tv Politics Public Policy Today CSPAN October 17, 2014 9:00am-11:01am EDT
is almost impossible these days. so how do we help them implement more effective practices in a more efficient way? my job today is to talk about positive behavior interventions and support. talk a little bit about what it is and how it can serve as a foundation or a structure for helping schools to organize their practices in a better way. pbis was a term that originally appeared in the ida statute. you also may hear it refer to as school wide pbis, multitiered behavior frameworks, multitiered systems of support. what you call it doesn't really matter. it's that the core components that we've identified are implemented within the individual frameworks. so what are we talking about? we're talking about a framework for enhancing the adoption and implementation of a continuum of evidence-based interventions to achieve both academically and behaviorally important outcomes
for all students. sorry. this clicker has a mind of its own a little bit. when we're talking about what we want to do, we want to establish the capacity for improving classroom and school climate. other objectives that dovetail nicely with the talks this morning and our work on bullying, how we decrease reactive management, maximizing academic achievement to achieve the goals that we want to achieve broadly looking to pull all the different behavioral and emotional social issues together. a lot of people ask what is a positive school climate? how can you see it when you go into a school. and the question is do you see it, do you feel it? deb said this morning you walk into a school and you can know by just your first time in the school. is it a good place to be? is it a place that you want your children? when you walk into a school that
has a positive school climate what are the things we might see? we might see posters up identifying behavioral responses that are expected of children. we may not see a long line of children in hallway waiting to see the assistant principal for various issues and problems. we may not hear stories of children that feel like they can't participate, attend school. and we also may see students' peers telling their other peers what the expected and appropriate behavior is within the school environment. it's important to look at, before we go into the pbis, look at what we're talking about when we talk about effective organizations. and this isn't just our pbis work. it long precedes that. so when we talk about an effective organization, we're talking about a group of people whose collective behaviors are towards a certain outcome, and they have a common goal that's
maintained by this outcome. and what -- the thing that are important to include in that would be is there a common language? when we say be responsible, did everyone in the school, adults, children, do they know what that means? when they say be respectful of self and others, do they know what that means? so establishing a common language. also, establishing a common vision and values. our actions should be driven by our vision and values. in order to do that within a schoolwide unit, we need to make sure that most folks in that unit share the same vision and values. we heard earlier about folks having time to talk about it at the dinner table. we also have to give teachers and practitioners time to talk about it as part of their work. is there a common experience? are expectations clear? are concept points consistent? so the vision and all of this is directed by quality leadership.
not just resting solely on the shoulders of a principal or administrator but on a leadership team that's established to make sure all of these things function effectively. i want to talk just a little bit about the organization and move into some cycles that we see existing in school. you heard today deb delyle talk about it's about changing adult behavior. michael also said similar comments about changing adult behavior. let's just look at what kid behaviors may look like in a negative school climate. so we see such behaviors as noncompliance, noncooperation. we see violent and aggressive behaviors. we would certainly see bullying behaviors likely in this type of environment. what we are very good at identifying the things that kids are doing. what we're often not very good at is identifying the things that the adults are doing in that environment.
so what are the things that might be seen in the adult behaviors in this environment? you might see more reactive management. you might see more use of exclusionary practices, inefficient organization, poor leadership, ineffective strategies for delivery of instruction. and what happens here is you see this coercive cycle. one of these kind of leads to the other, and so you get more reactive. and it's very difficult to break out of this cycle. arne duncan when he released the school discipline guidance earlier this year, one of the comments he made was, it's not just about fixing the kids. it's about changing the adult behavior. what are the adults doing in the context and the environment of schools? what do we do to both prevent the behavior from occurring in the first place and what do we do to respond to that behavior to ensure that it does not continue to occur? so this coercive cycle is something we don't think a lot
about. so let's look at the flip side of that, a more positive reinforcement cycle. so in a school that's engaging in implementing a more positive approach to social, emotional and behavioral sections of a child's development, we see more positive than negative comments. we see a challenging academic curriculum. we see kids engaged in the instruction. we see a safe learning environment, we see opportunities to learn. the work that we've been engaged in with the pbis center of the last 16 years is trying to address this coercive cycle. so how do we deliberately organize school environments to foster more positive and preventive approaches to social, emotional, behavioral needs of children? what do we do as adults? this is what school does. so what do we see from the children in this type of environment? the social, emotional and behavioral skills that we all
want to see from all of our children. we see more compliance and cooperation, we see more engagement and participation. we see a safe and clean environment, safe and supportive faculty/student interactions. so what do we do as adults and what do away want to see? promoting a positive factors and decreasing the risk factors that exist. so the focus has been for years is looking at this cycle and how can we move it to a more positive approach. how do we as adults behave and organize the environment to promote more positive outcomes? this is an important consideration because when we're looking at everyone's engaged in change and reform now. everyone's trying to make every
school a better place for all of our children. so -- and what do we know about change? we know that change is really difficult, right? and it takes a lot of time and a lot of energy. it's important for us to look at is there any way that we can jump-start change? is there any way to make it a little faster or a little less intensive? one of the ideas that we're seeing in the schools that we're working with looking at school climate is one of the ways we can do this is to kind of look at where this coercive cycle is and move this coercive cycle from a primarily negative-based cycle to what, a more positive based cycle. not saying it's easy or the silver bullet, but it's an observation that we've been making in our schools. again, we're looking at how can we jump-start the implementation and change that we want to see in schools to create climates that are conducive to supporting the behaviors that we want to see in our children. so what's it going to take to shift in this direction? if we're wanting to look at positive school climate, i enjoyed the remarks earlier, and there were many of these that were touched on.
so we need to be precise, explicit, efficient and we need to implement for sustainability over the long haul. so it's not something that we change every year, that it's a three to five year commitment, it's a priority in the organization and it's something that the school and staff agrees to stick to. so you see participatory leadership, you see that we're a database decision making, teaching behavior explicitly within schools. this is not unlike what we've seed we have to do for academics for many, many years. so this is taken from response to intervention or multitiered system of support looking at how we promote reading and math within schools. so the same practices that we would expect for reading and math need to be part of how we implement social, emotional and behavioral practices in school so we have a continuum of intervention, content and fluency from the staff and the school on social, emotional and behavioral issues we have team-based interventions, withy universally screen, we provide the services, needs and supports that the students need. when we look at pbis, this triangle is not unfamiliar i
don't think to anyone in this room. this was the public health model that we originally started doing the work off of. unfortunately, people started labeling kids green, red and yellow. that was not the intent. over time we changed the triang toll a more blended model to try to get rid of that emphasize. and it really is -- it's a continuum that we want to emphasize, not the static tiers. you see in this the kind of the thinking behind the framework is we're going to do something for everyone. so social, moeksal, behavioral skills will be addressed in all schools. there are a few kids that need more support and some kids that need or most intensive effort. the expertise in the school should move to a more directed expertise for students. the students should get our best
and not the opposite. it's also important to look within this triangle that not every kid fits everywhere. is not always in most intensive need or not always in the universal. so this is a young man named malcolm. and if you were to plot malcolm's progress in his academic and social life in school, you can see here he does real well with peer interactions and homework and cooperative play, he's pretty good with attendance and technology. his issues are with anger management and problem solving. so when you're looking at this kid, you would set up the delivery of the resources, interventions and supports for this kid based on these needs so we'd spend the most time on what? anger management and problem
solving skills. that same triangle can apply to a school. when we're looking at school reform and whole school work, the support is determined by a student need, how intensive we are, not by the student's label, their zip code or how they look. you heard someone else bring that up this morning. same thing with the school. not all schools need the same thing. so when we're working within a school, we would do the same thing with the school. how are they on their basic mental health services? how do they do with attendance? how do they do with teacher retention? how do they do with office discipline referraled? how do they do with seclusion and suspensions? you plot a school what are their strengths and weaknesses. then that data helps you plan how to put your resources in place to address the support that a school would need. that's the thinking behind some of the department's work on differentiated ta that we want all schools to move in this direction but how we help get
them there is dependent on what the school's needs and resources are. you'll also have a slide, and this is an important thing to remember. we have typically -- not typically, but some of the criticism that has been said about the pbis model is that it's a recipe and you have to do this, this and this. and that's not truly accurate because what we've done is looked at the core of the critical components. how those are implemented is up to -- is flexible and can be customized by a school or a district. so if you look at here we've got primary prevention. you'd want behavior is a priority, social, emotional, behavior. behavior is a priority. you want consistency in responding to behavior. you want to have some kind of school wide and class wide management system in place. but there's no direction or have to about what you choose to do
within your given school or district. so what we've done is focused on the core components. it doesn't really matter what you call it. it's that we're implementing these core components. if you look through the three tiers we've laid out here for primary, secondary and tertiary intervention, you see pretty generic statements of what you should include. then it's up to the school-based team and their data to fill in those and customize that. dr. liu did a great job of talking about the three kind of components to move policy forward and practice forward that we know works. and this is a kind of implementation structure that we've developed over time with the pbis center. for a long time it was like, oh, you need a great leadership team and they can do everything. then it was like oh, well, you need these coaches here and these other components and then schools and states would be doing a great job with that. and then guess what?
there wasn't a lot of funding available or the politicals were not seeing the benefits of what was happening in individual school or district. so we kind of laid out this concept of what are the implementation drivers? and what this slide does for you is it causes you to consider all the different things that have to be put into place, both your top-down approach and your bottom-up -- bottom-up and top-down approach. and this leadership team is really important because they're kind of like the glue that holds everything together. when you're thinking about implementation, this just gives you an idea about all the multiple components that are involved with that. another slide that we've recently developed gives you the concept of this just doesn't happen in one place at one level. so what is the state responsibility or the regional or responsibility, what are the districts' responsibilities, what are the in-house school responsibilities?
why is this important? because the whole thing we're trying to do is increase a capacity. so do you have capacity at the state level to address this? do you have capacity at the district level? does your school have capacity? so it's fine to have external coaches in some part but then we also want to help districts and schools also develop their internal abilities to provide coaching and support to teachers as they implement. so you see that. and i'm going to have two more slides. this is another graphic that we've found to be really useful in the work we've done. if you look at the top two blue bubbles, that's more on the kind of readiness perspective. if you've studied the implementation science research karen blase and dean fixen have worked a lot on are people really ready to implement change. so setting up your team and agreements, that's part of your readiness ability to get ready
to do a new change. and then this bottom triangle really looks at our implementation effort. what are we doing based on our data, how are we customizing the action plans three to five years, the implementations what we really do, and then that feeds into what evaluation, which then feeds back into how we do it. so there's a continuous improvement cycle in our implementation. and the very last slide and comment has to do with learning over years, and we've had these three circles, systems data and practices for a long time education's been great with the practices. where we've fallen down is organizing those into systems that support and maintain those practices. and basing the choice of our practices on data, not the slickest binder or the greatest salesman, but the data on what we truly need. and then so for years we went on this. then what we were noticing is that bias was really a factor
that we needed to consider. and so we're making a concerted effort to look very deliberately at cultural factors that affect our decision and implementation as we go through. so it's how do we support culturally valid decisionmaking? how do we support culturally relevant practices? and how do we support culturally knowledgeable staff behavior? so the goal of the multi-tiered framework is for schools to have an information structure that helps direct how adults behave in ways that support the social emotional and behavioral needs of children so they can feel secure and safe and fully engage in the learning and educational -- to achieve the learning and educational outcomes that we desire for all children. so i think i'm going to turn it over to marc -- or sarah's going to introduce marc again. and i'll turn it over to him to talk about a more specific effort in this area.
[ applause ] >> thank you so much. i now have the pleasure of introducing dr. marc brackett who is the director of the yale center for emotional intelligence and senior research scientist in psychology at yale university. he's the lead developer of ruler an evidence-based approach to social and emotional learning designed for students, school leaders, teachers, staff and families. he also serves on a wide range of research advisory boards including castle and lady gaga's born this way foundation. he's also working with facebook on two projects including a large-scale investigation to help decrease bullying and the bullying support center for children, families and schools. please welcome marc. [ applause ] >> good morning, everyone.
i think my job is to ask you how you're feeling. at least that's what i do every day. so the title of my presentation is emotional intelligence our best hope for safe, caring and effective schools. what i'm hoping to do is take what our former presenter did and really show you what it looks like on the ground floor in a school. so i'll talk you through a little bit of our practices, but then really the implementation piece. number of colleagues that are here in the audience as well as back of the center that i need to appreciate for their hard work. and we have a vision at our center. as you can imagine our center is called the yale center for emotional intelligence. so we believe that emotions matter. and we believe they matter a great deal for lots of things, as you can see here and for helping kids and adults to lead healthy lives, to be effective in their work and their families. we do think the world should be a more compassionate place where people get along better. what we do in our center is two
things. we do research and we develop approaches to bring these ideas into educational systems. so i'd like you to take a moment and make this a little bit personal. we've been talking a lot at you. i'm going to ask you to take this a little bit inward now. can i ask everyone to just get comfortable in his or her seats? maybe sit up a little straighter. if you want to close your eyes, you can do that. i'm sure the department of ed will appreciate that one. and take a nice long inhale, please. and exhale. sort of let your bodies get settled. and please take a moment and think about perhaps one child that you know who may not be having the best year. perhaps a child in a school, perhaps your own child, perhaps someone else's child. and just grab that elementary middle school or high school student and put them in your
mind. just think about them. think about what it looks like when they wake up in the morning. how does it feel to wake up in a household? and their commute to school. when they get into school, think about this child. is that child walking and saying, wow, this is going to be an empowering, inspiring day, i feel connected, valued and appreciated or, ugh, just another day, who's going to hurt me today. who is going to hurt me today as i go to my locker. feedback from teachers, hallways, as we saw. locker rooms, bathrooms, lunch, sitting alone or with someone else? being talked to or not talked to? afternoon, after school, back at home. what is it like for this child in the evenings at home? how does this child feel when he or she puts their head on the pillow going to bed, saying i can't wait to get up in the morning? i can't wait to go back to
school? or i don't want to be there? and with that child in mind, i'd like you to think about five things. i'd like you to think about that child's attention, memory and learning for information. i can tell you firsthand as a kid, when i was a child at 13 years old, i was bullied pretty horrifically in my middle school. and interestingly enough when i went back to visit my school 15 years later i remembered nothing about my school. nothing. i remember two things. the locker where my hands were slammed. and i remember walking the halls getting pushed around. did i remember any content? no. did i remember any of the positive relationships i had? no. and so we now know from research is that emotions drive our attentional capacities. they drive how our brains operate. and without getting into the details, what we know is that the emotional climates of our schools, the emotions we feel internally impact our ability to learn. they also affect our decisionmaking and judgment. think about that child's choices. is that child making healthy choices for him or herself?
think about the child who is experiencing a lot of anger in school. are they making the best choices? are they having the best relationships? what is the trajectory for his or her mental health? and finally is that child effective? is that child getting the grades that he or she deserves to get? likely not. so we've developed a model in our center that we called ruler. and it's a model based in theory of emotional intelligence that was developed by my mentors. and emotional intelligence is a set of skills. and i'm just going to talk you through this very briefly. the first is recognizing emotion. think about that skill in terms of bullying prevention. how many of you believe that many of the perpetrators of bullying are misperceiving other people's facial expressions and body language? i can tell you from my own experiences, i remember vividly being in a classroom and someone punching me. now i think back and this was shop. we had shop in my high school. i don't look like a guy who
would like shop, do i? and i was desperate to get out of this class. i kept on looking over at the clock, when is this going to be over? and this kid came over and bang, what are you looking at? right? he misperceived my facial expression of boredom of being one of anger towards him. the second skill of understanding emotion, knowing the causes and consequences of emotions, why am i angry? what's the difference between anger and disappointment? most people think it's easy, but when you get to the heart of it, anger is about unfairness and injustice whereas disappointment is about expectations not being met. labels emotions, having that sophisticated vocabulary. knowing the difference between being annoyed, angry, enraged, furious. knowing the difference between sad, disappointment, hopeless, despair. and obviously on the positive end, between joy, elation and ecstasy. the fourth is expressing emotions. knowing how and when to express
emotions in different context. right? there are rules in schools about emotions, aren't there? some rules have open rules meaning that teachers are open to expressing positive emotions. other schools you walk into, as we now know, and you feel a little bit closed. i'll never forget in a school in philadelphia i went to visit. i walked into the school and the administrator says, wait over there. i was like, okay. welcome. thank you. and then the principal of the school walked out. he looks, he heard the interaction. and he said, you know, marc, she really needs your skills. and i said, well, you hired this person. so you know, the idea here, right, is that we need to be looking for people in our schools that have these skills. don't we want to hire teachers that possess these skills? we talk about changing the adults so much. that's a lot of work. why don't we select people who have these skills and why not also make sure that these teachers are learning this when they're being prepared to be teachers.
why are we waiting so long? and the final skill all of you will think is quite important is the regulation of emotion. how many of you believe just basically that your own lives would be better if you had more skills to regulate emotions? yeah. and how many of you believe that everyone you live with had more strategies -- yeah, figure that. so what do we know? we know a lot of things about kids who have emotional intelligence. we study this in many studies as well as other universities have done this work. we know that kids who are -- who score higher on tests of emotional intelligence, performance-based tests have less anxiety, less depression, they're less likely to use drugs and alcohol, are less likely to be aggressive and bully others. they have greater leadership skills and more attentive in school and do better academically. pretty good outcomes. we've also studied teachers. and guess what? teachers with greater emotional intelligence are more positive
in schools. they get more support from their principals. they also are less stressed and burnt out. we move beyond the study of the teacher and the student to the classroom and now we're looking at literally the interactions between and among teachers and students in classrooms using tools the university of virginia called the class where we're coding these interactions and showing that that emotional climate of a classroom, that ability to regard a student's perspective, that ability to have sensitivity for a student's needs, that ability to generate positive emotions in the classroom is related to these outcomes and i think you would say these are important outcomes. i ask you all a question now. how many of you believe that you've had a sophisticated emotion education? so no one's hand is raised for those of you who are watching on television. think about it. how much formal education have any of us received in this area? how many of you learned how to recognize emotions? how many of you had family
members who said, honey, let's talk about some research-based strategies on how to manage your emotions? my father, positive reappraisal? i'll give you positive reappraisal. there was none of that going on in my life. so i'm going to share with you what we do. i have strong feelings about this work. obviously for my own personal experiences but also looking at what happens in schools. and we've had the privilege of being in well over a thousand schools now. and as you can see here, you know, my thinking and our center's thinking is we need to move beyond the list on the left. and our previous presenters talked a little bit about that. monitoring hot spots is okay but what is that really going to do in the long term? counting on bystanders. i think about myself as a kid. would i have had the courage at 13 being an introvert who was kind of a weakling to really stand up for somebody? isn't that a lot to put on a kid? why are we expecting children to protect other children? that doesn't resonate well with me. i want to be protected as a kid.
think about what we can move to, right, that we know that children have unique needs, that we know that all players have unique skills and we've been talking a lot about that today. all adults need training and obviously we want to shift that culture and climate. so what does it really look like? well, we have some characteristics that you can just read here on this list. that i think all of you would agree that effective approaches have these characteristics. they're based in theory. we think theory is important because in terms of a child's emotional development, i want to know what's going on. what are the expectations that i can have for that child in terms of what strategies i can teach them? am i going to try to teach a kid in kindergarten about alienation? probably not. but maybe loneliness and exclusion. what strategies can i expect to teach that child to regulate his emotions that are appropriate for his or her age? obviously a scaffold to provide that common language we've talked about and the list goes on.
so in our approach we have what we call anchor tools that we teach children and adults involved. and we have four primary tools. we call them the emotional intelligence charter which helps to build the culture and climate that we want in our schools, a mood meter and we have a tool we use for self-regulation and we have a tool we call a blueprint to help build respective taking and interpersonal problem solving skills. firstly, we want you know that it's everybody with a face. if you work in a school, we train you. so if you are at the front desk, we train you. if you work in the transportation department, we train you. if you work in the office, you get skills, too. actually, yesterday we had a guest speaker in our center talking about how important it was for her secretary to have these skills, like she's reading the facial expression of all the visitors that are coming to meet with her. she's like, wait a minute. i don't thing you're in the right quadrant of the mood meter to have a meeting with the
principal right now. so the charter is the first one. you can see the title says too many rules, not enough feelings. i'm a big proponent of that. i hated rules as a kid. i broke every rule there was. while rules may be important -- we need rules for physical safety, what do we do for emotional safety? what do we do to create a healthy, emotional climate in schools? and what we do in our work is we start up with feelings and we ask people first, how do you want to feel working in this school? what are the feelings that you want to have? and we use that as a driver for the behaviors. if you want to feel safe, what does that look like? if you want to feel empowered, what does that look like? if you want to feel supported, what does that look like? these are examples. this is a high school where they want to feel respected, supported, comfortable and spirited. i thought that was a great word for high school. this is a fifth grade classroom. we want to feel included and confident and respected and appreciated and energized, safe and supported.
this is a school that works in spanish. we want to feel -- [ speaking spanish ] we want to feel happy, we want to feel respected and we want to feel loved. right? they're 4 years old. they want to feel loved. the second tool is called the mood meter. and this is our signature tool because it helps to build that awareness that we all need. how many of you believe that you have a sophisticated emotion vocabulary? how many of you know the difference between jealousy and envy, shame and guilt? it's complicated. we want to build that granularity in our nation's children and adults. so what we do through the mood meter, we teach facial expressions, body language, vocal tones and physiology and behavior. yellow is high energy pleasant emotions like feeling happy and excited, the red is the anger and anxiety family. the blue is the disappointed and sad families.
and the green is the calm, content, tranquil feelings. there are 10,000 words in the english dictionary to describe our feelings. most of us use four. we're in the yellow, great, we're in green, fine and blue, eh, and the red, pissed. you can see here there are lots of words to help us become more granular in ourself understanding. we also want to teach strategies for how to manage the emotions. what does it look like to get into the yellow? has anyone here ever woken up as a teacher or anyone in a position where you're kind of down and disappointed? how many woke up that way? and you had to go into the room and be that inspiring teacher or leader? it's not easy. what are the strategies that we're doing to do that? we focus so much on anger reduction and stress management. what about the generation of positive emotions. what are we doing to teach adults and children, how to generate or initiate positive
emotions in our schools? of course we also want to make sure that everyone understands that emotions drive how we learn. and teach teachers how to differentiate emotions in their instruction. so take a look at this. creative writing, yellow. you want to be in that yellow zone. that will help you generate ideas. it's clear from the research, yellow emotions generate inductive reasoning ability. blue emotions, however, are great for deductive reasoning, for building empathy, for even editing a paper. you want to collaborate, you want to be in the green. you want to write that persuasive essay, i have opportunity to tell you how i really feel about our nation's education system. i got to be careful, right? and as you can see i'm in a place here where i feel strongly that we need to integrate the emotions into our education system. i can say that in the yellow. we need to bring emotions! and people are like what is this guy from connecticut? get him out of here, right? but if i say it in a red or say
it in a way that sounds like it's an alert, think about it. what are we doing to make sure that our nation's education's children are getting the skills they need to navigate their lives. think about it. a little bit of an energy in there but not the pleasant energy. it's sort of an alert energy. i'm holding back, just so you know. here are ways this is used in the classroom through children in special education schools where they have difficulty speaking where they can pull their emotions and faces into an electronic box that says, oh, you're feeling this way, and let the class know. that's an ipad use. that's a smartboard. that's a school leader. we even developed an app now where people can download and plot yourself and describe what you're feeling, then shift into different quadrants and choose research-based strategies to help you manage your emotions effectively. integrating technology where it's useful so you can record and see your report.
this says i'm 51% blue which would mean i'm clinically depressed. i'm not, just so you know. it just so happens when i show people this tool, i tend to use the blue as an example. but it would be nice for people to know what percentage of the time they're spending in each of these different places. wouldn't it? for kids to be aware of that. and how that's shifting their thinking and judgment and decisionmaking and relationships. right into education, right into the classroom, integrating to the common core state standards. thinking about a character from a book like schmul from the boy in the striped pajamas, how did he go from being in the yellow to being in the blue? how did he feel? what is the text-based evidence to help you understand that child's emotional life and how that impacted his relationships? the third tool is called the meta moment. the meta moment is our tool for building self-regulation. there are six steps to this process. what we argue is that if you take these six steps
seriously, it can literally change the way you see the world. first is something happens. how many of you have triggers? raise your hand. triggers. how many of you have friends who have triggers? how many of you work with people who have too many triggers? we all have triggers. bullying is usually the result of someone being triggered. it's a perception of something that happened in the environment. a shift in the environment that doesn't resonate with the person and they're going after. so what we want to do is teach kids about those triggers. what are your triggers? be aware of those triggers. how is that trigger shifting your thinking? how is it shifting your physiology? are you feeling in your body whether you are shifting into that unpleasant place? unfortunately, we have to teach people how to stop and breathe. how many of you breathe? raise your hand. how many of you intentionally breathe when you're feeling stressed? like two people are raising their hands. so we know that breathing is a tool. it's a tool.
it helps us deactivate. it helps us to build a space so that we can choose and use effective strategies. and we have to teach kids that. it doesn't come naturally. i didn't know how to breathe when i was a kid. i knew how to pant. running away, being fearful. the fourth step is see your best self. think about that. what does it mean to have a best self? you know, this idea came about as a collaboration with my colleague robin stern who is here today, where we realize that the field of emotional regulation was missing something important, it was missing motivation. you have to want to regulate, don't you? i was very fortunate in my career that i was named the feelings master by my students a few years ago. i started thinking about it, what is a feelings master? what are the attributes of someone who is a master of his or her feelings? how do i want to feel as a teacher, as a leader. i want to be compassionate. interestingly enough we just got done training a hundred school leaders yesterday, and the
number one best self-adjective that came out of this group was compassionate. they all want to be more compassionate. and when you have the lens of compassion, guess what? you choose more effective strategies to manage your emotions. how could you not? it literally shifts your intentional capacities to being that best self. when you live your life through the lens of compassion, you are likely going to choose more effective strategies to manage those triggers. this is just examples in a classroom. finally there is a tool called a blueprint which helps to teach perspective taking. it helps kids understand that it's not just about me. it's about us, it's about we. and i need to start looking at your emotions in your life not just paying attention to mine. and that helps us resolve conflicts more effectively. to wrap up, i just want to share with you that we've done a number of studies in this work. and in one year we can shift grades by about 11%. we also shift behavior in classrooms as well as school problems and adaptive skills. the graphs are hard to see, but you have this on your hard
drive. in our work in new york city in some of the most challenging schools, i was just blown away by these data from the new york city department of ed. after one year, a 50% reduction in school suspensions. huge. think about what that looks like in a classroom or a school, that release time that principal has when there's less aggression and suspensions. we've also shown that as we've heard a little while ago, that implementation matters and it matters a great deal. we have to train teachers to be high quality implementers of this work. what you do is you find the kid's emotional conflict goes up and their conflict resolution skills go up. and finally, we found that doing this work longitudinally literally helps teachers become better teachers, making schools and classrooms places where kids want to be literally helps teachers become better teachers. in summary, a few comments. one i think we all agree that children are wired for good. if we don't agree, there's
research to support it. but if attachments at home -- only when attachments at home and school are positive will they thrive. the second thing i want to say is that children's goodness and ability to reach their full potential is ours to nurture or ours to neglect. and the third is that i hope you see that teaching emotional intelligence and social emotional learning more broadly has great benefits. right? first we want to teach children and adults involved in their lives so we can create that great society that we all want with people are healthy, effective and compassionate. i want to make one final comment. this is a call to action. we're here to talk about children's development, about teacher preparation, about the nation that we want our children to live. and i can't say with a stronger heart that it is our nation's responsibility to take seriously the education or i should say specifically the emotion education of its children. thank you very much. [ applause ]
>> i'd like to thank marc and renee again for giving such fantastic presentations. so now we'll have time to take two questions. and i see salinda is over there. we'll take your question. >> i have a question that came in through social media through facebook, it's for our first speaker, i believe. are there examples of consequences teachers can put in place to hold children who bully accountable? >> yes. there are examples. and i would encourage them to go
to the pbis, www.pbis website as well as the stopbullying.gov website. the reason i'm hedging on this topic is i'm being aware of time and we were supposed to give very short answers. i'm not sure that i can give an appropriate short answer to that question. so, marc, if you want to try to give a short answer to that question, but i would encourage them to go to the website. both of the websites have strategies for practitioners in responding to different types of problem or challenging behavior including bullying, so that would be my guidance. they can contact me directly at the department if they can't find what they're looking for. >> okay. >> hi. question for rene. i've seen pbis be so transformative in schools. i work in new york city schools mostly but around the country. extremely transformative. but the school climate transformation grants that just came out were really perplexing that they equated it with school
climate improvement reform efforts. when i see they're fundamentally different. they're really needed but fundamentally different. do you see any of those differences with school climate improvement in the goals of what pbis tries to do and school climate reform tries to do? >> i personally don't see a great difference between the two. and i'm sorry if it appeared that way because i actually worked with safe and healthy students on the rfp for those grants. and you know, katherine talked earlier about there's a lot of areas where we still need a good bit of research. >> yeah. >> and katherine bradshaw, you're on a panel later, too? right? i hope she'll talk then. she's one of the best researchers that's looked at the randomized controlled trials in the effects of pbis and the implementation of that framework. so i would point you to her
research to look at and hopefully she'll talk about it some this afternoon. but what we're -- you know, everything's kind of you move over time and transform. and our initial work with the pbis center was to look at children with emotional disabilities, emotional and behavioral disabilities and how we can create environments that were more conducive to them being included in a regular public school setting. and as we began that work, what became very obvious in looking at how the triangle's kind of set up as the basis for the framework, was that if a school was not addressing the social emotional, behavioral needs of all of the children, it was very difficult to ask schools to put energy and effort and time into addressing those that were most needy. and you'll see a good bit of research that looks at similar to what marc was saying, reductions in suspensions, reductions in office discipline referral, reductions in out of school time.
and the great thing about seeing those reductions is that it gives teachers and administrators more time to do what they're supposed to be doing. you know, to address the structural needs, to add in the social emotional work that marc's talking about. use some of the lessons learned from the pbis work, and we're still learning a lot, but to use some of those lessoned learned and move that into a basis for some of the school climate transformation grants. hopefully you see more of a connection than not. and the pbis center will be funded this year to help support the school climate transformation grants. so that will be doing more than just looking at it with a children with disabilities perspective and working with all of those grantees. >> if there aren't any other questions, i'm going to go ahead and turn it over to sharon
burton for the next plenary session. so please, let's give another -- oh, there is another question? oh, could you -- >> thank you. this is a question for marc. what kind of provisions or strategies you have for the significant percentage of children anded ed adolescents t have difficulties in processing language and they cannot recognize social cues? i'm not talking about progressive developmental disorders, but i'm just talking about kids with language, receptive and expressive development delays. >> that's a great question. so firstly, our approach is primarily a tier one intervention approach. using the pbs rti framework. we are a universal approach. with that said we've had a lot
of experience working with the new york city department of education specifically in district 75 reaching children who have those kinds of learning differences or needs. and what we found works the best is local adaptations. that working with the technologies that a school has for those children is just the best way to go. so there were some examples of that up there where children had an oratory challenges with speaking. they couldn't share anything verbally. so they built a system where are they could take our mood meter, by example, and have kids move their facial expressions into the quadrants to communicate effectively. >> i had a question about -- in our district we're seeing an increase in the number of gangs or crews that are forming at younger ages. and i'm wondering whether either one of you has used your strategies in dealing particularly with that issue and and if you have suggestions for
us. >> i get pushed into that one. we have worked in school districts where there have been significant, you know, high levels of violence and aggression. and again, this local adaptation piece is so critical, right? levels of violence and aggression. and again, this local adaptation piece is so critical, right? you have to understand the culture and the climate of that school. you have to understand the demographics, where are these kids coming from, what are their mind-sets around this work. with that in mind, however, there are things, for example, this best self piece that we talk about with one of our tools called the metamoment for self-regulation, some of these kids have never even thought about what that even means to them. so working with them on a very deep level to try to get that idea sort of ingrained in their lives by thinking about outside role models and others, having them start learning a little bit about short-term versus long-term strategies can go a long way. but there's no magic pill for those kinds of environments. they require pretty focused interventions.
>> i would add to that the importance of, and some of the -- i know i went quickly through a lot of the visuals, but if you look back at the visuals and go to the website, the importance of setting a context that's conducive to the behaviors you want to see, so adults are reinforced, they're teaching those behaviors, they're reinforcing those behaviors. i was mostly with elementary aged children and i recently, a couple years ago, wasn't recent but a couple years ago was in a high school in chicago when they're changing classes. and for me that's like the scariest part of school, when all these kids are in the hallways together. most of them are taller than i am in the first place. i don't know if it was staged. if it was staged it was brilliant. one of the kids got knocked up against a locker in the hallway. and another kid came up and said, man, we don't do that here. and that's the kind -- you know, when you're establishing a
culture and a climate, you know, there's no one thing that's going to do everything. but when you have peers telling other peers what the expected behavior is. so it's almost like being -- displaying inappropriate behaviors becomes a not cool thing to be in some of these schools. not all of them. but that's just an example that came to mind of supporting the contexts that you want to put into place. >> all right, thank you both very much. let's give them another big round of applause. [ applause ] starting in about ten minutes on c-span2, a discussion that will analyze the impact of legalizing marijuana in the u.s. and how it affects international drug treaties. that event is live from the brookings institution at 10:00 a.m. eastern. this afternoon, a discussion on the obama administration's approach to combatting isis with remarks from middle east policy
experts on current strategies, successes and failures. that starts live at noon eastern on c-span2. here on c-span3, legal scholars and open government advocates look at government transparency in light of the nsa surveillance program. they'll speak about freedom of information cases involving drone strikes, as well as presidential policy directives. that event is held by the american bar association, and live coverage begins at 12:45 p.m. eastern. c-span's campaign 2014 coverage continues tonight with the wisconsin governor's debate between incumbent scott walker and democratic challenger mary burke. here's some recent campaign ads. mary burke lied about her jobs plan. turns out, it was plagiarized, and now she's at it again, attacking scott walker's record on jobs.
attacks the milwaukee journal sentinel say are false. she's twisting the numbers. and it's not the first time. the truth, in the last year, wisconsin ranked third in midwest job growth. the facts are, wisconsin gained 100,000 jobs under scott walker. and we can't trust mary burke. >> he made a pledge. >> 250,000 new jobs by the end of our first term in office. >> and asked us to hold him to it. >> is this a campaign promise? something you want to be held to? >> absolutely. >> today, wisconsin is dead last in midwest job growth. tenth out of ten. >> wisconsin lags behind most of the country when it comes to job growth. >> and those 250,000 jobs? not even close. broken promises. dead last in jobs. scott walker's not working for you. it's been called the lie of the year. >> if you like your healthcare plan, you can keep your healthcare plan. >> and mary burke supports it. >> it doesn't mean that the
government's going to tell you which doctors to go to, or which plan to have. >> but while millions have lost their doctors and their plans, mary burke says she still supports obamacare. unequivocally. and wants to expand it. wisconsin can't afford medicine liberal mary burke. >> period. end of story. >> you know who had a really good idea about taxes? ronald reagan. surprised you, didn't i? reagan expanded the earned income tax credit. cutting taxes for working families. you know who had a really bad idea? governor walker. he did just the opposite. cutting taxes for the wealthiest and raising them on 140,000 wisconsin families. raising income taxes on working families isn't just bad economics, it's wrong. >> mary burke. governor. >> recent polling has listed this race as a toss-up. see tonight's wisconsin governor's debate live at 8:00 p.m. eastern, on c-span.
the c-span cities tour takes book tv and american history tv on the road. traveling to u.s. cities to learn about their history and literary life. and this weekend we partnered with time warner cable for a visit to green bay, wisconsin. >> wisconsin's known as america's dairy land because we make the most cheese and the best cheese. the industry developed in wisconsin from what was a homestead cheese where everybody each farm family made cheese for their own use. it was recognized that we had an ideal environment for raising dairy cattle. and cheese was really just a way to take that perishable product, the milk before refrigeration would only last about three days. if you make cheese into it, a cheddar cheese can last for a decade. this was may 1880s, when the industry got started in
wisconsin. generally, farmers in the neighborhood would form a cooperative and build a cheese factory and they would hire a cheesemaker. and the cheesemaker would work for the cooperative on shares. the cheesemakers tended to move around a lot. and there were thousands of them. in 1930s, over 2,000 cheese plants in wisconsin. as transportation and road system improved, there was consolidation among the smaller plants, and that continued up until about 1990 when there were only about 200 cheese factories in wisconsin. >> watch all of our events from green bay saturday, at noon eastern on c-span2's book tv and sunday afternoon at 2:00 on american history tv on c-span3. our special presentation of the national bullying prevention summit continues. this next panel looks at specific examples of successful anti-bullying programs in local schools including efforts to support gay, lesbian and
transgender students. this annual summit is part of an effort by the federal government to create a national bullying prevention strategy. this is about 40 minutes. >> since i'm between you and lunch, we're going to try to move as fast as we can, but wanting to make sure that you have as much information as possible. this is a very important session where we're actually going to talk a little bit about some of the state education and local education perspectives. one from dr. bradshaw who has been working with maryland and with a lot of what they're doing in the same areas that you've heard about the social emotional
learning and also a little bit of the multitier network, framework, rather. and also from -- all the way from los angeles, sarah train is here. and i'm just going to read briefly her bio. you did hear a little bit about dr. bradshaw earlier, who participated in an earlier plenary session. but i do want to introduce you also to sara train. and i'm not going to go over everything in her bio, which you all will have. sara is the coordinator of the los angeles lgbt centers project spin, suicide prevention intervention now program. a coalition strengthening collaboration among many programs and services designed to support lgbtq youth throughout los angeles county. under her leadership the coalition has directly reached over a hundred student, parents and school staff and
administrators with trainings on suicide prevention and crisis and care to create inclusive schools. she assists the school districts in los angeles county on building capacity to respond and implement inclusive policies in accordance with changing legislation. so we have some great speakers today. and again, we want to -- what we've asked them to address is some of the lessons learned for implementing bullying prevention programs in districts and in the classroom and some of the promising things that they're seeing that youth are responding to. we feel that this perspective kind of goes along with our theme of implementation and being able to learn in what is actually going on in the field. so we'll have dr. bradshaw speak first and then followed by sara. thank you.
[ applause ] >> well, it's exciting to be back up here. i'm going to kind of shift gears a little bit. because as a researcher and part of a partnership that is based in the state of maryland and is really focused on scaling up positive behavior support and multi-tier systems support and it's largely led by our partners at the maryland state department of education, andrea alexander and mike ford were the original ones invited to serve on this panel. because it's an l.e.a. and s.e.a. panel. but unfortunately they had an obligation back at the state department so they were unable to attend today and asked me if i could come. the third leg of our triangle is shepard pratt health system which is a large mental health provider across the state of maryland. while they provide a range of support services, anything for
the largest support services for kids with autism across the state and in treatment and out treatment, mental health services they have a strong commitment to prevention of behavioral and mental health problems and the partnership actually began in 1999 through shepard pratt, and the maryland state department of education. and johns hopkins, my colleague feel each and i joined around 2001. so we've been working in partnership to do research as well as scale up positive behavior support and use it generally as a framework and not necessarily as a program, really a framework for delivering other evidence-based models. so we're building tremendous work that renee talked about from the national t.a. center which is led by george sigai and rob horner and tim lewis, so we always feel like we're standing on the shoulders of giants just peeking over the corner here trying to see what we can do next and how we can actually scale this work up.
so much of this effort really comes out of a grant that we received that is focused on safe and supportive schools. and really the theme around climate. and i think the comment that came up about transformation grant and is pbis really the panacea for that, i don't think that that's necessarily what was the intent but it's certainly one tool that can be used and one tool that we've been using to try to address school climate. so you can think about it as a potential tool or a framework. that's how we've been interpreting it and how we've been using it. i'm sure there are other ways we can think about that. but when the safe and supportive schools grant mechanism came down from the u.s. department of education providing an opportunity to do research about evidence-based practices, frankly, it wasn't a research grant but we kind of embedded that in it to promote school climate. our partnership came together and said, let's focus on this particular initiative. it was geared at high schools. so i want to zoom in on this
particular project because it's something we're just wrapping it now. it's also a high school model where we embedded a randomized design to test the pbis framework in the setting. whereas our partnership had done two prior trials to support the elementary school level. one it just that tier one and the second trial it tier two plus tier one and we have published our findings based on. that. not going to talk about those today. but i'll be happy to share with you if you have any questions. i want to share lessons learned from doing this work at the high school level. the high schools are a whole different ball of wax. you hear a lot about these systems and frameworks and you start thinking well, i can get an idea these incentives and these recondition process and these systems in elementary school, but what about high schools? we really found the school climate framework was one that helped us connect positive behavior support around different kinds of change that we wanted to effect in the schools to reduce bullying, and to reduce behavior problems, and substance abuse problems.
so it's really just a framework to guide the kind of effort we're doing. we built a lot off of some of the literature around school climate. i fortunately work with the national education association and we have some of our partners here from the nea today. they've been doing a lot of work around bullying prevention and school climate. they have one of their research briefs here and this is just kind of an excerpt of some of the research we know around what is school climate and how is it relevant. when you get to measurement of school climate, and this is actually a big piece of the safe and supportive schools grant mechanism, which is to develop a sustainable system for assessing school climate, not just to know where the hot spots are, but really to drive the decision making, and put that data back in the hands of the administers and teachers and staff to decide what kind of interventions that they wanted to use to improve the school climate. so we worked together with our state partners to develop a measure, and you know, through that process we were looking at several different existing
measures, and some were very behaviorally focused. and some were just about perceptions. we had a public health framework, as well in ours. we wanted to cover the behavior. things like bullying and substance use problems as well as kids' perceptions of the environment. you might say aren't you kind of flipping around? isn't climate supposed to impact those things? you can think if you have a lot of kids bullying each other in the school building, that's going to negatively impact the climate. this is the cycle of what are the outcomes and the actual process data. we want to unpack that a little bit more. and we built directly off of the u.s. department of education's model of school climate because when you're writing a grant it's kind of nice to use that group's framework. and so we also thought why don't we actually try to validate the model? we actually have a paper that's forthcoming in the journal of school health where we validated this model. so we collected data on over 25,000 high school students across multiple periods of time and then through confirmatory
and exploratory factors and analytic approaches and addressing a variety of things about ethnicity and gender and grade level differences and we're actually able to provide general support for this particular model with a couple of tweaks. you'll see we have a strong theme around connectedness in the middle. this really gets at the theme mark hit on about the relationship component. in fact, as we're unpacking our data, that's really where we're seeing most of the action. in terms of mechanism of change of kids feeling connected to others. especially our african-american students feeling cared for by adults. it's more important than just a global perception that the school environment is pretty positive. so that caring and connection dimension is really something that's coming out as a strong lesson for us about what we want to focus on. and certainly maps on to a lot of the research that we know ad health and bob plumb and michael resnik about the importance of the connections to other people. so maryland being one of the 11 states that was funded under
this safe and supportive schools grant so that's why we call it md for maryland s-3 for the safe and supportive schools. that was the name of our project. and we are just now entering a most-cost extension of that project so this will be our fifth and final year of it. and we worked very closely to develop a statewide system for assessing school climate and looked at several different measures that were available and borrowed very heavily from existing validated tools and really created this system and i get calls from school district saying can we use your system rather than us going knock, knock, knock, do you want to collect data for us? and so, in fact, we already have school districts that adopted this model, 117 schools that are going to be in one of our districts that are scaling up the school climate survey system. it is something to really be able to sustain the effort. because they see the value in just having the data to drive the -- drive the decision-making process. so we focused on high schools and we enrolled 58 high schools
that we were going to work with over a period of four years. and we did use a random assignment. where we split the sample a little bit larger on the intervention side so we could look at some of our fidelity kinds of questions. it was true random assignment balanced on the 12 school districts. and they are geographically dispersed. they're all over the state. maryland is kind of a funny state where we reach all the way up to near west virginia and pennsylvania. all the way down to the eastern shore, and so then we have more urban areas toward the middle of the state near baltimore. so we do really have a nice microcosm, i think, for the united states a little bit of diversity across the state. so we use the passive behavior support framework to really blend together the database decision making peaces, as well as to bring in other evidence-based practices. so in addition to doing the tiered framework, we wanted to plug in other evidence-based practices. but rather than tell schools you have to do this or that, we
would give them a coach. what we called a school climate support coach. and so the coach worked with them around their data and actually provided training on a menu of different evidence-based practices that they could choose. so this is the list of the evidence based practices. so in our model we're not testing ovais, we're testing check and connect, we're testing the process by which they select evidence-based practices and implement them. it was fun putting together this initial list of programs. we did it based on our partner feedback. everyone was hot for ovais, for example. the first year everybody signed up for ovais training. and then frankly, by the second year, we were down to just one school that was actually trying to implement the elements because of some aspects about the level of commitment that was needed. the elements most attractive to schools, i'm very interested in what schools choose, frankly the tier two supports around check and connect, and check in, check out, those were our most popular efforts.
similarly whether we got to cbit, everybody is saying i want something at tooe three. they sent folks to get trained and they were like whoa, i don't know that we can pull this off. i know this came out of ucla unified. but it's interesting when you put out this menu and they get all excited about things then you see what do they actually going to pick up and run with and what are they going to implement? we had a lot of process data as well. again we're testing the positive behavior support framework for selecting and implementing other evidence-based interventions. we have fidelity measures across all these different programs. so these are just a snapshot of the fidelity tools we actually send in outside observers unaware of the schools intervention convention or what programs they've chosen from the menu to assess the fidelity of the different dimensions, including the positive behavior support framework, and the other evidence-based programs that they may have chosen. and then we are looking at observations. we actually got a supplemental grant from the william t. grant foundation to bring in observers. we thought we've got all the
kids reporting climate. we actually are getting parents and teachers, too. but we said can you actually observe school climate? what if we sent outsiders in? what about the built environment of the schools? how much does that interface with the way kids are interacting with each other and connecting with each other? so we sent in observers that use different types of tools and i'll talk a little bit about those if there's time about the scott jis that we're collecting the observational data to really supplement the data that's being collected by self-report. the self-report data from the students is one of our chief outcomes of interest. so this is just giving you a little bit of an overview of how we collect this data on school climate. takes about 20 minutes for students to complete. we don't sample the whole school. although some schools do want to assess all their students. they feel strongly about that. it's nonidentifiable. so it's self-report and anonymous in that framework. it allows us to capture the data electronically through the online system.
and most importantly it spits it right back out to administrators. so administrators can see their data in realtime and be able to sort it and create different types of charts. so we built in a lot of elements around youth involvement and youth voice. in fact, we had youth advisory committee that came up with our tag line that you'll see here. what kind of school do you want your school to be? i would love to say these are real children but they aren't. they're just too perfect and beautiful. we wanted to put together a campaign that we rolled out across the schools and you can see it's really about getting youth voice and youth involvement. and so they were involved from the very beginning. and then we actually got real live children from the state of maryland and one of our schools to do a video that is a lead in to the survey system so that way it's kids talking to other kids and adults about why collecting this data is helpful and why it's important. and so that shows that youth voice and that youth connection. and we actually drafted a script for them and sent it over to them. they're like yeah, this isn't any good.
and they went through and red marked it and came back and said oh, my gosh, this is so great. if we had just hired actors or something it wouldn't have gone so well. we had kids in the project talking about the experiences and why it's important to have that data. so this is just a little bit of the data that we collected. and only to open your eyes to actually looking at some of these indicators and we used the three dimensions of school climate, safety engagement and environment. things that often jumped out at our school staff when we present data back to them, some get of the points that marc brought up about emotions. so nearly 22% of the students feeling sad. and most of our teachers are like i never thought about them feeling sad. i mean they're quiet, they're not acting up, they're not in trouble. i don't really think about them being sad. and so really helped them get in better touch with the emotional situation in the classrooms. so is one that came out. so the equity piece, only 61% of our students are feeling that
issues of equity or appropriate within their school. and so this is clearly we have a pretty diverse sample. it's about half white and half other minority african-american being the largest minority within the state. but we can see even when we weighted the data to reflect sample diversity that just over 60% are feeling issues of equity are appropriately addressed within their school. then other issues about students needing support. 68% of students that are feeling they're able to get the kind of support they need within their school. so these are the kind of data that we try to provide back to the schools. a little bit of a wakeup call and help them understand and we also have student data paired with parent and teachers. so we can show the similarities and discrepancies across them. as i said all this data is reported back to the schools. we actually had another grant previous to this where we developed all these reporting tools and met with principles
about what kind of data do you want. people can get overwhelmed with data. we created all the different templates for databased decision making and data support tools to help them use the data. and, in fact, have actually seen that even in our control schools that only got access to the survey, they're actually improving just by getting access to the data. but we are seeing greater gains in our schools that got the interventions as well. this is a little bit of an overview of the observational data. we're using two main tools. one we referred to as the assist and has been previously used. we actually go into the classrooms. nobody goes into high school classrooms and provides teachers feedback about the use of praise or punitive statements or who they're providing praise and punitive statements to or much less what the students are doing. and so that data is very eye opening. we go into 25 randomly selected classrooms and provide that feedback to the schools. they're just amazed at how much information they're able to get from that feedback.
then we have another measure that's referred to as the safety. this is a little bit more about the built environment. it comes out of a line of research around crime prevention through environmental design. and so we kind of have that theme about surveillance and adult supervision. but also look at the interactions between youth and adults and where are those safe areas and not so safe areas in the school and provide this information back to the schools is another source of support. so here's just a snapshot. like we get so much data that we have to really drill down what do we give back to the schools? this is an example of some of the feedback we give to them based on the observational data. you can see this is from the past spring. we do it all on handhelds so we can get the data back pretty quickly. you can see just about 65% of the classrooms where the students engaged during instruction. that's pretty bad when we go into all of these thousands of classrooms across the state and only 65% of them have students that are rated as being engaged. you can see a little bit of information that we're able to
provide to them around the observations. this is based on the first process. this is just based on the first year. we've just gone through the peer review process and have a paper coming out. we're actually finding even after just one year of implementation the program not even taking into consideration fidelity and who is implementing what when we just look at the main effects, we're already seeing significant impacts, on student outcomes related to safety indicators. so, that's really very exciting. and we're hoping that those effects will continue to be sustained over the course. in terms of some of the lessons learned, just to wrap up here, the tier one, as i said, people are excited about picking all these other evidence based programs. the ruby red shiny one. really, it ended up being the first year they focused on the tier one. and that's where we're seeing these big impacts and just over one year of implementation. i don't want to blow off the three tiered framework and say you have to jump to tier two or three.
you really got to have that foundation in order to bring in other things. that was very clear to us. so the climate and connecting up with the goals of the school, many of our schools said we don't have to worry about climate, we're so focused on common core, educational outcome. we really needed them to understand how climate benefited that. the use of the data and communication this is where the youth voice really came in about how we're communicating data and how we're sharing that. and certainly the coaching piece, we were actually having a conversation with all the 11 grantees just a week ago here in d.c., and i brought up the kind of dirty little secret that not all coaches are created equally. and not all coaches are rock stars and not all coaches are able to affect change. and david oesher who i really admire quite a lot, he brought in the model of what is good enough coaching? we think about that good enough parent kind of model. and i thought it was good enough to kind of bring that in. what is that? you're never going to be able to
hire all rock star coaches. but what is thlevel of change you're going to really need and what is the fit between the coach. you could even have a rock star coach but in a school that just has a different type of framework. so we talk about implementation support of oh, we have to have coaches, we have to have training. we really need to get into that black box of what is coaching? what is the good enough coaching? is it durations, level of support, is it personalities? is it emotional intelligence? there are a variety of different factors that we think are so critical for that change process. so that's just a snapshot of some of our findings from the safe and supportive schools initiative. and gives you a little bit of a perspective from the field and what we're learning through this process. >> hello, good afternoon almost. i'm even closer between you and
your break so i am really honored to be with you this morning and share a little bit about what i get to do in l.a. and my role in coordinate naturing project s.p.i.n. so i'm going to do that. but just know i won't be able to cover everything. let's meet afterwards. i can share in more depth kind of the mot models that we use and some of the ways that we're really trying to address this really important issue of working together to create safer schools. i want to say that i'm here representing a team of people behind me. so just envision that. that visual of all the people standing behind me. i certainly want to spend some time thanking them for their work and their collaboration. project spin, spin standing for suicide prevention intervention now is a partnership between the l.a. lgbt center and los angeles unified school district along with l.a. county office of ed
where we partner in a very intentional way to address environments that would lead any young person to experiencing negative mental health outcomes because of the school experience. and we think and we believe that schools are really a change agent. and so many of you in this room obviously believe that as well. but for us, seeing parents who have maybe young people coming out to them as lesbian, gay, bisexual or trans gender or gender queer, having a school that is informed, that is intentionally taking steps to creating a safer place for their young person is really remarkable. that's what we try to do in partnership with l.a. unitied. l.a. unified is the second largest school district in the nation. and has really been at the forefront in policies around lgbt inclusive experiences in schools. both in curriculum as well as all the way far back as
recognizing them in their nondiscrimination policies, when no other school district was doing that. so they really have set the groundwork for that. that i want to highlight the work of dr. judy chiasson, holly diaz, tim cordish who works really closely with the cdc to continuing this work. even today. they sent me. they're still doing the work today. the l.a. lgbt center has been around for quite some time and the history of our partnership is about three years ago when there was a need on a national level to really pay attention to what was happening in our schools and how people were feeling. much like today although the conversation shifted a little bit. we decided we needed to take a role to be more intentionally supportive in a partnership with our school. so that's where the project spin, the idea of project spin came together. and we pulled together all the different organizations,
national and local, lgbt youth serving, specifically, and mental health specifically together to look at what could we do in our partnership if we were coordinated, if we had a vision that we shared? what could we do together and how could we do that over the next couple of years? so we called together a summit and we asked three questions in our summit. what are we doing well? what are some of the challenges and the gaps? and what can we do moving forward? and based on those conversations, we really set a tone for where we wanted to take this partnership. and a lot of the different practices that we've already heard today, i'm not going to reiterate them, came from that discussion. the importance of really tying to the best practices and using programs that had been researched. making sure that we were engaging in a comprehensive way our entire school community. not just focusing on one piece
of the puzzle but really addressing the whole school community. all of the themes have already been echoed this morning. it was really important to us to do so in a way that not just addressed it from a mental health perspective but did so in a way that shifted the narrative to celebrating the diversity of our community. and that included all of us. for so many of us when we hear about ways to support lgbt young people, it comes up in the discussion around mental health. really important. but we also wanted to have the conversation around how we can celebrate the identity of our lgbt young people so that it's not a narrative of higher risk for bullying. but it is also a narrative of strength much it's a narrative where they get to see themselves resilient and thriving in a
community. in suicide prevention connectedness is so important. it is as well in bullying prevention. and so our work was weaving together. we were doing so much siloed, but in a coordinated way. there was a lot more that we could accomplish. these are some of the core principles that came out of our work to the in that summit. we've been focusing on the importance of comprehensive k-12 students, parents involving superintendents, involving administrators, involving teachers. everybody that's involved in the school really making them a key part of what the work that we're doing. also looking at the whole person. they're wellness, all of these things. again, coming up earlier this morning. and the third piece, collaborative. it was so important to us and
really in a landmark way bringing together these players in a coordinated fashion. this is a very -- we've had lots of interesting data today. this is a snapshot of a little bit of research that was done in california. looking at high schools and what was it that impacts an environment at a high school specifically around lgbt young people? and we chose to highlight three high schools, hostile high school, one that is typical and one that is very, very safe based on the research done and what we saw in this -- we heard it but this research really gave us the data around that is that there were a couple components that were really important. visible allies and learning about lgbt identities within curriculum. so that integrative curriculum piece was key. so we started to really focus
our efforts a lot more intentionally in that way. integrated curriculum. in the last year, we have partnered with one ar kifs which is one of the largest collections of lgbt libraries, as well as artifacts, and they're lucky for us also based out of los angeles. and we're looking at how we can respond to the fair education accurate act in california. fair, accurate, inclusive and respectful curriculum, to really integrate the contributions of lgbt people in history in a seamless way so that it's not in a side bar. but that it is within the main text of what i'm learning. along with pacific islanders and people with disabilities. integrating that into our curriculum, we saw it can really shift how not only are lgbt young people feel but those, their classmates, right, those who are maybe struggling or those who have never had a positive context for talking
about this before. whether you talk about family diversity and our family diverse advertise and making sure that teachers felt they had the equipment and tools necessary to do so. when you talk about family diversity. and making sure that teachers felt that they had the equipment and the tools necessary to do so. the last thing that i want to talk about is something that i'm really excited and proud because it was one our newest initiatives. it is our out for safe schools. last year in partnership with l.a. usc we sat down and talked about the importance of out, visible allies on school campuses. there is a hesitance. not everybody feels safe being out. on their campus. even as an ally. and so for us it was a
challenge. how can we create an awareness around this and do so in a way that impacts, ultimately, young people's lives. and that's when we created the idea of an employee badge that says i'm out for safe schools. it has the word ally in seven different languages. and on the back it has a list of resources that any school member could use. we purchased 30,000 badges which was roughly one-third of all the staff in l.a. unified. and we passed them out. and we asked people to opt in to wear them. it went along with the tool kit and several other different supports to the school. obviously, along with us there. and we were blown away with the response. you will see, even today, around l.a. unified, not only their employee badge, but the badge that says that they are out for safe schools. and this was really a visible way for people in all schools to
be able to identify where they could feel the safest. we've heard so many different testimonials from staff who never thought that they could come out on campus, seeing their staff, other staff, their coworkers wearing the badge, and making an impact on them. and maybe one thing we haven't talked about yet this morning is how can adults respond to incidences of bullying when they themselves feel ill-equipped or ill-supported in that conversation? and we really found that this identifying our role as an ally, identifying our role as telling our story and being part of the community in a such a neutral yet visible way really allowed staff to feel as connected to their school and for students who scan us as adults every day to see if we believe in their potential. to be able to feel safer. just because we were wearing a badge.
this year we're hoping to partner with many other school districts across the nation who kind of like the idea and certainly looking to see how we can create more creative ideas, right, create more creative ideas of addressing this in a way that really catches the conversation right where it needs to be, engaging all of us. we certainly had some challenges, and we continue to learn from our experiences. many of them had been highlighted earlier today from what are best practices. and how we need to be addressing the best support systems for our schools. finally, i want to leave you with these kind of three thoughts as to what has been a successful partnership for us. we're so lucky to work with a school district and several districts within l.a. county that really value collaboration
and partnership. but i can say personally i've learned three things. one, it's a trusting relationship. it's one where we all come to the table and listen to each other. and that involves parents, students, community based organizations. it involves many people across the spectrum. that's really important for a successful collaboration. the second i think is research really using practices that have been studied that, have been proven. and doing so in a way that's thoughtful and not just trying something out because maybe it will work. but really being thoughtful of our practices and involving people who know what they're doing. and the third one which i think really speaks to all the people involved in project spin both at l.a. usd and our community partners is bold leadership. leadership that's not afraid to shifting a culture around all of these different topics that we've been talking about this morning. and thinking creatively around
how we can do it together. i'll leave you with that. but i can talk to you much more about all of the different interventions. thank you for your attention. [ applause ] let's give our two presenters another round of applause. i think they really shared some interesting information. we have time for two questions because we know that your stomach is growling if it's anything like mine. the mikes are on either side of the room. if you have a question, please approach the mike and if there is someone that you want to address it to specifically or to both panelists, please be clear on that, too. >> hi.
good morning. afternoon. i'm gina from massachusetts. thank you so much. first of all, the points that you emphasized and this is more of a comment than a question, our previous speaker as well, the importance of the core instruction, the truly the universal teaching of the skills is so important. i think when we talk about pbis oftentimes we talk about tiered model of intervention. and when people hear that intervention word, i think our minds go to the two and three tiers, and whereas it's that universal instruction, and core instruction that is so important. and i think you have both really talked to that today. i appreciate it. i do have a question for catherine. the schools that were involved in the pilot were they schools that had not previously implemented any of those core programs like botven or ovais? >> that's correct. they not implemented botven or
ovais previously. because we had done some pbis training at the high school level, some of the schools had some prior level of exposure to positive behavior support. we assess that at baseline. and we controlled for that in the randomization. so we matched on that essentially whether we were doing the randomization. just because when there is a big scale up in the state, some of the schools might have gotten a principal from another school that got trained and we're concerned when you get a model in the water. it just gets picked up. that's why we assessed any of the three tiers largely around the universal tier at baseline. we didn't have any of the schools with high scores at baseline. we were able to assess that and use that as part of the randomization. schools are doing a lot of different things. they may have been doing a little of this and that. so we very rarely get a set score which is a pbis score that
comes in at a zero where they're doing nothing. most schools come in a 20 or 30 even at baseline. so we were able to control for that as part of the randomization. any of the other advanced tiers they didn't have access to those prior to the trial. >> similarly the survey data that was used, had schools also used other surveys in the past like the youth risk behavior survey? and were they using those concurrently? >> maryland, it does participate in the yrbs. they don't get data back to a school level. there is no data provided back to the school level. it only goes up to the district level. and not all schools are part of the assessment for the yrbs. so it's not really a tool that is helpful at a building level other than to say this is what the kids in maryland look like or this is what the kids in this district look like. but it isn't provided that directly for voting level
decision making. >> thank you. >> is there another question? >> one that came through facebook. what can parents do if they feel their school is not appropriately responding to their child being bullied? >> and lunch. no, just kidding. i can speak a little bit about what we do in regards to working with parents. it's not just a reactive relationship but that we're engaging them from day one around what are different ways for them to access support through the school, at the district and any other outside organization that is a resource. so there are multiple people to speak to whom ever they may feel the safest with. i think it's really foreign have a very clear process so that parents know who they're going to need to talk to and what that process is going to include once they do make a uniform complaint or once they're able to kind of process, take it to the next step. i think it's really important to have that clear information and that it's something that
involves parents' feedback so it's not just, you know, legal language that parents might have difficulty navigating. it's really easy and accessible. that is so important for us. and also we include parents in our teaching. if we do trainings, if we do professional development, we include parents in that process. not just talking about our interventions but talking about what do we do once we do get a complaint so that they can understand from the process of the school what happens. and then what other kind of intervention methods around that? that's my short answer. >> do you want to respond? >> you did a great job. >> also, i just wanted to put a plug in for stopbullying.gov. there is clear information there for parents on how to deal with these kinds of issues that is outlined there. and i also it's very important to kind of get a sense of what
the legislation in your state on how to deal with those issues as well. and that information is provided on that website. we're going to have a breakout later today to talk more about the website and some of the great information that is involved. i just wanted to say that. due to the time, we'll go ahead and leave it at that. i believe these ladies are going to be here throughout the day. so i feel free to come up to them or any of our speakers today if you have some follow up questions and let's give them another round of applause. last night c-span showed you the iowa senate debate between democratic congressman bruce braley and republican challenger joan ni ernst. it was the third and final meeting between the candidates. here's part of that debate now. >> i'm a bridge builder, not a bridge burner. i spent a lot of my time getting to know the people that i served with in congress.
republicans, and democrats. i had them over for dinner so i get to know where they came from, i get to learn about their families, the work they did before they came to congress. and that's why i've had so much success working with republicans to pass legislation that's been beneficial to iowans. when the iowa national guard came home from iraq, and was denied benefits for g.i. bill benefits, and hardship pay by the pentagon, i worked with republicans from minnesota to get their orders changed so they got paid the benefits they deserved. when i had a constituent named andrew conley who was denied a v.a. adaptability grant, i helped them to get that so he can stay in his home. then i had him come to washington and testify in front of the veterans affairs committee and introduced a bill so that other veterans would have those same benefits, because the program is going to expire. that's what iowans expect from their senator. somebody like senator grassley and senator harkin who can bring people together, not drive them
apart. >> miss ernst, let's turn to you. what unique thing is there about you? >> i would say that i am a public servant. again, i have served in my community. i've served my state, and i've served my nation in many different capacities. work with many volunteer organizations at the community level. and i still serve as a sunday school and confirmation teacher in the church that i grew up in. so i remain committed to my hometown, and my home communities. but i've also served my state and my nation and the army reserves and the army national guard. and i don't do these things for personal gain. i do them because i believe in serving the public. whether it's a time of flood in eastern or western iowa, whether it's during winter storms, making sure that iowans are safe is important. but i've always served overseas during a time for a war in combat, in kuwait and iraq. i, i believe that that is
important. but, sound bites do have consequences. and i believe that i have a pure heart willing to serve iowans, where congressman braley behind closed doors has spoked fun at our senior senator chuck grassley. i don't call that building bridges. i would say that's burning bridges, congressman. >> thank you. we're going to go ahead and move on. we have a couple of questions -- >> nor ernst knows i didn't poke fun at senator grassley. and she knows i talked to him that same day and apologized to him and a308 justed to iowa farmers because that's what people expect iowans to do. so if you're questioning my pure heart, senator, i can tell you that i've been an elder in my church, i've taught sunday school to adults and children, i've never seen a corporation sitting next to me in the church pew. and yet you believe that their interests outweigh those of women and iowa when it comes to contraception. >> oh, again, very misleading. i have said i will support a woman's right to contraception. but what you say behind those closed doors really does matter
to iowans. and maybe you did apologize to chuck grassley. but my father is a farmer, also, without a law degree, and i think he's done very well, and again, i contribute to my community, my state, and my nation. and i am ready to serve the people of iowa. >> well, and if you want to talk about what goes on behind closed doors, tell us about the meeting you had with the -- >> we're going to jump in now. >> recent polling has listed this race as a toss-up. see the entire iowa senate debate and many other debates any time online at c-span.org. here's a look at our prime-time schedule on the c-span networks. starting at 8:00 p.m. eastern, live coverage of the wisconsin governor's debate between incumbent scott walker and democrat challenger mary burke. on c-span2 it's book tv with authors and programs looking at u.s. national security. and here on c-span3 it's
american history tv with events on u.s. civil rights. this weekend on the c-span networks, tonight at 10:00 p.m. eastern on c-span, from the texas tribune festival, a conversation about dealing with undocumented youth coming in to the u.s. saturday night at 8:00 p.m. eastern, a town hall meeting on the media's coverage of events in ferguson, missouri, at harris stow state university in st. louis. and sunday evening at 8:00 on q&a historian richard norton smith on his recent biography of nelson rockefeller. and tonight at 8:00 on c-span2, author richard whittle on drones, their impact on aviation, and how they transform the american military. saturday night at 10:00 on book tv's after words, author and commentator jake hal person and the questionable practices of the collection industry and sunday at 2:00 p.m. eastern the 2014 southern festival of books. tonight at 8:00 on american
history tv on c-span3, martin luther king's poor people's campaign and the 1968 election. and saturday at 8:00 on lectures in history, the life and legacy of booker t. washington. and sunday afternoon at 4:00 on real america, from 1964, exercise delawar, a joint armed forces readiness operation between the u.s. and iran. when the two countries were allies. find our television schedule at c-span.org. and let us know what you think about the programs you're watching. call us at 202-626-3400. e-mail us at comment comments @c-span.org. or send us a tweet @c-span, #comments. like us on facebook, follow us on twitter. next a discussion from the national bullying prevention summit on teen dating. a justice department official told the audience that 1.5 million high school students experience physical abuse from a dating partner in a single year.
the annual summit is part of an effort by the federal government to create a national bullying prevention strategy. this panel is about 45 minutes. >> as i mentioned in the last session my name is darlene johnson i'm associate director at the office on violence against women. officed within the u.s. department of justice. our office is mandated, we provide grant funding to state, local, tribal governments, institutions of higher education. am i covering everybody? hmm, nonprofits. i mean the list goes on and on. and we're primarily focused on providing funds to address domestic violence, sexual assault, dating violence and stalking in communities. the reason why i'm here today is to talk about teen dating violence. teen dating violence, you know, just based on what i heard about bullying, there is some
differences and there are some similarities. my overall goals for my short presentation is i'm going to define teen dating violence, i'm going to identify the prevalence of teen dating violence and talk a little bit about what we're learning -- what we've learned through our grant programs over the years, and to tell you about funding opportunities once again funding was mentioned earlier. teen dating violence. teen dating violence is defined as physical, sexual and psychological, emotional violence within an intimate partner relationship. teen dating violence is a pattern of abuse, behaviors used to, i want to say exert power and control over a dating partner. it may occur between a current or former dating partner. i think that's the key. there are a number of types of abuse. there is physical abuse, everybody know about. there's emotional abuse. things like yelling, name
calling, bullying. key here. embarrassing, keeping you away from your friends, things of that nature. sexual abuse is similar to -- similar to forcing you to do something sexual like, you know, especially speaking from the you perspective, kissing, touching, things of that nature. we also have stalking which refers to a pattern of harassing or threatening tactics that is unwanted. that's what stalking is. it is causing someone to have fear. financial abuse, that's telling you you can't buy this, you can't buy that. especially from an adult perspective, you know, someone holding you hostage to be able to have somewhat of a financial freedom. digital dating abuse is the use of technology such as texting, social media networking, things of that nature. i want to talk a little bit about the prevalence.
i guess when i first started working at ovw i didn't know how widespread, i guess, teen dating violence, or what's the true impact. nearly 1.5 million students nationwide experience physical abuse from a dating partner in a single year. one in three adolescents in the united states is a victim of sexual or verbal abuse. one in ten high school students have been purposely hit, slapped, or physically hurt by a boyfriend or girlfriend. approximately 70% of college students say they have been sexually coerced. girls and young women between the ages of 16 and 24 experience the highest rate of intimate partner, almost triple the national average. eight states currently do not have dating relationships in the definition of domestic violence and that is a problem because they don't recognize it. us on the federal level, we recognize dating violence along
with sexual assault, domestic violence, and stalking as a crime. currently there is one juvenile domestic court in the country and i believe that's in new york. that's the only one that recognizes it. one the things that came up in the previous section -- session in the importance of language when dealing with the youth and dealing with talking about teen dating violence and that is language. as you know, most of us who have teenagers, they speak their own language. they have their own code. they don't necessarily refer to boyfriend and girlfriend relationships like we used to do. you know? they use terms like hook up and things of that nature, stuff like that. so if you're not in tune to the language that they speak, it's hard to really connect with them to teach them that, you know, teen dating violence or this power control dynamics is not a healthy, you know, way to be in a relationship. there are a number of identified
youth-specific barriers. and this is when you're talking about, you know, healthy relationship, unhealthy relationships and dealing with or truly addressing teen dating violence. and that is for most youth, experiencing teen dating violence, this is their first i want to say intimate relationship or their first, you know, boyfriend or girlfriend. so the lack of relationship experience. the age also comes into play. you know, most services that are available are geared towards adult victims of domestic violence. so, you know, not every community, jurisdiction will have youth-specific services. the lack of youth-specific resources, so if something were to happen, what's next? who are you referring them to? so it's almost like you have to find out who in your neighborhood is really focusing on addressing or helping youth
who experience dating violence. transportation is an issue too. if you had an issue, where would you go? if you had an issue, where would you go to get help? if do you get help if you want to go to counseling and things of that nature, you need transportation to get there. so transportation is also a barrier for youth. the fear of isolation is also an issue. among peers. if you don't buy in to me, i'm the captain of the football team and if that dynamics of that power and control, you do what i say, you know, every step of the way, then if you don't buy into that role of the football player and you, the average joe blow student that can cause some isolation among others in school. distrust of authorities like law enforcement or teachers. you are going to tell, you're going to "out" me if i say i'm experiencing teen dating violence. the environment also plays a key role, too.
just imagine if you're experiencing teen dating violence and you're in class with your abuser, what type of dynamics does that cause? and the fear of being out. and this is really geared towards maybe underserved students or gay and lesbian. you know, i'm afraid they're going to reveal, you know, my personal business. the difference between teen dating violence and bullying. bullying is unwanted. you know that. aggressive behavior such as physical strength, access to embarrassing information, popularity among school-age children, to control or harm. it's also a repetition type of i want to say behaviors. according to cdc, bullying includes attack or intimidation.
it is also includes physical, verbal, imbalance of power. i think our friend here at the table at the last session -- and she does a lot of training on bullying and she always use this analogy when talking to students. and she said, you know, picture a bully. it's like a big round circle. the person is being bullied is like a small circle. you have that big circle and this small circle. so the playing field is not even. you know what i mean? that is almost like a senior bullying a freshman. that type of thing. or a boss to an employee. so the dynamics is not the same. bullying, like i said, is defined as abuse between two people in an intimate relationship. i mean teen dating violence is defined as two people in an intimate relationship, involves things like sex and communication.
and power and control, in defining what bullying is and power and control, there is somewhat a lot of similarities and there are differences. but i think if i had to hone in on a similarities, the power and control is the common theme between teen dating violence and bullying. one of the things i also want to share with you guys is at the department of justice, we have four youth focus programs. we have grants to assist children and youth exposed to violence. we have services to advocate for and respond to youth grant program. we got services, training, education and policies to reduce sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence and stalking and secondary schools, and we have our engaging men and youth program. fy-2012, the four programs i mentioned were merged into the consolidated youth program.
and so among those grantees from the programs, we have learned a great deal about teen dating violence. i want to share with you some of the successes from the programs, what we've learned. one of the things they said and some of the successes is the creation of youth-specific services was key in the success of effective programming to address teen dating violence. they said new and revitalized community partners, folks that wouldn't normally work together are starting to work together. schools and communities, youth focus organizations are starting to really come together on this issue. youth engagement is, like, number one. they have to be at the table. they have to take part in coming up with solutions to address teen dating violence. targeted underserved youth populations was also key. education of youth about healthy and unhealthy relationships. what is the difference between the two?
school involvement was -- also rose to the top. and engaging men and boys in violence against women, work was also panned out to be promising practice. training as we mentioned before, best practices and models. i also want to share with you some of the challenges that we faced that some of our grantees have reported. continuous engagement in services is still a challenge to continue to do this work, to sustain this work. policy development, you know, trying to get that buy-in from leadership we mentioned before. mandatory reporting of laws and confidentiality rose to the top. outreach to specific population. the stigma of being a victim. youth do not consider themselves as victim. they can't -- you know, if you mention the word victim or violence, they can't resonate to that. but if you put it in a context of what is healthy and what is unhealthy, they can relate to that. so you have to -- once again bringing it back to their term
where is they can understand. services for young boys and men who may be abusers. and i think we talked about that. that accountability piece. it may not look in our traditional -- me come from the department of justice, we take this prosecutorial stand, you know, lock them up. this is a criminal act. but when you deal with youth, you're trying to figure out innovative or creative ways to make them understand that this behavior is not acceptable. it's not right. the lack of awareness among service providers. people have varying degrees of their understanding of teen dating violence. sometimes people will dismiss it because you're talking about youth. they don't know what they're talking about. they're confused. things of that nature. so, about funding opportunities. we -- normally our announcement comes out for funding opportunities anywhere between early fall to late winter. nonprofit organizations, school districts are eligible to apply
for youth programs. if you want to find out more about our programs, can you go to our website. www.ovw.usdoj.gov. www.ovw.usdoj.gov. and to the left there is grant programs and then you can view descriptions of all the programs. and we have i think for our youth programs that's about anywhere between a $10 million, $15 million program and we disperse funds each year. so, you know, check us out. all right. thank you.