period. the children reporting about bullying that occurred over an entire school year. one of the surveys i am most enthusiastic is on the youth risk behavior surveillance system. this covers grades 9 to 12. this website gets my recommendation for being one that is easy to use. i encourage people. they have a very nice data tool that you can actually get bullying data for your state. and so i think this is a really good reference point for you and you can obtain the information
easily. i am going to briefly mention two international studies. there is a bullying question on surveys but in the context of student assessment. it is a small part of the survey but does illustrate that bullying is important in other countries and is a serious problem. it is about the same level as the united states. there is a bullying question in the program for international student assessment and concerns on 15 year olds. somewhat surprisingly bullying is reported more of a problem in some of the very high achieving countries. i wasn't able to assemble that in context for you but it was an interesting observation. i wanted to wind up the presentation there. i want to welcome you to look at our indicators of school crime safety report. it has a wealth of information about bullying and other aspects
of crime and misbehavior in schools. we have a crime and safety survey group and there is a website to access more information on our surveys. thank you. [ applause ] our next speaker is dr. katherine bradshaw from the university of virginia where she is professor and associate dean for research and faculty development. some of her research projects include examining bullying in school climate and the design, evaluation and implementation of evidence-based prevention programs in schools. [ applause ] >> thank you so much for inviting me here today. i am pleased to report out some findings from an institute of medicine work shop that was held
recently just this past april on the topic of bullying. it is really quite a thrill not only to participate in an iom activity but also just to see the institute of medicine focus on the issue of bullying. those of us who have been doing this work for sometime felt it was an educational issue or school issue. to see it rise to the level based on the federal partners pushing it and wanting it be covered through an iom report is very exciting and i think will help chart it as a top priority both within the medical field as well as within education and other fields so i am really very excited about that. so i am speaking here as a member of the panel and not an official briefing on the institute of medicine report. there is an official briefing that just got released today that is on the table there. i want to make sure you see that and you can take a quick look at that today and perhaps do a more thorough read. it was intended to have a more
practitioner and research base summary for a wide audience. so i am going to give you a quick overview of some of the material that was covered in the report and some of the highlights. the overall theme was really just to pull together information about bullying including its prevalence, impact, what do we know in terms of strengths of the field and what are the gaps and different partners we need to work with in terms of putting together a more systematic bullying prevention initiative. a couple of themes came out as we started thinking about the reflections on this particular event. and one of which was the interdisciplinary group that helped organize this. we were led by fred rivera who is the editor of jamma pediatrics and has led a number of different efforts around consensus reports and iom reports. so it is really quite an honor to work with him as our chair.
there were a number of other people from different disciplines. it is a really important piece for the iom to make sure different disciplines are represented there. i come from several disciplines myself in terms of education, psychology, public health so that was nice. and then nina fred ln is from the field of nursing. nancy guerra is a developmental psychologist. denise is a criminologist who has perspective on the field. megan morano is a pediatrician and then we were joined by a lawyer on our team, jonathan torres who provided a nice perspective around legal issues. in terms of general themes that i extracted and then i will delve into particular topics more specifically i thought it was quite important and very exciting to see iom embrace the idea of different perspectives. so we actually convened a youth
panel that were there as well as a practitioner panel. so i helped put together the practitioner panel. i knew a couple of youth who were strong advocates in this area. they weren't just tacked on at the end. they were front and center. we began the event having them speak about their experiences and perspectives. they were in many ways providing us ongoing dialogue and feedback about the topics. it was really great to have that perspective in house and not just a tack on. it was truly embedded throughout and paused many times to ask for their feedback on these particular issues. the interdisciplinary i talked about the connection between physical health and mental health is one that iom does so nicely and was really great to see in terms of how we knit together the different topics that were covered under the broader heading of bullying prevention. as a developmentalist the life course perspective was really
nice. the original title had a life course perspective. we struggled a little bit about how to bring that in since most of the work was focused on school aged youth. we talked about bullying or adulthood and long term impacts. as we start thinking about the notion of bullying showing up in work place violence and other concerns for adults so it is not just a kid phenomenon although there is tension between that and definition put forward by cdc. it is interesting to think about the different definition and how we can stretch that. cultural and contextual considerations are critical for this issue. rather than having a panel on cultural factors we wanted to weave that through different topics. there were times we had to stop and make sure we were respecting and reflecting a cultural on this. that is one area we need to improve. and evaluating the strengths as
well as the gaps in the literature. to drill down a little bit more the sessions began with an opening by sue limbburg who has done a lot of work in the area and provided a little bit of the state of the science and what we know about prevalence and introduced the bullying definition by cdc. she prepared a longer report that will be covered in greater detail by the iom eventually. then we had a panel. dorothy was one of our fabulous panelists in the session talking about different issues related to the development of outcomes associated with bullying. we heard a little bit from robert faris about social networks and the peer context of bullying and issues related to culture as it is embedded within that. dorothy talked about a rich body of research that she has been leading and others have contributed to around harassment and teen dating violence.
tracy vallen cort had a presentation about how bullying gets under the skin and citing research about brain development and intersection between stress and coping strategies as it relates to bullying and some of the work she has done originally and citing others, as well. that was a unique perspective and one that was poigant. this is one of the graphics down at the bottom that she displayed about children's brains and showing this. i think the original citation for this is a bruce perry study several years ago looking at the impact of trauma on the brain and you don't have to be a neurscientist to see the two brains, the one on the left of a developing child and the one on the right that experienced abuse. it provides the frame for
thinking about trauma and adverse childhood events. i was on a panel with denise and dewey corp nel where we talked about a school perspective. this is where the body of literature is the largest, i would like to say the strongest but there are still a lot of gaps in this particular area. denise talked a lot about school climate. i was happy to hear that was picked up in the themes today and talked about legal issues and policies and zero tolerance and some of the reactive approaches that schools often take about video cameras and metal detectors. we don't have research to show they have a strong impact on reducing bullying. i spoke about meta analysis and research about particular programs. i had this graphic in my talk about is the glass half full or half empty? you can view it in terms of the review of literature. some programs can reduce bullying.
however, some of the studies are done abroad and may not generalize very well to the united states or are limited to certain outcomes. so while it is exciting to see there is evidence based models there is a lot more room for improvement as we think about their impact but uptake within school settings. so then we moved into talking about family perspectives and melissa holt was there and talked about the issues of disclosure and parent/child communication. she and her colleagues have a nice paper that highlights the importance of the family dinner as an opportunity to be talking about issues related to bullying and some of the research showing that it buffers the impacts of cyber bullying on mental health outcomes. it is exciting to see more research getting into the next layer outside of the school and the family because there hasn't been a lot of research in this area specifically in the topic of bullying.
mostly about how the parents respond and sometimes they don't respond in the ways we like them to often encouraging kids to hit back or fight for themselves or blaming their child for being a target of bullying. then we heard from deborah gorman smith who has done a lot in the area of youth violence prevention particularly in the chicago area much of which had a family focus. she summarized the broader research around youth violence prevention because there hasn't been a lot of programming focused specifically on families. it is promising to see the strategies we use in other areas of violence prevention might generalize to bullying should we begin to look at those outcomes. that is a limitation of the research that we haven't always looked at bullying behavior as an outcome. we need more precise measurement in making sure people are including measures particularly of bullying. then we moved into the hot topic of technology really very exciting set of presentations
focusing on the use of technology both to perpetrate bullying but also potential interventions. a public health researcher and who is doing work around several different areas gave a very nice presentation citing other public health preventions and work abroad and other areas like hiv prevention where she has used technology to try to prevent transmission of different types of health-related issues. that holds a lot of promise for the work of bullying prevention. it is exciting to see that interdisciplinary and international lens. community interventions you can see we are moving layers out of the eclogical bottle here. the further we go out the thinner the research base gets. we were excited to hear a little bit about some of the work in communities but that hasn't focused specifically on the area of bullying. the care model has been very
effective for reducing substance use and aggressive behavior but haven't focused so much on bullying. that is one area to focus. joe wright who is a very well established researcher and pediatrician, very well known here in d.c. for his work around policy and provides a pediatricians perspective on health. it was nice to hear from him making up the role of health care providers both within schools and community settings. and then this is also a very hot topic. peer led programs because there has been such a push about let's get youth involved and have youth be leaders and co facilitate different types of prevention. there has been controversy in the literature because we find when you group aggressive kids together and sometimes pair other kids up to try to prevent bullying you can make things worse if they are not done effectively and the right way. we brought in two leading researchers in this area to talk
about their perspectives and their long line of research around this area. and virtually they focus mostly on gang related issues and overlap with bullying and then also some of the intervention framework. we didn't have as much literature on peer led programs. there is such a push in this area. we have a lot of home grown models on this but don't have a lot that are rigorously protected. what are the programs they are effective. how can we support schools in promoting these kinds of models with integrity and models that don't do harm but improve outcomes for youth? then we -- the last level here was about policies and practices. this is more global perspective, talked about some of the issues related to lgbt populations which we heard from so eloquently this morning from our
colleagues about different perspectives. this was really a helpful knitting together of different policy perspectives and legal issues as it relates to bullying prevention because as you know all but one state has a specific law related to the issue of bullying. we talked about the fact that there hasn't been a lot of research documenting the outcomes of those particular policies and certainly very little research looking at implementation and variation of implementation of those. then we thought a little more about translating what we know, how do we get what we do know out into the field with a particular interest in evidence-based programs. while the glass is half full or half empty what do we know about the fields from implementation science and prevention science that we can clean on as we think about bullying prevention. we had three leading researchers in the area of prevention science including lou ann robuck who has done a lot of work,
abigail fagan in communities that care model and leading method aulgist, hendrix brown who has done work in suicide prevention and violence prevention. it was great to get their perspectives on this. just to wrap up here. next steps there was the release of the briefs. this is the first step in a process that iom often goes through depending on level of commitment and investment. the next step possibly could be what is referred to as a consensus study which would lead to a more formal book that would summarize different issues related to bullying. this was intended to be a bit of an overview of the field and help drive where are the gaps that need to be filled through a more systematic study. certainly that is intended to motivate and foster more research and more programming through the community. thank you for opportunity to share some of the work that the
iom did to support this. i want to acknowledge the great staff of national academies of science that put this together, patty simon, stacy smith it is great to be part of that network and see this issue raise up to this level of visibility. thank you. [ applause ] >> thank you. our last speaker is dr. michael lou, associate administrator of maternal and child health. prior to joining hrsa he was associate professor of subst obstetrics, gynecology and public health. he has received numerous awards and voted one of the best doctors in america since 2005 and well known for research on racial ethnic disparities and birth outcomes.
welcome. [ applause ] good morning. i'm delighted to be here and very honored to be invited to speak at this summit. let me start off by saying what a tremendous honor it is for me to share this panel. i also want to take a moment to thank our partners at hhs including cdc, nih, nicf as well as our partners at the department of education, justice and agriculture and the white house for all of their partnership and collaboration. i want to give a special shout out to my colleagues at the department of education and for the planning committee for bringing us all together, all their hard work and the tremendous leadership to bring us together for the summit. i was asked to talk about where
we are going. let me start by telling you how we are going to get there. i want you to take a moment and look around this room. that's how we are going to get there. we are not going to be able to move the needle on bullying prevention by working in silence. it is going to take coming together, federal partners, state and local partners, public and private partners, educators and researchers, doctors, nurses, social workers, public health professionals, family community leaders and youth and especially the youth all coming together, working across sectors that's how we are able to move the needle on bullying prevention in our nation. as was mentioned, i am hrsa's
associate administrator for maternal and child health. that's been our mission for over 100 years dating back to the sta establishment. i have been pushing hard to do better for kids and families in our country. when it comes to bullying prevention we know we can still do a lot better as a nation. we certainly made a lot of progress in the last decade. in 2004 when hrsa launched the first anti-bullying campaign many people still believed bully was just a rite of passage. kids will be kids. they used to say that is just what kids do. i think we have come a very long way in the last decade. in part due to the work of all
of the federal partners coming together to create the stopbullying.gov. i think in larger part due to all of the great work that you are all doing on the ground we really raised the public awareness to know that bullying is not okay and that there are serious destructive consequences across the life course. so we made a lot of progress in raising awareness, but as you just heard from mr. snyder lightning too many kids in this country are still bouullied eve day. what more can we do? how do we go from awareness to action. how can we move the needle on bullying prevention as a nation? in public health there is something we call the richmond college. the public health folks will
recognize richmond as the one who founded head start. you bring about real social change in three things. you need knowledge base, you need social strategy and you need political will. and i think that is where we need to go in the next five years if we are going to be able to move the needle on bullying prevention. we have to keep building on our knowledge base. we have to keep advancing social strategy and we have to keep growing political will to do something about bullying in our nation. so let me start with the knowledge base. you just heard a summary of the iom work shop from dr. bradshaw and the work shop brief was released. hrsa supported this work shop to begin to synthesize the
knowledge base about what we know and what we don't. what do we know in terms of what works and what doesn't work? it turns out that we actually know a lot about what works. as you just heard from dr. bradshaw. some of the most promising strategies involve a whole school, whole community approach that the entire school as a community to change the climate of the school and norms of behavior, taking a multilevel approach that target the individual, the classroom and the school and the community levels. we also know a lot about what doesn't work. zero tolerance policies don't work. conflict resolution and peer mediation don't work because bullying is a form of victimization and not conflict. group treatment for children who bully doesn't work because it might reinforce bullying or antisocial behaviors. we have to keep building up our
knowledge base about what works and what doesn't so that if in the next five years we are going to know a lot more about how to move the needle on bullying prevention for the nation. second, social strategy. while there is a lot that we still don't know we know enough to act today. so each of us need to be asking ourselves what more can we do. we at hrsa are doing our part. some of you may know that we have recently proposed making bully a performance measure for our title 5 block program. title 5 block grant is the primary system for child and maternal health. with $640 million it is a $6 bill kwn enterprise every year. it is one of the biggest levers we have to lift up the
population, one of the best vehicles we have to drive improvement, drive transformation in maternal and child health. i believe title 5 can play a major role in bullying prevention in the states. virginia the state title 5 program used block grant funds to initiate bullying prevention program using obey model that spread to elementary schools across the state. by making bullying prevention a performance measure we will be able to hold programs accountable for moving needles on bullying. title 5 cannot do this alone. it will take professionals, policymakers schools and communities coming together sharing best practices. we are looking at new ways to support the states and community in doing just that.
over the past two years we brought the whole science of collaborative improvement and innovation to help states share best practices in reducing infant mortality and improving birth outcome and created a coin complete with shared work space and data dashboard to provide real time data to drive real time improvement and brought together state officers, medicaid directors, title 5 directors, governor's office as well as professional leaders in this learning collaborative. i won't go into the detail of the coin here but just to say over the past two years in the 13 southern states where we started we saw 31% reduction in early elective deliveries which translates to 71,000 averted and a 9% reduction translating to about 15,000 fewer pregnant women smoking across the south.
i can't say all of that was attributable to the coin but i can say it has really accelerated collaborative improvement innovation across the states and we are looking to do the same for bullying prevention by bringing the science to accelerate across states across communities. third is political will. what we are doing will require a great deal of political will to get us there. we are seeing this ground swell of political will across the nation to do something about bullying. in all 50 states there are laws and/or policies in place to address bullying. many schools and school districts have adopted anti-bullying policies. many of you in this room have been champions of this national movement on bullying prevention that is growing. i want to give a special shout out to the youth and families in
the room. some of you have endured great pain or witnessed great pain and i applaud your courage to rise above the pain of speaking out so that other youth and other families don't have to go through what you went through. you are the real heroes, the real drivers of the national movement and going forward will have to keep that momentum going, keep growing the political will to do something about bullying prevention in our nation. so building the knowledge base, advancing social strategy, growing political will. that's what we have got to do to go from awareness to action. that is what it will take to start moving the needle on bullying in the next five years. so let me just close by adding one more thing that we are going to need going forward by going back to the first point i made. we not going to move the needle
on bullying by working in silence. we have to come together federal partners, state and local partners, public/private partners, schools and communities across sectors, across states. look around me. look around in the room. this is what change looks like. this is what leadership is all about. so in closing let me say on behalf of hrsa we are all in on this partnership. we all have a partner that you can count on. we will be working side by side with you doing everything we can to help you move the needle on bullying for the nation's children, youth and families. thank you very much. [ applause ]
we don't have a ton of time for questions but we do know that we have people in cyber space watching. so we have a virtual question from our social media outlets. >> we have over 300 folks virtually participating today. here is a question from twitter. is there research on the long lasting effects of awareness raising events? is that only a spike in terms of impact? >> so awareness raising is certainly part of the pieces of puzzles when thinking about putting together a bullying prevention initiative. we have a long line of public health research that shows that raising awareness is an important part but you also need the skill development to follow up. when you talk about awareness
raising event we recommend that that happen within a broader set of activities. the one shot deal of a symposium or program for kids in schools generally have not shown to be effective. they might be a kickoff event that could be combined with other things but the research shows you need to spend time developing skills and talking about issues on a regular ongoing basis and skill development happens for kids as well as adults. awareness raising i think is important and we have certainly seen national evidence of awareness in terms of increasing the general population's awareness of the issue of bullying. it will be exciting to see trends and translating that to outcomes but it is further evidence that it will take more than just awareness raising to change behavior. do we have other questions from the audience?
i ask that you go to one of the microphones so everybody can hear you. there is one right there and one here. >> go ahead. >> so my question is primarily for tom snyder. i had the opportunity last year to participate on a panel to discuss revising the bullying measures on the school crime supplement to better match the cdc uniform definition. i am wondering if you can speak to progress made. right now the questions on the school crime supplement are behavior based and don't take into account repetition or potential to be repeated or power. i am wondering if you can speak to whether they will be revised and when you might expect revised items? >> i can't speak to that specifically because i am not working on the survey myself. we will be releasing information from the th13 survey.
the first time we can see new numbers would be 2015 data collection in 2016. we can check on that or you can contact katherine chandler. thank you. >> i will take one last question. >> my question was generated by dr. lou's sharing of the knowledge base and things that we know works. i am curious if you have any familiarity or knowledge about how restorative justice or restorative practice works with students that have been involved in bullying. >> i don't but certainly love to hear more about it. i know there are a lot of these good practices interventions out there and what we are trying to figure out is that instead of these sharing to occur by accident can we engineer that collaborative improvement innovation so we can really accelerate our ability to move the needle over the next five
years. >> thank you. i would like to give a warm round of applause to our speakers. thank you very much. [ applause ] friday night c-span's 2014 campaign coverage continues with a live debate in the wisconsin governor's race. incumbent republican scott walker is running for a second term against democratic business woman. real clear politics rates the race a tossup. an average shows governor walker ahead by less than half a percentage point. we will take you there live at 8:00 p.m. eastern on c-span. more now from the national bullying prevention summit.
speakers examined how to create a school environment that discourages bullying behavior. the annual summit is part of an effort by the national government to create a national bullying strategy. this panel is about 55 minutes. so i'm going to go ahead and introduce renee and then mark will just be back in a second. so we had originally scheduled to have george with us today but unfortunately george had a death in the family and is unable to join us today. dr. renee bradley will be standing in for him. renee is deputy director of research to practice division in the office of special education programs. she has served as project officer for the national ta center on positive behavioral interventions and supports for the last 16 years. we are very pleased to have her
here today. if everyone can give her a nice big round of applause. [ applause ] >> good morning. sorry about the break. i know it is hard to sit. so don't feel like you can't get up and run. obviously mark did. i'm glad i went a little bit earlier. i am glad to be here today. i already disappointed my friend katherine saying george isn't here. i know others are disappointed, as well. i will do my best to represent the work with the center. there is a whole group associated with the national center funded by the department for 16 years now and just going into the 17th year. it is not only folks working direct directly work with schools. and just within the department
of education and also with justice and the mental health folks. so there is a lot of information. i'm sure the slides are available to folks at some point. i'm not going to go through them word by word but we will highlight them as i go through. there's a lot of information as i said. i won't have time to do all of it justice so i encourage you to go to the pbis.org site. it has a wealth of information not only information on the knowledge base but also tools that you can use to look at fidelity and implementation and blue prints to help you start implementing the program, as well. when we look at a ranging structure we're in a point now in time where the attention on
social/emotional behavioral needs i don't think has ever been greater. i have been 17 years now. remember it coming up and bubbling up. right now it seems cross agency that everyone is very concerned about addressing the social, emotional and behavioral needs of children. our collective history in this area is very strong. and there are lots of practices that we know work. our challenge now seems to be how do we organize these practices in some kind of structure that schools and communities and mental health providers can implement them. we all know that putting one more thing on a teacher's plate is almost impossible these days. so how do we help them implement more effective practices in a more efficient way? my job today is to talk about positive behavior interventions and support. talk a little bit about what it is and how it can serve as a foundation or a structure for helping schools to organize their practices in a better way.
pbis was a term that originally appeared in the ida statute. you also may hear it refer to as school wide pbis, multitiered behavior frameworks, multitiered systems of support. what you call it doesn't really matter. it's that the core components that we've identified are implemented within the individual frameworks. so what are we talking about? we're talking about a framework for enhancing the adoption and implementation of a continuum of evidence-based interventions to achieve both academically and behaviorally important outcomes for all students. sorry. this clicker has a mind of its own a little bit. when we're talking about what we want to do, we want to establish the capacity for improving classroom and school climate.
other objectives that dovetail nicely with the talks this morning and our work on bullying, how we decrease reactive management, maximizing ak dem cademic achievement to a the goals that we want to achieve broadly looking to pull all the different behavioral and emotional social issues together. a lot of people ask what is a positive school climate? how can you see it when you go into a school. and the question is do you see it, do you feel it? deb said this morning you walk into a school and you can know by just your first time in the school. is it a good place to be? is it a place that you want your children? when you walk into a school that has a positive school climate what are the things we might see? we might see posters up identifying behavioral responses that are expected of children. we may not see a long line of children in hallway waiting to see the assistant principal for various issues and problems. we may not hear stories of
children that feel like they can't participate, attend school. and we also may see students' peers telling their other peers what the expected and appropriate behavior is within the school environment. it's important to look at, before we go into the pbis, look at what we're talking about when we talk about effective organizations. and this isn't just our pbis work. it long precedes that. so when we talk about an effective organization, we're talking about a group of people whose collective behaviors are towards a certain outcome, and they have a common goal that's maintained by this outcome. and what -- the thing that are important to include in that would be is there a common language? when we say be responsible, did everyone in the school, adults, children, do they know what that means? when they say be respectful of self-and others, do they know what that means? so establishing a common language. also, establishing a common vision and values.
our actions should be driven by our vision and values. in order to do that within a schoolwide unit, we need to make sure that most folks in that unit share the same vision and values. we heard earlier about folks having time to talk about it at the dinner table. we also have to give teachers and practitioners time to talk about it as part of their work. is there a common experience? are expectations clear? are concept points consistent? so the vision and all of this is directed by quality leadership. not just resting solely on the shoulders of a principal or administrator but on a leadership team that's established to make sure all of these things function effectively. i want to talk just a little bit about the organization and move into some cycles that we see existing in school. you heard today deb delyle talk
about it's about changing adult behavior. michael also said similar comments about changing adult behavior. let's just look at what kid behaviors may look like in a negative school climate. so we see such behaviors as noncompliance, noncooperation. we see violent and aggressive behaviors. we would certainly see bullying behaviors likely in this type of environment. what we are very good at identifying the things that kids are doing. what we're often not very good at is identifying the things that the adults are doing in that environment. so what are the things that might be seen in the adult behaviors in this environment? you might see more reactive management. you might see more use of scl exclusionary practices, organization, poor leadership, ineffective strategies for delivery of instruction. and what happens here is you see this coercive cycle.
one of these kind of leads to the other, and so you get more reactive. and it's very difficult to break out of this cycle. arne duncan when he released the school discipline guidance earlier this year, one o of the comments he made was, it's not just about fixing the kids. it's about changing the adult behab your. what are the adults doing in the context and the environment of schools? what do we do to both prevent the behavior from occurring in the first place and what do we do to respond to that behavior to ensure that it does not continue to occur? so this coercive cycle is something we don't think a lot about. so let's look at the flip side of that, a more positive reinforcement cycle. so in a school that's engaging in implementing a more positive approach to social, emotional and behavioral sections of a child's development, we see more positive than negative comments. we see a challenging academic
curriculum. we see kids engaged in the instruction. we see a safe learning environment, we see opportunities to learn. the work that we've been engaged in with the pbis center of the last 16 years is trying to address this coercive cycle. so how do we deliberately organize school environments to foster more positive and preventive approaches to social, emotional, behavioral needs of children? what do we do as adults? this is what school does. so what do we see from the children in this type of environment? the social, emotional and behavioral skills that we all want to see from all of our children. we see more compliance and cooperation, we see more engagement and participation. we see a safe and clean environment, safe and supportive faculty/student interactions. so what do we do as adults and what do away want to see? promoting a positive factors and decreasing the risk factors that
exist. so the focus has been for years is looking at this cycle and how can we move it to a more positive approach. how do we as adults behave and organize the environment to promote more positive outcomes? this is an important consideration because when we're looking at everyone's engaged in change and reform now. everyone's trying to make every school a better place for all of our children. so -- and what do we know about change? we fwho thknow that change is r difficult, right? and it takes a lot of time and a lot of energy. it's important for us to look at is there any way that we can jump-start change? is there any way to make it a little faster or a little less intensive? one of the ideas that we're seeing in the schools that we're working with looking at school climate is one of the ways we can do this is to kind of look at where this coercive cycle is and move this coercive cycle from a primarily negative-based
cycle to what, a more positive based cycle. not saying it's easy or the silver bullet, but it's an observation that we've been making in our schools. again, we're looking at how can we jump-start the implementation and change that we want to see in schools to create climates that are conducive to supporting the behave yors thiors that we see in our children. so what's it going to take to shift in this direction? if we're wanting to look at positive school climate, i enjoyed the remarks earlier, and there were many of these that were touched on. so we need to be precise, explicit, efficient and we need to implement for sustainability over the long haul. so it's not something that we change every year, that it's a three to five year commitment, it's a priority in the organization and it's something that the school and staff agrees to stick to. so you see participatory leadership, you see that we're a database decision making,
teaching behavior explicitly within schools. this is not unlike what we've seed we have to do for academics for many, many years. so this is taken from response to intervention or multitiered system of support looking at how we promote reading and math within schools. so the same practices that we would expect for reading and math need to be part of how we implement social, emotional and behavioral practices in school so we have a continuum of intervention, content and fluency from the staff and the school on social, emotional and behavioral issues we have team-based interventions, withy universally screen, we provide the services, needs and supports that the students need. when we look at pbis, this triangle is not unfamiliar i don't think
there are a few kids that need more support and some kids that need or most intensive effort. the expertise in the school should move to a more directed expertise for students. the students should get our best and not the opposite. it's also important to look within this triangle that not every kid fits everywhere. is not always in most intensive need or not always in the
universal. so this is a young man named malcolm. and if you were to plot malcolm's progress in his academic and social life in school, you can see here he does real well with peer interactions and homework and cooperative play, he's pretty good with attendance and technology. his issues are with anger management and problem solving. so when you're looking at this kid, you would set up the delivery of the resources, interventions and supports for this kid based on these needs so we'd spend the most time on what? anger management and problem solving skills. that same triangle can apply to a school. when we're looking at school reform and whole school work, the support is determined by a student need, how intensive we are, not by the student's label, their zip code or how they look. you heard someone else bring that up this morning. same thing with the school. not all schools need the same
thing. so when we're working within a school, we would do the same thing with the school. how are they on their basic mental health services? how do they do with attendance? how do they do with teacher retenti retention? how do they do with seclusion and suspensions? you plot a school what are their strengths and weaknesses. then that data helps you plan how to put your resources in place. that's the thinking behind some of the department's work on differentiated ta that we want all schools to move in this direction but how we help get them there is based on what the school's resources and needs are. you'll also have a slide, and this is an important thing to remember. we have typically -- not typically, but some of the criticism that has been said about the pbis model is that
it's a recipe and you have to do this, this and this. and that's not truly accurate because what we've done is looked at the core of the critical components. how those are implemented is up to -- is flexible and can be customized by a school or a district. so if you look at here we've got primary prevention. you'd want behavior is a priority, social, emotional, behavior. behavior is a priority. you want consistency in responding to behavior. you want to have some kind of school wide and class wide management system in place. but there's no direction or have to about what you choose to do within your given school or district. so what we've done is focused on the core components. it doesn't really matter what you call it. it's that we're implementing these core components. if you look through the three tiers we've laid out here for primary, secondary and tertiary intervention, you see pretty
generic statements of what you should include. then it's up to the school-based team and their data to fill in those and customize that. dr. lew did a great job of talking about the three kind of components to move policy forward and practice forward that we know works. and this is a kind of implementation structure that we've developed over time with the pbis center. for a long time it was like, oh, you need a great leadership team and they can do everything. then it was like oh, well, you need these coaches here and these other components and then schools and states would be doing a great job with that. and then guess what? there wasn't a lot of funding available or the politicals were not seeing the benefits of what was happening in individual school or district. so we kind of laid out this concept of what are the implementation drivers? and what this slide does for you is it causes you to consider all the different things that have to be put into place, both your top-down approach and your
bottom-up -- bottom-up and top-down approach. and this leadership team is really important because they're kind of like the glue that holds everything together. when you're thinking about implementation, this just gives you an idea about all the multiple components that are involved with that. another slide that we've recently developed gives you the concept of this just doesn't happen in one place at one level. so what is the state responsibility or the regional or responsibility, what are the districts' responsibilities, what are the in-house school responsibilities? why is this importantly? because the whole thing we're trying to do is increase a capacity. so do you have capacity at the state level to address this? do you have capacity at the district level? does your school have capacity? so it's fine to have external coaches in some part but then we also want to help districts and schools also develop their internal abilities to provide coaching and support to teachers
as they implement. so you see that. and i'm going to have two more slides. this is another graphic that we've found to be really useful in the work we've done. if you look at the top two blue bubbles, that's more on the kind of readiness perspective. if you've studied the implementation science research karen blase and dean fixen have worked a lot on are people really ready to implement change. so setting up your team and agreements, that's part of your readiness ability to get ready to do a new change. and then this bottom triangle really looks at our implementation effort. what are we doing based on our data, how are we customizing the action plans three to five years, the implementations what we really do, and then that feeds into what, evaluation, which then feeds back into how we do it. so there's a continuous improvement cycle in our
implementation. and the very last slide and comment has to do with learning over years, and we've had these three circles, systems data and practices for a long time education's been great with the practices. where we've fallen down is organizing those into systems that support and maintain those practices. and basing the choice of our practices on data, not the slickest binder or the greatest salesman, but the data on what we truly need. and then so for years we went on this. then what we were noticing is that bias was really a factor that we needed to consider. and so we're making a concerted effort to look very deliberately at cultural factors that affect our decision and implementation as we go through. so it's how do we support culturally valid decisionmaking? how do we support culturally
relevant practices? and how do we support culturally knowledgeable staff behavior? so the dwogoal of the multitier framework is for schools to have an information structure that helps direct how adults behave in ways that support the social emotional and behavioral needs of children so they can feel secure and safe and fully engage in the learning -- to achieve the learning and educational outcomes that we desire for all children. so i think i'm going to turn it over to marc -- or sarah's going to introduce marc again. and i'll turn it over to him to talk about a more specific effort in this area. [ applause ] >> thank you so much. i now have the pleasure of introducing dr. marc brackett who is senior research scientist in psychology at yale university. he's the lead developer of ruler
an evidence-based approach to social and emotional learning designed for students, school leaders, teachers, staff and families. he also serves on a wide range of research advisory boards including castle and lady gaga's born this way foundation. he's also working with facebook on two projects including a large scale investigation to help decrease bullying and the bullying support center for children, families and schools. please welcome marc. [ applause ] >> good morning, everyone. i think my job is to ask you how you're feeling. at least that's what i do every day. so the title of my presentation is emotional intelligence our best hope for safe, caring and effective schools. what i'm hoping to do is take what our former presenter did and really show you what it looks like on the ground floor in a school.
so i'll talk you through a little bit of our practices, but then really the implementation piece. number of colleagues that are here in the audience as well as back of the center that i need to appreciate for their hard work. and we have a vision at our center. as you can imagine our center is called the yale center for emotional intelligence. so we believe that emotions matter. and we believe they matter a great dealthings, as you can see here and for helping kids and adults to lead healthy lives, to be effective in their work and their families. we do think the world should be a more compassionate place where people get along better. what we do in our center is two things. we do research and we develop approaches to bring these ideas into educational systems. so i'd like you to take a moment and make this a little bit personal. we've been talking a lot at you. i'm going to ask you to take this a little bit inward now. can i ask everyone to just get comfortable in his or her seats?
maybe sit up a little straighter. if you want to close your eyes, you can do that. i'm sure the department of ed will appreciate that one. and take a nice long inhale, please. and exhale. and please take a moment and think about perhaps one child that you know who may not be having the best year. perhaps a child in a school, perhaps your own child, perhaps someone else's child. and just grab that elementary middle school or high school student and put them in your mind. just think about them. think about what it looks like when they wake up in the morning. how does it feel to wake up in a household? and their commute to school. when they get into school, think about this child. is that child walking and saying, wow, this is going to be an empowering, inspiring day, i
feel connected, valued and appreciated or, ugh, just another day, who's going to hurt me today. who is going to hurt me today as i go to my locker. locker rooms, bathrooms, lunch, sitting alone or with someone else? being talked to or not talked to? afternoon, after school, back at home. what is it like for this child in the evenings at home? how does this child feel when he or she puts her head on the pillow going to bed and saying, i can't wait to get up in the morning. i can't wait to go back to school? or i don't want to be there? and with that child in mind, i'd like you to think about five things. i'd like you to thing about that child's attention, memory and learning for information. i can tell you firsthand as a kid, when i was a child at 13 years old, i was bullied pretty horrifically in my middle school. and interestingly enough when i went back to visit my school 15
years later i remembered nothing about my school. nothing. i remember two things. the locker where my hands were slammed. and i remember walking the halls getting pushed around. did i remember any content? no. did i remember any of the positive relationships i had? no. and so we now know from research is that emotions drive our attentional capacities. they drive how our brains operate. and without getting into the details, what we know is that the emotional climates of our schools, the emotions we feel internally impact our ability to learn. they also affect our decisionmaking and judgment. think about that child's choices. is that child making healthy choices for him or herself? think about the child who is experiencing a lot of anger in school. are they making the best choices? are they having the best relationships? what is the trajectory for his or her mental health? and finally is that child effective? is that child getting the grades that he or she deserves to get? likely not. so we've developed a model in our center that we called ruler.
and it's a model based in theory of emotion aal intelligence tha was developed by my mentors. and emotional intelligence is a set of skills. and i'm just going to talk you through this very briefly. the first is recognizing emotion. think about that skill in terms of bullying prevention. how many of you believe that many of the perpetrators of bullying are misperceiving other people's facial expressions and body language? i can tell you from my own experiences, i remember vividly being in a classroom and someone punching me. now i think back and this was shop. we had shop in my high school. i don't look like a guy who would like shop, do i? and i was desperate to get out of this class. i kept on looking over at the clock, when is this going to be over? and this kid came over and bang, what are you looking at? right? he misperceived my emotional expression of boredom of being one of anger towards him. the second skill of
understanding emotion, knowing the causes and consequences of emotions, why am i angry? what's the difference between anger and disappointment? most people think it's easy, but when you get to the heart of it, anger is about unfairness and injuz where disappointment is about expectations not being met. labels emotions, having that sophisticated vocabulary. knowing the difference between being annoyed, angry, enraged, furious. knowing the difference between sad, disappointment, hopeless, depair and the positive end between joy, elation and ecstasy. the fourth is expressing emotions. knowing how and when to express emotions in different context. right? there are rules in schools about emotions, aren't there? some rules have open rules meaning that teachers are open to expressing positive emotions. other schools you walk into, as we now know, and you feel a little bit closed. i'll never forget in a school in philadelphia i went to visit. i walked into the school and the
administrator says, wait over there. i was like, okay. welcome. thank you. and then the principal of the school walked out. and he heard the interaction. and he said, you know, marc, she really needs your skills. and i said, well, you hire this person. so you know, the idea here, right, is that we need to be looking for people in our schools that have these skills. don't we want to hire teachers that possess these skills? we talk about changing the adults so much. that's a lot of work. why don't we select people who have these skills and why not also make sure that these teachers are learning this when they're being prepared to be teachers. why are we waiting so long? and the final skill all of you will think is quite important is the regulation of emotion. how many of you believe just basically that your own lives would be better if you had skills to regulate emotions. and how many of you believe that everyone you live with had more strategies -- yeah, figure that.
so what do we know? we know a lot of things about kids who have emotional intelligence. we study this in many studies as well as other universities have done this work. we know that kids who are -- who score higher on tests of emotional intelligence, performance-based tests have less anxiety, less depression, they're less likely to use drugs and alcohol, are less likely to be aggressive and bully others. they have greater leadership skills and more attentive in school and do better academically. pretty good outcomes. we've also studied teachers. and guess what? teachers with greater emotional intelligent are more positive in schools, they get more support from their principals. they also are less stressed and burnt out. we move beyond the study of the teacher and the student to the classroom and now we're looking at literally the interactions between and among teachers and students in classrooms using tools the university of virginia called the class where we're coding these interactions and showing that that emotional
climate of a classroom, that ability to regard a student's perspective, that ability to have sensitivity for a student's needs, that ability to generate positive emotions in the class room is jrelated to these outcomes and i think you would say these are important outcomes. i ask you all a question now. how many of you believe that you've had a sophisticated emotion education? so no one's hand is raised for those of you who are watching on television. think about it. how much formal education have any of us received in this area? how many of you learned how to recognize emotions? how many of you had family members who said, honey, let's talk about some research-based strategies on how to manage your emotions? my father, positive reappraisal? i'll give you positive reappraisal. there was none of that going on in my life. so i'm going to share with you what we do. i have strong feelings about this work. obviously for my own personal experiences but also looking at
what happens in schools. and we've had the privilege of being in well over a thousand schools now. and as you can see here, you know, my thinking and our center's thinking is we need to move beyond the list on the left. and our previous presenters talked a little bit about that. monitoring hot spots is okay but what is that really going to do in the longterm? counting on bystanders. i think about myself as a kid. would i have had the courage at 13 being an introvert who was kind of a weak ling to really stand up for somebody? isn't that a lot o to put on a kid? why are we expecting children to protect other children? that doesn't resonate well with me. i want to be protected as a kid. think about what we can move to, right, that we know that children have unique needs, that we know that all players have unique skills and we've been talking a lot about that today. all adults need training and obviously we want to shift that culture and climate. so what does it really look like? well, we have some characteristics that you can just read here on this list.
that i think all of you would agree that effective approaches have these characteristics. they're based in theory. we think theory is important because in terms of a child's emotional development, i want to know what's going on. what are the expectations that i can have for that child in terms of what strategies i can teach them? am i going to try to teach a kid in kindergarten about alienation? probably not. but maybe loneliness and exclusion. what strategies can i expect to teach that child to regulate his emotions that are appropriate for his or her age? obviously a scaffold to provide that common language we've talked about and the list goes on. so in our approach we have what we call anchor tools that we teach children and adults involved. and we have four primary tools. we call them the emotional intelligence charter which helps to build the culture and climate that we want in our schools, a mood meter and we have a tool we call self-regulation and we have a tool we call the blueprint to
help build respective taking and interpersonal problem solving skills. firstly, we want you know that it's everybody with a face. if you work in a school, we train you. so if you are at the front desk, we train you. if you work in the transportation department, we train you. if you work in the office, you get skills, too. actually, yesterday we had a guest speaker in our center talking about how important it was for her secretary to have these skills, like she's reading the facial expression of all the visitors that are coming to meet with her. she's like, wait a minute. i don't thing you're in the right quadrant of the mood meter to have a meeting with the principal right now. so the chart ser first one. you can see the title says too many rules, not enough feelings. i hated rules as a kid. i broke every rule there was. while rules we need rules for physical safety, what do we do for emotional safety? what do we do to create a
healthy, emotional climate in schools? and what we do in our work is we start up with feelings and we ask people first, how do you want to feel working in this school? what are the feelings that you want to have? and we use that as a driver for the behaviors. if you want to feel safe, what does that look like? if you want to feel empowered, what does that look like? if you want to feel supported, what does that look like? this is a high school where they want to feel respected, supported, comfortable and spirited. i thought that was a great word for high school. this is a fifth grade classroom. we want to feel included and confident and respected and appreciated and energized, safe and supported. this is a school that works in spanish. we want to feel -- [ speaking spanish ] we want to feel happy, we want to feel respected and we want to feel loved. right? they're 4 years old. they want to feel loved. the second tool is called the mood meter. and this is our signature tool because it helps to build that
awareness that we all need. how many of you believe that you have a sophisticated emotion vocabulary? how many of you know the difference between jealousy and envy, shame and guilt? it's complicated. we want to build that granularity in our nation's children and adults. so what we do through the mood meter, we teach facial expressions, body language, vocal tones and physiology and behavior. yellow is high energy pleasant emotions like feeling happy and excited, the red is the anger family, the blue is the disappointed and sad families and the green is the calm, content feelings. 32,000 words in the english dictionary to describe our feelings. most of us use four. we're in the yellow, great, queer in green, fi we're in green, fine and blue, eh, and the red, pissed. you can see here there are lots
of words to help u become more gran u la in our self-understanding. we also want to teach strategies for how to manage the emotions. what does it look like to get into the yellow? has anyone here ever woken up as a teacher or anyone in a position where you're kind of down and disappointed? how many woke up that way? and you had to go into the room and be that inspiring teacher or leader? it's not easy. what are the strategies that we're doing to do that? we focus so much on anger reduction and stress management. what about the generation of positive emotions. what are we doing to teach adults and children, how to generate or initiate positive emotions in our schools? of course we also want to make sure that everyone understands that emotions drive how we learn. and teach teachers how to differentiate emotions in their instruction. so take a look at this. creative writing, yellow. you want to be in that yellow zone. that will help you generate ideas. it's clear from the research,
yellow emotions generate inductive reasoning ability. blue emotion, however, are great for deductive reasoning, for building empathy, for even editing a paper. you want to collaborate, you want to be in the green. you want to write that persuasive essay, i have opportunity to tell you how i really feel about our nation's education system. i got to be careful, right? and as you can see i'm in a place here where i feel strongly that we need to integrate the emotions into our education system. i can say that in the yellow. we need to bring emotions! and people are like what is this guy from connecticut? get him out of here, right? but if i say it in a red or say it in a way that sounds like it's an alert, think about it. what are we doing to make sure that our nation's education's children are getting the skills they need to navigate their lives. a little bit of an energy in there but not the pleasant energy, an alert energy. i'm holding back, just so you
know. here are ways this is used in the classroom from children in special education schools where they have difficulty speaking where they can pull their emotions and faces into an electronic box that says, oh, you're feeling this way, let the class know. that's an ipad use. that's a smartboard. that's a school leader. we even developed an app now where people can download and plot yourself and describe what you're feeling, then shift into different quadrants and choose research-based strategies to help you manage your emotions effectively. integrating technology where it's useful so you can record and see your report. this is 51% blue which would mean i'm clinically depressed. i'm not, just so you know. it just so happens when i show people this tool, i tend to use the blue as an example. but it would be nice for people to know what percentage of the time they're spending in each of these different place, wouldn't it? for kids to be aware of that. and how that's shifting their thinking and judgment and
decisionmaking and relationships. right into education, right into the classroom, integrating to the common core state standards. thinking about a character from a book like schmul from the boy in the striped pajamas, how did they feel? what are the text-based evidence to help you understand that child's emotional life and how that impacted his relationships? the third tool is called the met ta moment. and the metamoment is the tool for building self-regulation. there are six steps to this process. if you take these six steps seriously, it can literally change the way you see the world. first is something happens. how many of you have triggers? raise your hand. triggers. how many of you have friends who have tlriggers? how many of you work with people who have too many triggers? we all have triggers. bullying is usually the result of someone being triggered.
a shift in the environment that doesn't resonate with the person and they're going after. so what we want to do is teach kids about those triggers. what are your triggers? be aware of those triggers. how is it shifting your thinking, your physiology, are you feeling in your body when you're shifting into that unpleasant place. we have to teach people to stop and breathe. how many of you breathe? raise your hand. how many of you intentionally breathe when you're feeling stressed? like two people are raising their hands. so we know that breathing is a tool. it's a tool. it helps us deactivate. it helps us to build a space so that we can choose and use effective strategies. and we have to teach kids that. it doesn't come naturally. i didn't know how to breathe when i was a kid. i knew how to pant. running away, being fearful. the fourth step is see your best self. think about that. what does it mean to have a best self?
you know, this idea came about as a collaboration with my colleague robin stern who is here today, where we realize that the field of emotional regulation was missing something important, it was missing motivation. you have to want to regulate, don't you? i was very fortunate in my career that i was named the feelings master by my students a few years ago. i started thinking about it, what is a feelings master? what are the attributes of someone who is a master of his or her feelings? i want to be compassionate. interestingly enough we just got done training a hundred school leaders yesterday, and the number one best self-adjective that came out of this group was compassionate. they all want to be more compassionate. and when you have the lens of compassion, guess what? you choose more effective strategies to manage your emotions. how could you not? it literally shifts your intentional capacities to being that best self. when you live your life through
the lens of compassion, you manage those triggers. this is just examples in a classroom. finally there is a tool called a blueprint which helps to teach kids to understand it's not just about me. it's about us, it's about we. and i need to start looking at your emotions in your life not just paying attention to mine. and that helps us resolve conflicts more effectively. to wrap up, i just want to share with you that i've done a number of studies. and in one year we can shift grades by about 11%. we also shift behavior in classrooms as well as school problems and adaptive skills. the graphs are hard to see, but you have this on your hard drive. and work in new york city in some of the most challenging schools, i was just blown away by the data from the new york city department of ed. after one year, a 50% reduction in school suspensions. huge. think about what that looks like in a class room or a school, that release time that principal
has when there's less aggression and suspensions. we've also shown that implementation matters and it matters a great deal. we have to train teachers to be high quality implementers of this work. what you do is you find the kid's emotional conflict goes up and their skills go up. doing this work longitudinally literally helps teepers become better teachers, making schools and classrooms places where kids want to be literally helps teachers become better teachers. in summary, a few comments. one i think we all agree that children are wired for good. if we don't agree, there's research to support it. but if attachments at home -- only when attachments at home and school are positive will they thrive. the second thing i want to say is that children's goodness and ability to reach their full potential is ours to nurture or ours to neglect. and the third is that i hope you see that teaching emotional intelligence and social emotional learning more
productly has great benefits, right? first we want to teach children and adults involved in their lives so we can create that great society that we all want with people are healthy, effective and compassionate. i want to make one final comment. this is a call to action. we're here to talk about children's development, about teacher preparation, about the nation that we want our children to live. and i can't say with a stronger heart that it is our nation's responsibility to take seriously the education or i should say the emotion education of its children. thank you very much. [ applause ] >> i'd like to thank marc and
renee again for giving such fantastic presentations. so now we'll have time to take two questions. and i see salinda is over there. we'll take your question. >> i have a question that came in through social media through facebook, it's for our first speaker, i believe. are there examples of consequences teachers can put in place to hold children who bully accountable? >> yes. there are examples. and i would encourage them to go to the pbis, www, pbis website as well as the stop bullying.gov website. the reason i'm hedging on this topic is i'm being aware of time and we were supposed to give very short answers. i'm not sure that i can give an appropriate short answer to that question. so, marc, if you want to try to give a short answer to that question, but i would encourage
them to go to the website. both of the websites have strategies for practitioners in responding to different types of problem or challenging behavior including bullying, so that would be my guidance. they can contact me directly at the department if they can't find what they're looking for. >> okay. >> hi. question for rene. i've seen pbis be so transformative in schools. i work in new york city schools mostly but around the country. extremely transformative. but the school climate transformation grants that just came out were really perplexing that they equated it with school improvement reform efforts. they're fundamentally different. they're really needed but fundamentally different. do you see any of those differences with school climate improvement in the goals of what pbis tries to do and school climate reform tries to do? >> i personally don't see a
great difference between the two. and i'm sorry if it appeared that way because i actually worked with safe and healthy students on the rfp for those grants. and you know, katherine talked earlier about there's a lot of areas where we still need a good bit of research. >> yeah. >> and katherine bradshaw, you're on a panel later, too? right? i hope she'll talk then. she's one of the best researchers that's looked at the randomized controlled trials in the effects of pbis and the implementation of that framework. so i would point you to her research to look at and hopefully she'll talk about it some this afternoon. but what we're -- you know, everything's kind of you move over time and transform. and our initial work with the pbis center was to look at children with emotional disabilities, emotional and behavioral disabilities and how we can create environments that
were more conducive to them being included in a regular public school setting. and as we began that work, what became very obvious in looking at how the triangle's kind of set up as the basis for the framework, was that if a school was not addressing the social emotional behab youral needs of all the children, it was very difficult to ask schools to put energy and effort and time into addressing those that were most needy. and you'll see a good bit of research that looks at similar to what marc was saying, reductions in suspensions, reductions in office discipline referral, reductions in out of school time. and the great thing about seeing those reductions is that it gives teachers and administrators more time to do what they're supposed to be doing. you know, to address the structural needs, to add in the special emotional work that marc's talking about. so what we're trying to do is use some of the lessons learned from the pbis work, and we're
still learning a lot, but to use some of those lessoned learned and move that into a basis for some of the school climate transformation grants. hopefully you see more of a connection than not. and the pbis center will be funded this year to help support the school climate transformation grants. so that will be doing more than just looking at with a children with disabilities perspective and working with all those grantees. >> if there aren't any other questions, i'm going to go ahead and turn it over to sharon burton for the next plenary session. so please, let's give another -- oh, there is another question? oh, could you -- >> thank you. this is a question for marc.
what kind of stlat jes do you have for the significant percentage of children and adolescents that have difficulties in processing language and they cannot recognize social cues? i'm not talking about progressive, i'm just talking about kids with language receptive and expressive developmental delays. >> that's a great question. so firstly, our approach is primarily a tier one intervention approach. using the pbs the rti framework. a universal approach. with that said we've had a lot of experience working with the new york city department of education specifically in district 75 reaching children who have those kinds of learning difference or needs. and what we found works the best is local adaptations. that working with the technologies that a school has for those children is just the best way to go. so there were some examples of that up there where children had an auditory challenge with
speaking, they couldn't share anything verbally, so they built a system where they could take our mood meter and have kids move their facial expressions into the quadrants to communicate effectively. >> i had a question about -- in our district we're seeing an increase in the number of gangs or crews that are forming at younger ages. and i'm wondering whether either one of you has used your strategies in dealing particularly with that issue and if you have suggestions for us? >> i get pushed into that one. we have worked in school districts where there have been significant, you know, high levels of violence and aggression. and again, this local adaptation piece is so critical, right? you have to understand the culture and the climate of that school. you have to understand the demographics, where are these kids coming from, what are their
mind-sets around this work. with that in mind, however, there are things, for example, this best self piece that we talk about with one of our tools called the metamoment for self-regulation, some of these kids haven't even thought what that means to them. so working with them on a very deep level to try to get that idea sort of ingrained in their lives by thinking about outside role models and other, and having them learn a little bit about short-term than long-term thinking can make them go away. but there's no magic pill for those kinds of environments. they' they require pretty focused interventions. >> i would add i know i went quickly through a lot of the visuals, but if you look back at the visuals and go to the website, the importance of setting a context that's conducive to the behaviors you want to see, so adults are reinforced, they're teaching those behavior, they're
reinforcing those behaviors. i was with elementary school children. a couple years ago in a high school in chicago when they're changing classes, for me that's like the scariest part of school when all the kids are in the hallways together and most of them are taller than i am in first place. i don't know if it was staged. if it was staged, it was braille ya -- brilliant. one of the kids got knocked up against a locker in the hallway. and another kid came up and said, man, we don't do that here. and that's the kind -- you know, when you're establishing a culture and a climate, you know, there's no one thing that's going to do everything. but when you have peers telling other peers what the expected behb behavior is. so it's almost like being -- displaying inappropriate behaviors becomes a not cool thing to be in some of these schools. not all of them. but that's just an example that came to mind of supporting the
contexts that you want to put into place. >> all right, thank you both very much. let's give them another big round of applause. [ applause ] >> be part of c-span's campaign 2014 coverage. follow us on twitter and like us on facebook. to get debate schedules, video clips of key moments, debate previews from our politics team. c-span is bringing you over 100 senate, house and governor debates and you can instantly share your reactions to what the candidates are saying. the battle for control of congress. stay in touch and engage by following us on twitter at c-span and liking us on facebook at facebook.com/cspan. our special presentation of the national bullying prevention summit continues. this next panel looks at specific examples of successful anti-bullying programs in local schools including efforts to support gay, lesbian and transgender students. this annual summit is part of an
effort by the federal government to create a national bullying prevention strategy. this is about 40 minutes. >> since i'm between you and lunch, we're going to try to move as fast as we can, but wanting to make sure that you have as much information as possible. this is a very important session where we're actually going to talk a little bit about some of the state education and local education perspectives. one from dr. bradshaw who has been working with maryland and with a lot of what they're doing in the same areas that you've heard about the social emotional learning and also a little bit
of the multitier network, framework, rather. and also from -- all the way from los angeles, sarah train is here. and i'm just going to read briefly her bio. you did hear a little bit about dr. bradshaw earlier, who participated in an earlier plenary session. but i do want to introduce you also to sara train. and i'm not going to two over everything in her bio, which you all will have. sarah is the coordinator of the los angeles lgbt centers project spin, suicide prevention intervention now program. a coalition strengthening collaboration among many programs and services designed to support lgbtq youth throughout los angeles county. under her leadership the coalition has directly reached over a hundred student, parents and school staff and
administrators with trainings on suicide prevention and crisis and care to create inclusive schools. she assists the schools on building pass to respond and implement inclusive policies in accordance with changing legislation. so we have some great speakers today. and again, we want to -- what we've asked them to address is some of the lessons learned for implementing bullying prevention programs in districts and in the classroom and some of the promising things that they're seeing that youth are responding to. we feel that this perspective kind of goes along with our theme of implementation and being able to learn in what is actually going on in the field. so we'll have dr. bradshaw speak first and then followed by sara. thank you.
[ applause ] >> well, it's exciting to be back up here. i'm going to kind of shift gears a little bit. because as a researcher and part of a partnership that is based in the state of maryland and is really focused on scaling up positive behavior support and multi-tier systems support and it's largely led by our partners at the department of education, alexander and mike ford were first invited to be on this panel. but unfortunately they had an obligation back at the state department so they were unable to attend today and asked me if i could come. the third leg of our triangle is shepherd prath system which is a mental health provider across the state of maryland. while they provide a range of support services, anything for the largest support services for kids with autism across the
state and in treatment and out treatment, mental health services they have a strong commitment to prevention of behab yourle a and mental health problems. the partnership actually began in 1989 through shepherd prath and the maryland state department of education and johns hopkins, my colleague and i joined around 2001. so we've been working in partnership to do research as well as scale up positive behavior support and use it generally as a framework and not necessarily as a program, really a framework for delivering other evidence-based models. so we're building tremendous work that renee talked about from the national t.a. center which is led by george sigai and rob horner and tim lewis, so we always feel like we're standing on the shoulders of giants just peeking over the corner here trying to see what we can do next and how we can actually scale this work up. so much of this effort really comes out of a grant that we
received out of the shop that is focused on safe and supportive schools and the comment that came up about transformation grant and is pbis really the panacea for that, i don't think that that's necessarily what was the intent but it's certainly one tool that can be used and one tool that we've been using to try to address school climate. so you can think about it as a potential tool or a framework. that's how we've been interpreting it and how we've been using it. i'm sure there are other ways we can think about that. but when the safe and supportive schools grant mechanism came down from the u.s. department of education providing an opportunity to do research about evidence-based practices, frankly, it wasn't a research grant but we kind of embedded that in it to promote school climate. our partnership came together and said, let's focus on this particular initiative. it was geared at high schools. so i want to zoom in on this particular project because it's
something we're just wrapping it now. it's also a high school model where we embedded a randomizedp framework in the setting. whereas our partnership had done two trial trials to support the elementary school level. one it just that tier one and the second trial it tier two plus tier one and we have published our findings based on. that not going to talk about those today. i'll be happy to share if you have questions. i want to share lessons learned from doing this work at the high school level. the high schools are a whole different ball of wax. you hear a lot about the frame works and can you get the incentives and systems in elementary schools but what about high schools? we really found the school climate framework is one that helped us connect positive behavior support around different kinds of change that we wanted to effect in the schools to reduce bullying and to reduce behavior problems and substance abuse problems. so it's really just a framework
to guide the kind of effort we're doing. we built a lot of some of the literature around school climate and i work with the national education association and we have partners here from the nea today. they've been doing a lot of work around bullying prevention and school climate. they have a research briefs here. this is an xeexcerpt of the research. whether we get to measurement of school climate, there is a big piece of the safe and supported schools is to develop a sustainable system for a a. sesise -- for assessing the climate and to zrif the decision making and put that data back in the hands of the administrators and teachers and staff to decide what kind of interventions they want to use. so we worked together with our state partners to develop measure and through that process we were looking at several different existing measures and some were very behaviorally
focused and some are just perceptions. we wanted to cover the behavior. behavior and kid's perceptions of the environment. you might say aren't you flipping around? isn't climate supposed to impact those things? you can think if you have a lot of kids bullying each other in the school building that, is going to negatively impact the climate. this is the cycle and the per accept shoal process data. we want to unpack that a little bit more. and we built directly off of the u.s. department of education's model of school climate because whether you're writing a grant, nice to use that group's framework. and so we also thought why don't we actually try to validate the model? we have a paper that is forthcoming in the journal of school health where we validated this model. so we collected data on over 25,000 high school students across multiple periods of time and then through analytic
approaches and addressing a variety of things about ethnicity and gender and grade level differences and we're actually able to provide general support for this particular model with a couple of tweaks. you'll see we have a strong theme around connectedness in the middle. this really gets at the theme that's mark hit on about the relationship component. in fact, as we're unpacking our data, that's where we're seeing most of the action in terms of mechanism of change of kids feeling connected to others. especially our african-american students feeling cared for by adults. it's more important than just a global perception that the school environment is pretty positive. so that caring and connection dimension is really something that's coming out as a strong lesson for us about what we want to focus on. and certainly maps on to a lot of the research that we know from health and michael resnick about the important of the connections to other people. so maryland being one of the 11 states that was funded under this safe and supportive schools
grant so that's why we call it md for maryland s-3 for the safe and supportive schools. that is the name of our project. and we're just now entering a no cost extension of that project so this is our fifth and final year of it. and we worked very closely to develop a statewide system for assessing school climate and looked at several different measures that were available and barrowed very heavily from existing validated tools and really created this system and i get calls from school district saying can we use your system rather than us going knock, knock, knock, do you want to collect data for us? and so, in fact, we already have school districts that adopted this model, 117 schools that are going to be in one of our districts that are scaling up the school climate survey system. it is something to really be able to sustain the effort. they see the value in having the data to drive the decision making process. we enrolled 58 high schools and we're going to work with over a
period of four years. and we did use a random assignme assignment. we could look at our fidelity kinds of questions. it was true random assignment based on the 12 school districts. and they are geographically dispersed. they're all over the state. maryland is a funny state, we reach all the way up to near west virginia and pennsylvania to the eastern shore and so then we have more urban areas toward the middle of the state near baltimore. so we do really have a nice microcosm, i think, for the united states a little bit of diversity across the state. so we use the framework to blenld together the data base decision making pieces as well as to bring in other evidence-based practices. so in addition to doing the tiered framework, we wanted to plug in other evidence-based practices.
we would give the schools a coach. the coach worked with them around the data and provided training on a menu of different evidence based practice that's they could choose. so this is the list of the evidence based practices. we're not testing ovais, we're checking test and connect. we're testing prot ses by which they select evidence base practices and implement them. it was fun putting together this initial list of programs. we did it based on our partner feedback. everyone was hot for ovais, for example. the first year everybody signed up for ovais training. by the second year, we were down to just one school that was actually trying to implement the elements because of some aspects about the level of commitment that was needed. the elements most attractive to schools and what schools choose, frankly, the tier two supports around check and connect and check in check out, those were our most popular efforts. similarly whether we got to cbit, everybody is saying i want
something at tier 3. they sent folks to get trained and they were like whoa, i don't know that we can pull this off. i know this came out of ucla unified. but it's interesting when you put out this menu and they get all excited about things then you see what do they actually going to pick up and run with and what are they going to implement? we had a lot prove ses daof pro well. we're selecting and implementing other evidence based interventions. we have fidelity measures across the different programs. so these are just a snapshot of the fidelity tools we actually send in outside observers unaware of the schools intervention convention or what programs they chose from the menu to assess the fidelity the different dimensions including the positive behavior support framework and the other evidence based programs that they may have close en. and then we are looking at observations. we actually got a supplemental grant from the william t. grant foundation to bring in observers. we thought we've got all the kids reporting climate.
we actually are getting parents and teachers, too. can you actually observe school climate? what if we send outsiders in? what about the built environment of the schools? how much does that interface with the way kids are interacting with each other and connecting with each other? so we sent an observers that use different types of tools and i'll talk about those. we're collecting the data to supplement the data being collected by self report. the self report data from students is one of our chief outcome of interest. so this is just giving you a little bit of an overview of how we select the students. some schools do want to assess all the students. they feel strongly about that. it's nonidentifiable. it's annan mus in that framework. it allows us to capture the data electronically through the on line system and most importantly, it spits it right back out to administrators.
they can see the data in real time and be able to sort it and create different types of charts. so we built in a lot of elements around youth involvement and youth voice. in fact, we had youth advisory committee that came up with our tag line that you'll see here. what kind of school do you want your school to be? i would love to say these are real children but they aren't. they're just too perfect and beautiful. we wanted to put together a campaign that we rolled out across the schools and you can see it's really about getting youth voice and youth involvement. and so they were involved from the very beginning. and then we actually got real live children from the state of maryland and one of our schools to do a video that is a lead in to the survey system so that way it's kids talking to other kids and adults about why collecting this data is helpful and why it's important. and so that shows that youth voice and that youth connection. and we actually drafted a script for them and sent it over to them. they're like yeah, this isn't any good. they marked it and came back.
they said this is so great f we just hired actors or something, it wouldn't have gone well. we had kids in the project talking about the experiences and why it's important to have that dat yachlt this is just a little bit of the data that we collected. and only to open your eyes to actually looking at some of these indicators and we used the three dimensions of school climate, safety engagement and environment. things that jumped out to our school staff, some get the point that mark brought up about emotions. so nearly 22% of the students feeling sad. and most of our teachers are like i never thought about them feeling sad. they're quiet. they're not acting up. they're not in trouble. i don't think about them being sad. and so really helped them get in better touch with the emotional situation in the classrooms. so is one that came out. so the equity piece, only 61% of our students are feeling that
issues of equity or appropriate within their school. and so this is clearly we have a pretty diverse sample. it's about half white and half other minority african-american being the largest minority within the state. but we can see even when we weighted the data to reflect sample diversity that just over 60% are feeling issues of equity are appropriately addressed within their school. then other issues about students needing support. 68% of students that are feeling they're able to get the kind of support they need within their school. so these are the kind of data that we try to provide back to the schools. a little bit of a wakeup call and help them understand and we also have student data paired with parent and teachers. so we can show the similarities and discrepancies across them. as i said all this data is reported back to the schools. we actually had another grant previous to this where we developed all these reporting tools and met with principles about what data you want. people can get overwhelmed with
data. we created all the different templates for data support tools to help them use the data. and, in fact, have actually seen that even in our control schools that only got access to the survey, they're actually improving just by getting access to the data. but we are seeing greater gains in our schools that got the interventions as well. this is a little bit of an overview of the observational data. we're using two main tools. one we referred to as the assist and has been previously used. we actually go into the classrooms. nobody goes into high school classrooms and provides teachers feedback about the use of praise or punitive statements or who they're providing praise and punitive statements to or much less what the students are doing. and so that data is very eye opening. we go into 25 randomly selected classrooms and provide that feedback to the schools. they're just amazed at how much information they're able to get from that feedback. then we have the safety.
this is a little bit more about the built environment. it comes out of a line of research around crime prevention through environmental design. and so we kind of have that theme about surveillance and adult supervision. but also look at the interactions between youth and adults and where are those safe areas and not so safe areas in the school and provide this information back to the schools is another source of support. so here's just a snapshot. like we get so much data that we have to really drill down what do we give back to the schools? this is an example of some of the feedback we give to them based on the observational data. you can see this is from the past spring. 65% of the classrooms where the students engaged during instruction. that's pretty bad when we go into all of these thousands of classrooms across the state and only 65% of them have students that are rated as being engaged. you can see a little bit of information that we're able to provide to them around the
observations. this is based on the first process. we're actually finding even after just one year of implementation the program not even taking into consideration fidelity and who is implementing what and we wh we look at the main effects, we're seeing significant impacts related to safety indicators tlachlt is really very exciting. we're hoping that those effects will continue to be sustainus i ov -- sustained during the course. the tier one, as i said, people are excited about picking all these other evidence based programs. the ruby red shiny one. really, it ended up being the first year they focused on the tifr one. that's where we're seeing the big impacts and just over one year of implementation. i don't want to blow off the three tiered framework and say you have to jump to tier two or three. you really got to have that foundation in order to bring in
other things. that was very clear to us. so the climate and connecting up with the goals of the school, many of our schools said we don't have to worry about climate, we're so focused on common core, educational outcome. we really needed them to understand how climate benefited. that the use of the data and communication this is where the youth voice really came in about how we're communicating data and sharing that. and certainly the coaching piece, we were actually having a conversation with all the 11 grantees a yeek ago in d.c. i brought up the kind of dirty little secret that not all coaches are created equally. and not all coaches are rock stars and not all coaches are able to affect change. and david oesher who i really admire quite a lot, he brought in the model of what is good enough coaching? we think about that good enough parent model. what is that? you're never going to be able to hire all rock store coaches.
but what is the level of change you need and what is the fit between the coach, you could have a rock star coach but then a school that has a different type of framework. so we talk about implementation support of oh, we have to have coaches and training. we really need to get into that block box wlaf is coaching? what is the good enough coaching? is it durations, level of support, is it personalities? is it emotional intelligence? there are a variety of different factors that we think are so critical for that change process. so that's just a snapshot of some of our findings from the safe and supportive schools initiative. and gives you a little bit of a perspective from the field and what we're learning through this process. >> hello, good afternoon almost. i'm even closer between you and your break so i am really
honored to be with you this morning and share a little bit about what i goat do in l.a. and my role in coordinating project spin. so i'm going to do. that but just know i won't be able to cover everything. let's meet afterwards. i can share in more depth kind of the mot models that we use and some of the ways that we're really trying to address this really important issue of working together to create safer schools. i want to say that i'm here representing a team of people behind me. just in vision that visual of all the people standing behind me. i certainly want to spend some time thanking them for their work and collaboration. project spin, spin standing for suicide prevention intervention now is a partnership between the l.a. lgbt center and los angeles unified school district along with l.a. county office of ed where we partner in a very
intentional way to address environments that would lead any young person to experiencing negative mental health outcomes because of the school experience. and we think and we believe that schools are really a change agent. and so many of you in this room obviously believe that as well. but for us, seeing parents who have maybe young people coming out to them as lesbian, gay, bisexual or trans gender or gender queer, having a school that is informed that, is intentionally taking steps to creating a safer place for their young person is really remarkable. that's what we try to do in partnership with l unified. l.a. unified is the second largest school district in the nation. and it has really been at the forefront in policies around lgbt inclusive experiences in schools. both in curriculum as well as all the way far back as recognizing them in their
nondiscrimination poll is czys when no other school district was doing that. they really set the ground roark for. that i want to highlight the work of judy chasen and tim cordish who works really closely with the cdc to continuing this work even today. they sent me their still doing the work today. the l.a. lgbt center has been around for quite some time and the history of our partnership is about three years ago when there was a need on a national level to really pay attention to what was happening in our schools and how they were feeling. much like today although the conversation shifted a little bit. we decided we needed to take a role to be more intentionally supportive in a partnership with our school. so that's where the project spin, the idea of project spin came together. and we pulled together all the different organizations,
national and local, lgbt youth serving, specifically, and mental health specifically together to look at what could we do in our partnership if we were coordinated, if we had a vision that we shared? what could we do together and how could we do that over the next couple of years? so we called together a summit and we asked three questions in our summit. what are we doing well? what are some of the challenges and the gaps and what can we do moving forward? and based on those conversations, we really set a tone for where we wanted to take this partnership. and a lot of the different practice that's we've already heard today, i'm not going to reit indicar rereiterate them, came from that best practices and programs that had been researched. making sure that we were engaging in a comprehensive way our entire school community. not just focusing on one piece
of the puzzle but really addressing the whole school community. all of the themes have already been echoed this morning. it was really important to us to do so in a way that not just addressed it from a mental health perspective but did so in a way that shifted the narrative to celebrating the diversity of our community. and that included all of us. for so many of us when we hear about ways to support lgbt young people, it comes up in the discussion around mental health. really important. but we also wanted to have the conversation around how we can celebrate the identity of our lgbt young people so that it's not a narrative of higher risk for bullying. but it is also a narrative of strength much it's a narrative where they get to see themselves
resi resi resilie resilient and thriving in a community. in suicide prevention connectedness is so important. it is as well in bullying prevention. and so our work was weaving together. we were doing so much sigh lowed but in a coordinated way, there is a lot more we can accomplish. these are the core principles that came together in our work together summit. we've been focusing on the importance of comprehensive k-12 students, parents involving superintendents, involving administrators, involving teachers. everybody that's involved in the school really making them a key part of what the work that we're doing. also looking at the whole person. they're wellness, all of these things. again, coming up earlier this morning. and the third piece, collaborative. it was so important to us and really in a landmark way
bringing together these players in a coordinated fashion. this is a very -- we've had lots of interesting data today. this is a snapshot of a little bit of research that was done in california. looking at high schools and what was it that impacts an environment at a high school specifically around lgbt young people? and we chose to highlight three high schools, hostile high school, one that is typical and one that is very, very safe based on the research done and what we saw in this -- we heard it but this research really gave us the data around that is that there were a couple components that were really important. visible allies and learning about lgbt identities within curriculum. that intergrated curriculum piece was key.
integrated curriculum. in the last year, we have partnered with one archive clz is one of the largest collections of lgbt libraries and artifacts and lucky for us also based out of los angeles. and we're looking at how we can respond to the fair education accurate act in california. to really integrate the contributions of lgbt people in history in a seamless way so that it's not in a sidebar. but that it is within the main text of what i'm learning. along with pacific islanders and people with disabilities. integrating that into our curriculum, we saw it can really shift how not only are lgbt young people feel but those, their classmates, right, those who are maybe struggling or those who have never had a positive context for talking about this before.
whether you talk about family diversity and our family diverse advertise and making sure that teachers felt they had the equipment and tools necessary to do so. the last thing that i want to talk about is something that i'm really excited and proud because it was one our newest initiatives. it is our out for safe schools. last year in partnership with lausd we sat down and talked about the importance of out visible allies on school campuses. and there is a his tansy. how can we create an awareness
around this and do so in a way that impacts young people's lives? and that's when we created the idea of an employee badge that says i'm out for safe schools. it has the word ally in seven different languages. and on the back it has a list of resources that any school member could use. we purchased 30,000 badges which was roughly one-third of all the staff in l.a. unified. and we passed them out. and we asked people to opt in to wear them. it went along with the tool kit and several other different supports to the school. obviously, along with us there. and we were blown away with the response. you'll see even today around l.a. unfied not only the employee badge but the badge that says that they are out for safe schools. en that was really a visible way for people in all schools to be able to identify where they
could feel the safest. we've heard so many testimonials from staff who never felt they could come out on campus, seeing the staff, other staff, co-workers wearing the badge and making an impact on them. a and maybe one thing we haven't talked about this morning is how can adults respond to incidences of bullying when themselves feel ill equipped or ill supported in that conversation? and we really found that this identifying our role as an ally, identifying our role as telling our story and being part of the community in a such a neutral yet visible way really allowed staff to feel as connected to their school and for students who scan us as adults every day to see if we believe in their potential. to be able to feel safer. just because we were wearing a badge. this year we're hoping to partner with many other school
districts across the nation who kind of like the idea and certainly looking to see how we can create more creative ideas, right, create more creative ideas of addressing this in a way that really catches the conversation right where it needs to be, engaging all of us. we certainly had challenges and we continue to learn from our experiences. many of them had been highlighted earlier today from what our best practices. finally, i want to leave you with these three thoughts as to what has been a successful partnership for us. we're so lucky to work with a school district and several districts within l.a. county that really value collaboration and partnership. but i can say personally i've learned three things.
one, it's a trusting relationship. it's one where we all come to the table and listen to each other. and that involves parents, students, community based organizations. it involves many people across the spectrum. that's really important for a successful collaboration. the second i think is research really using practice that's have been studied that, have been proven. and doing so in a way that's thoughtful and not just trying something out because maybe it will work. but really being thoughtful of our practices and involving people who know what they're doing. and the third one which i think really speaks to all the people involved in project spin both at lausd and our community partners is bold leadership. leadership that's not afraid to shifting a culture around all of these different topics that we've been talking about this morning. and thinking creatively around how we can do it together. i'll leave you with that.
but i can talk to you much more about all of the different interventions. thank you for your attention. >> let's give our two precenters another round of applause. i think they really shared some interesting information. we have time for two questions because we know that your stomach is growling if it's anything like mine. the mikes are on either side of the room. if you have a question, please approach the mike and if there is someone that you want to address it to specifically or to both panelists, please be clear on that, too. >> hi.
good morning. thank you so much. first of all, the points that you emphasized and this is more of a comment than a question, our previous speaker as well, the importance of the core instruction, the truly the universal teaching of the skills is so important. i think when we talk about pbis oftentimes we talk about tiered model of intervention. and whether people hear that intervention word, i think our minds go to the two and three tiers and it's universal instruction and core instruction that is so important. and i think you have both really talked to that today. i appreciate it. i do have a question for katherine. the schools that were involved in the pilot were they schools that had not previously implemented any of those core programs like botven or ovais? >> that's correct. they not implemented botven or
ovais previously. because we had done some pbis training at the high school level, some of the schools had some prior level of exposure to positive behavior support. we assess that at baseline. and we controlled for that in the randomization. so we matched on that essentially whether we were doing the randomization. just because when there is a big scale up in the state, some of the schools might have gotten a princip principal from another school that got trained and we're concerned when you get a model in the water. it just gets picked up. that's why we assessed any of the three tiers largely aren't universal tier at baseline. we didn't have any of the schools with high scores at baseli baseline. we were able to use that as randomization. schools are doing a lot of different things. they may have been doing a little of this and that. we get a set score that is pbis score that comes in a zero where they're doing nothing.
most schools come in a 20 or 30 even at baseline. so we were able to control for that as part of the randomization. any of the other advanced tirz, they didn't have access to those prior to the trial. >> and the survey dat yashgs the survey used, had schools also used other surveys in the past like the youth risk behavior survey and were they using those concurrently? >> maryland, it does participate in the yrbs. they don't get data back to a school level. there is no data provided back to the school level. it only goes up to the district level. and not all schools are part of the assessment. so it's not really a tool that is helpful at a building level other than to say this is what the kids in maryland look like or this is what the kids in this district look like. but it is provided back directly for voting level decision making. >> thank you. >> is there another question?
>> one that came through facebook. what can parents do if they feel their school is not appropriately responding to their child being bullied? >> and lunch. no, just kidding. i can speak a little bit about what we do in regards to working with parents. it's not just a reactive relationship but that we're engaging them from day one around what are different ways for them to access support through the school, at the district and any other outside organization that is a resource. so there are multiple people to speak to whom ever they may feel the safest with. i think it's really foreign have a very clear process so that parents know who they're going to need to talk to and what that process is going to include once they do make a uniform complaint or once they're able to kind of process, take it to the next step. i think it's really important to have that clear information and that it's something that involves parents' feedback so
it's not just, you know, legal language that parents might have difficulty navigating. it's really easy and accessible. that is so important for us. and also we include parents in our teaching. if we do trainings, if we do professional development, we include parents in that process. not just talking about our interventions but talking about what we do once we get a kblant so they can understand from the proservice the school what happens. and then what other kind of intervention methods around that? that's my short answer. do you want to respond? >> you did a great job. >> also, i just wanted to put a plug in for stopbullying.gov. there is clear information there for parents on how to deal with these kinds of issues that is outlined there. and i also it's very important to kind of get a sense of what the legislation in your state on how to deal with those issues a