tv American History TV CSPAN November 29, 2014 2:50pm-3:45pm EST
have been a bit cross about how they did it. ranks would have been a bit cross about how they did it. it's a segregated cemetery, which is very unusual. not the way it was done at the time. >> thank you. we are due for a break. we will come back at 11:00 for our second speaker. thank you. [applause] please welcome mr. joseph hoyt. [applause] >> thank you. i am really glad to be here. of ore i start, for those to who have never try identify human remains this is very hard.
we have these two sites that we focus on marine archaeology. sites have y of the some shipwrecks. we have a program called the maritime heritage program. focus on up and only ecological resources or the are historically significant. to give you a background on why we do this can work. to look into ed butterfield -- battlefield archaeology. these are considered foreign wars. when we think of sites associated with those, with
think of france. we ever, in world war ii have pearl harbor. for the ocean ue wars. we started looking at the activity during the second world war. in north carolina alone them in such. this ve been focusing on from the landscape. we are in eriod that now gives us a much better opportunity to look at these things. a landscape on t land, it is much easier to get your hand around it. then trenches and operations of fire.
when you look at sea battle is more difficult. with marine survey technology and the advancements, they're making this possible. because they are in a vast space. this takes a flat plane to a 3-d landscape. with topography, within the water column with 3-d space. stationed airfields onshore. the atmosphere colum becomes important.
we started doing this looking at world war two. we have been at it for more than seven years. we have started to looking out the first battle in 1918. to don't have the sites remember the significance of and world war r i ii, which have shaped the world. gettysburg and yorktown, we set said these were things happened. atlantic in in the us waters can be the important. but they do not have the public attention that they ought to. to talk predominantly
rains as well as summary minds became part of the confederate response to those blockades. there was a similar impetus for developing some rings for the german navy. the u-boat initiative and campaign took place from the beginning to the end of the war. this was fought around the british isles and the mediterranean. it was the same case in world war ii. there was a significant campaign in u.s. waters. i want to talk a little bit about why they are doing this -- the british surface fleet and the war on commerce. , when thenitially german navy was developing u-boats -- they were very convinced, and rightly so, that
the german fleet had no comparison to the royal navy. convinced they were that they had no comparison to the navy. were considered a classic naval conflict, the germans were not stand a chance against the british. they began to develop u-boats. they could sink british capital ships. there were more successful in doing this. but he cannot balance the power. only because ould acting at oats were were quite slow
underwater, and they cannot really operate in tactics like they did in later years. had to set wait. you have surface boats with you to set them with torpedoes. there were pretty efficient. change into to commerce war. which is happened in every major conflict. this is effective against britain, an island nation. the vast majority of the recess -- sea d come some busy like food and oil. british nation dependent on maritime commerce.
the royal navy was blockading many german harbors. under those d go protections and attack the suppliers. this is very effective. gentlemanly way of very ing, summaries are good offensive weapon, but they are terrible defensive weapon. the success remains of a surprise attack. concern of lot of it being that it was poking the b of a lot of neutral nations.
there was think vessels though not necessarily involved in the conflict. or simply current merchant or goes for south america the other states, all of the places which were not involved . they had these things called price rules. would forward the vessel, search the papers for the manifest. but my throughout the ship. it was considered to be more formal. that kind of mitigated the effect of the u-boat. it could potentially be overpowered with small arms. it was not really that effective. war as they d world
progressed they began to be more effective. in a r place mines strategic ports. us entered the war. so, that is generally what is going on. the basic german naval tactic. during this time the other states has the perspective of getting into the wall. the germans sent a goodwill mission on a vessel. the first merchant to marine, iit was meant
break the blockade and to get away from the royal navy. to carry some commerce. this is a token measure. to did not have enough cargo really be effective at large scale commerce. more of a way to say to other neutral nations that they could operate. and telling the general public they can still get some supplies. -- german summer got to the us. the way to ll baltimore. went on trying to getting the hearts of americans. trying to engage in the commerce.
well to lly went quite another 1916 when commerce submarine as soon as they left us started sinking ships. in april 1916, the u-boat come to the us. the e is more going on on east coast, but instead to focus on the north carolina area. a couple of vessels are lost in that area and we have defined and study. there were three german u-boats
in north carolina. gives you an re idea, the destruction of vessels along the coast. massachusetts and north carolina have by far the highest percentage. we have major harbors. find in our research is has an arolina geographical features that are good for u-boat operations. for s a u-boat hotspot number of reasons. has one of the largest concentration of losses. this is a quick map.
these other vessels that are just lost of north carolina. over three months lost. you see here that north a good area for u-boats to hunt. historically not carolina has terrible ports. the closest naval is a beer in norfork. thiis area is difficult for military vessels to access. here in the continental shelf runs quite and it sticks out, the
ships would have to come past this point. this gives you a very good concentration of merchant ships. whether would hang around for the british, it was like a moving walkway and airport. you would hang around in this area. access to had deepwater tie. it is a very attractive area to operate. away from tty far military installations. aircraft feels north carolina are located in the inside. the coverage of an aircraft was more limited here. these were the vessels that were sunk.
just off north carolina. you notice back here, the site this dark f shore in blue area. these of a difficult for archaeologists to access. is a much difficult area for us to work. we need remotely operated of upset the kind cost. and went to concentrate on the ones in the shallow areas. we expect them to be easier to locate and do some work on. these other u-boats that operated in north carolina.
this is u151. is the class type, it was the original merchant vessel that was converted. originally had two torpedoes. it could carry 18 torpedoes. the range is very impressive. this was an impressive range world war el even the ii era, there were really quite a lot of range. this was very impressive vessel.
this vessel here was an is war patrol to the us. were able to reconstruct given he position throughout the atlantic where was the given point that we have the record for. it is interesting because we re-create the path. these are the vessels that were sunk. successful that were operating in this area. another vessel that has the potential to be discovered.
>> it was built as a military vessel originally with more armament. it had more attacks on its way over. we won't focus on that as much as we will on the ones here off the coast. not quite as successful as the u-151 but quite successful in sinking and damaging vessels. u-boat.s a mine-laying they mind a part of chesapeake bay. the mining missions they would be more of ald nuisance operation than an operation that they really believe they would have significant success. , oroon as a port was mined
there was a perception that it could be mined, it would change the tactics all up and down the coast. it was successful in generating the threat of mines would cause a little more, on the part of the u.s., to negotiate that threat. this is a big one. the 300 feet long. see the difference here, 14.7 knots. able to not quite as operate underwater as much as they would later on. height underwater and stationary, waiting for
ships to pass and sneak attack. more than actually maneuvering. this is a reconstruction of his abrasion -- along on the coast. it is that yet to be found a we're hoping. just a quick idea of the 3e that are operated here. this give you a good cross-section of the u-boat tactics in the area. the first merchant ship that was sunken. was a british ship operating south of the virginia the receiving some
of the ocean the damage. slammed onto the ground. while he was still being shelled. was sitting there with a crew of five folks on board. they had this huge mushroom hanker. it took him five hours to get on the way. was not very efficient, not move up to. enough to the e merrick that they were able to see it being shelled. and harassed by the u-boat.
to call for and unfortunately the 140 also had a radio and were able to hear this. they started steaming over and started ip shelling that. they decided it was better to just drop the lifeboats on before the shore. this was some by a surface fire from the u-boat. sunk the ercent and other boat. went to vessel and talk about. we're not clear whether this is.
as a british tanker. some speculation if it was sunk torpedo or a mine. it is confusing, but it is possible it struck a mine. i would say it was more possible that he struck a mine than a torpedo. the torpedoes of the area normally bounced off your ship. this story is very interesting for us coast guard. most of the shore. thousands of gallons of oil spilled into the ocean. one of the lifeboats turned
over to the fire while the others were kind of covering. meanwhile, in the short there was a guard station. captain saw the smoke and try to get out to try and help as they could. they got to the scene and there much fire and smoke, they cannot see very much at all. there was an area that it was totally involved in flames. there was an alcove illustrated the circle of flames, which one tiny opening corridor that they could paddle the lifeboat through.
they try to rescue these guys. the boat was overturned. coming outing and underneath the boat. nobody was hearing them. they pulled out some guys and send them back to shore. dana went back through the flames and found another lifeboat. this stripped them and were able to rescue them as well. herrick-- heroic story of rescue. it is a very important heritage the us coast guard.
look at these to can't connect the landscape. is showing an area the recently had air coverage. the geographical restrictions, so we have to remodel this area to better understand. this is the minefield where it set as mines. this makes strange -- nobody where the site are even though there close to the
shore. that is what we are now with our research beginning this summer. looking at where these things are. could be f think that some places. there's a survey done trying to remains of two vessels, they came across a they claimed it was one. there are some possibilities in this area to look into. will probably go out there, with an underwater vehicle that a sonar survey.
up here there is a think in the the massive is mushroom anchor. know what this is. we have official of that and it be more than 13 miles. we know is down direction from the reports of the crew. it is pretty realistic survey could develop that could find it. givven that we have those positions of the vessel, we can kind of narrow down the area. mow the lawn and try to find it. a sonar. use
again, the mirlo is another one that we really want to find. is in this ite that area, that many people expect the remains of the mirlo. however, we believe it could be the remains of four world war ii ship. it has an diesel engines on board. the mirlo would've had others. hoping to find it, and that would be a great story.
guard k with the us coast to manage it, will be going out try and do a o survey. the u151, when it came into us territorial waters. was the first invasionof the united states. this has great significance in national heritage. significant from that for maritime history. a purpose light built ship. is a very rare shipwreck to
will be able to celebrate those. get people to understand that we do have world war i battlefields here in america, in t could be visited in put some dive gear. [applause] >> questions. >> you have any projects in the gulf of mexico? they have archaeological contingent, they have done some work in the gulf of mexico for the world war ii. about 10 years ago the ship was discovered in the water.
lot of these vessels were used in military testing and bombing. billy mitchell was the individual appraised to the u.s. navy sink battleships using aircraft. a lot of those test demonstrations were done off coast here in virginia. a lot of this in north carolina. there were quite successful. the shipwreck of virginia is it has been ut visited. is 200 to 300 feet of water. they are tricky dives.
this battlefield archaeology, we're looking at it. looking at other sites the mold one world war ii. some of these noncombat vessels. the merchant marine connection is really sort of the main reason while we're doing it. because the merchant marine story was very underplayed insignificance. they were not given better status for years and years. we want to celebrate the history. and celebrate the contribution of the merchant marine. 90 feet of in her
that boat captain of was killed. tracked down his daughter, she's now in the 80's. we brought her and her grandson to the site. that is the reason why we're doing this stuff. us san diego e navy was one of the bigger ships. is there any attempt to survey that wreck? 40 it is unable hundred and feet of water. not done for
archaeological. but it is very popular for diving. my research is not done in the north area. -- san diego is deathly definitely a very popular site. spent a great deal of speculation that there were do know on it. do anything more about that? >> the lusitania, there was a lot of backlash as we all know. journals as sunk the started to backpedal. one of the claims to have made
he was carrying munitions. which has been a point of debate for years. people do ep site, dive it. people who own wreks. who e is an individual filed a complaint about it. >> you spoke earlier about how one of the less publicized parts of the world war i. why do you think that is? >> great question. it is very significant
need fiscal sites to experience this massively important engagements. -- world n for that is war i it was a much smaller scale. was a bigger scale. is not very hy it known is a couple of things. was a time they concerted effort by the government and immediately downplay it. not so much to cover it up. in world war ii, and for six months he had almost a ship other day on average sunk just off north carolina.
the fact that that is something do not talk about, was because did not want to introduce panic. to re was a general idea just kind of not talk about that too much, because it was early in the war, we're getting pretty badly beaten in that. it was pretty -- pretty hush-hush. in perspective of moral. i should also say, the position have on german u-boats. we believe that they were not technically capable of
things that they were, because we thought our u-boats were the best u-boats. the they enlisted that u-boats were operating with quite as much capabilities and there torpedoes were much better. to extend the sanctuary? >> yes. all these other sites and realize how important they are to american history we started to look at, what is there. basis for this study has
required for everybody to area as in the nationally significant. we have to show that scientifically. what the ding resources are to establish these areas are for protection. some of them were not heavily degraded to be included. we have an advisory council to help us manage the sites. and the n academia general public image to extend the s boundaries and more wrecks in the same region. >> one of the slicing up on the screen. war, the cond world
operation drumbeat with effort go after us shipping, was there a conservative effort to do the same thing? the second question, what happened to those u-boats that you talked about? do they all three survived the war? >> yes. the u151 went to britain. the other one went to virginia. sure about the 140, it was not sunk during the wall was taking a surprise.
those rst question, having sanctiones for the german navy. it did was send summering places in south america to develop submarine technology outside of germany. while the war they brought them back and started developing those technologies. the initial effort was to sink capital ships. this success was in sinking merchant ships. focus was immediately on, predominantly on the sinking of vessel ships. believed they could sink
and negotiate the convoy system. this is where you had those u-boats had centric patrols, instead of attacking call the ly they will radio in. follow along this convoy and the damage that way. >> we have time for one more question. there an environmental reason call or concern over the mercury in the sea. to remove the ry mercury? there was one vessel in
britain. in us waters, basically mold to sites that do not have mercury. has been some concerns, in the 60's there was a big concern. the tankers awfully carried heating oil and different type of oil. notion that general these vessels sitting on distance of the shore could void these bits of oil to the sea. degradation of those vessels i'm not a big fat at th