tv 1934 Textile Strikes CSPAN December 20, 2014 2:00pm-4:01pm EST
then the temper changed as they targeted the symbols of the overthrown regime and targeted the homes and businesses of back six years of surplus prosperity and/or my collapse and explosive discontent. but he done had fled, a new leader is on the scene. bill castro, an unknown quantity -- fidel castro. certain to be dominant in cuba's new era, just begun. >> on september 1, 9034, tens of thousands of textile more -- 1934, tens of thousands of textile workers begin the largest labor strike in u.s. history. in workersresulted
being blacklisted and some dying. coming up next, a discussion on the strike and its effect on the community. this was held in the greenville county library in south carolina. it is just under two hours. fory name is mark nelson, lack of a better term, the moderator of today's proceedings. i'm a historian, and i have long had an interest in the strike of 1934. i am largely reliant today on the scholarship of a number of excellent historians whose luminous works and names i will recite as we go along. however, there is one distinguished historian whose ite,ghts i will not c because he is here to siphon himself. has writtenll and willly on history,
have more him later. it's to be left to professors of history's and phd. we have with is a nonacademic that is made a significant contribution to our understanding of this event. , the author beacham of "milltown murder," which explores the most tragic episode of the strike. the murder of seven workers and the wounding of dozens of others . frank has a fascinating personal connection to the strike that he will talk about. upon thelso touch manner in which the strike has been remembered. where is the case may be, not
remembered. we also hope to have with us today and other nonacademic, judith heflin. she was able to be here today. she is the codirector of the congo"the uprising of 34 and it was not aired in south carolina. for reasons that we might discuss at some point before we are done. televisionina public aired it numerous times this fall. this center was the 80th anniversary of the strike. i hope that many of you get the chance to see it, and i hope it was internationally as well. if you didn't, you are interested, you should find a way to see it.
a noted historian of american ther once gave the 1934 name of the terminal year. it is replete with many developments in labor history. any of them can be termed turbulence. there are two events that stand out as particularly consequent. -- consequential . we placed the strike in a larger context white contrasting these two labor events. therein lies the tale, or so i'm convinced. wonderful in the north in the utter: a michigan winter here in -- in the inner cold of the michigan winter. the 1937 gmc down strike. gm sitdown strike.
the other played out most dramatically in significantly in the piedmont of the american south. it was a bitter debate, the 1934 textile strike. we see difficult here the two events captured what i believe to be a defining moment for each. jubilant members of the united auto workers posing triumphantly shortly after the announcement was made that after living for six weeks in the fisher autobody plant in flint, michigan -- their home away from home, they had defeated the largest and most powerful corporation in the world. general motors reluctantly agreed to sign a contract with the uaw, as you see. on february 11, 1937. on the left, we see a very different conclusion of the
textile strike for these workers in newnan, georgia, in september, 1934. they are being taken into custody by the national guard, who proceeded to place them in an outdoor bar and wiring kampmann outside -- encampment where german prisoners of wars had been incarcerated not too many years before. this was their home away from home during the strike. photo, or see this --m footage of these if i'd these dignified workers being rounded up. in simple dress, some sporting ties and suits, it brings to mind the passage from janet irons book about the strike. myth thatns the enveloped workers at the time of the strike rate it might still
enveloped their legacy today. that explain the differences in the outcomes of the strike in cultural terms. it was called to hard to overcome the belief that mill workers were week. weren't they barefoot children, victims of a poor white culture? how can such people wages successful strike. to what extent have it be truly said that the end results of these two strikes can be attributed to distinction cultural factors. the backend of the strikes furnace in cyprus. absenceeal a complete of african americans, already people of color for that matter. -- or any people of color for that matter. flint, withoutn the benefit of any jim crow laws
at all, there were virtually no african-american employees at these auto plants. and only modest numbers in the chevy ford plants. a high percentage of gm workers were native born americans, or culturally rooted as americans. we can clearly see a large contingent of women among the georgia strikers. many photos of the gm strike, although not this particular one also portrayed the vital role women played in that event. and while it is generally ignore knowledge that textile workers were not far removed from the hardships of the farm, many gm workers also had recently come from farm families to they too
were well acquainted with the rigors of an agricultural existence. thee of the leaders at fisher autobody plant one came from small families in south code, indiana, and michigan. although a number of leadership were card-carrying members of the communist already who would never set -- communist party who would never set foot on the farm. most of the strikers were relatively young. they were among the first generation of americans to come of age in a new consumer society. your earning together for the same commercial products, often products they could not afford to buy. listing together to the same national radio broadcast and dance music. watching together the same motion pictures and newsreels. it seems reasonable therefore to conclude that workers in all parts of the country shared some common cultural grounds. one historian terms a culture of
unity. shared cultural aspects that may have offset to some degree the original differences. flint, michigan was a company town, dominated by general motors. to what extent did it resemble the mill village existence that are dominated in the textile south? how to the nature of mill life, living on a mill -- how did that impact the strike effort one way or another? i think tom will shed some light on that for us. both the auto and textile workers were seeking improved wages. but without a doubt, their primary grievance, their chief motivation was the end to insufferable working conditions. dreaded associate the
assembly line speed up with automobile assistance, while the practice of forcing three workers to do what for him previously done, or to workers done,our had previously that's often associated with textile productions. defended asent efficiency practices of scientific management appeared in auto plant and textile mills. it's often distant -- difficult to separate what one was from the others. history of workers movingly portray how physically and mentally debilitating these practices were. they illustrated the strikes were fundamentally about human dignity. one assembly line veteran recalls how the sound in the machinery being set up unleashed a frightful aboriginal howling, which would spread throughout the entire plant before letting
up, as a feeling of outrage. a spartanburg weaver expressed similar sentiments. he rumored the squeaking of the sped up belt drives as machines and workers were pushed beyond the limits of their capacity. a female spinner in gastonia wrote of women in her mill so wet from perspiration that it could be wrong from their close. clothes.from their dozens of general motors workers in flint died from heat stroke. another grievance expressed my auto and no workers in the court -- mill workers in the course of their strikes was there unqualified conviction that the law was on their side. being flagrantly violate by their employers. -- both, they both strikers argued that they were
really true american patriots as evidenced by the ubiquitous flying of the american flag. in what is often described as the first new deal, congress fdr's at a ers behest -- behest the national recovery act. the nra was based on this premise. that free-market market capitalism had run off the tracks and was in need of what fdr called a partnership in planning. competitors in different sectors of the economy would meet under government supervision, antitrust laws were suspended. fairress codes of opposition would renew the manyrative spirit that people thought were the efficacies in world war i. we could and cutthroat competition and put an end to
what fdr called foolish overproduction. expected this would put an end to the sweatshop. this was not unexpected line of attack against the depression. a great many leading men of business, led by general , theric and goodyear national association of manufacturers and chamber of commerce. they all expected such an approach. the most desirous of it talking such of -- of adopting such a plan was the cotton industry. general hugh johnson who headed the nra, selected by fdr, began to work on a cotton code will before fdr was even elected. business interested not expect would be in the national industrial recovery act is what you see in front of me here now. this was the seven a prediction
-- condition of the national recovery act. it is very difficult for me to exaggerate just how electrifying these words were for american labor, and how disconcerting they were for american notstrialist room because only did it say that workers had a right to form a union, that was established a year earlier. mandate thateem to employers had to deal with their unions, they had to bargain with their unions, and they would need to address the issues of working conditions, and for textile workers, that meant overwhelmingly one thing. the stretch out. south carolina, husband john clarence taylor have grown out -- grown up in a mill town. he led the fight to get a limit
on what was called machine load, with a stretch out. put into the context out code. the textile code received vastly more attention than any other of the following 536 codes that the nra would come to approve. the code was accompanied by spectacular fanfare because it ended child labor, which of course was something that i think, greedy industry was going to do anyway. or was in the process of doing anyway. it instituted a minimum wage of $12 a week, and $13 in the north. it was heralded as a victory for labor. but then, when the hoopla ended in the nation and fdr turned their attention elsewhere, all of this seemed to change. the cotton code authority established by law was for all practical purposes the cotton textile institute. fact, the man who was the president of the cotton textile
institute became the head of the context of authority. -- cotton textile authority. they established a cotton labor board to deal with and investigate worker grievances. any grievances went to the cotton indexed real board, which was essentially representing the context ellis to do. i think most to stories were generally -- cotton textile institute. think most historians would agree with that. took the reference out of the code from stopping the stretch out. minimum wages could be subverted i-8 a condition that allowed much less for learners. people who had long experience in the mill were suddenly re-classified as learners and were paid less great the collective-bargaining provision was simply ignored by companies, or as by hugh johnson said, if
the company wanted to start its own union, they could bargain with that. they could bargain with themselves. all these plaintive letters sent by thousands that flooded into fdr, frances perkins, the secretary of labor, hugh johnson, head of the nra, all of these were rerouted back to the con labor board -- cotton labor board. the fox was presiding over the henhouse. 1933, as it turned into 1934, workers were growing increasingly disgruntled. include -- totake conclude that fdr was completely unaware of all this. his rhetoric about a concern for what he called the forgotten man on the bottom of the economic ladder was quite genuine and at the tactics of labor or not always in that forgotten man centrist. in fact, the truth is, he had
very little affinity for labor unions. and less for many of his labor leaders. he saw a quote from john lewis before, where according to seven a, john lewis says the president wants all of you to join a labor union. that may have not been what fdr had in mind. in 1934, he had big goals. the economy needed to be restored. the wpa was on the drawing board. electrification, which was enormously important to fdr, was on the drawing board. restructuring of the federal reserve system to take power away from new york and place it in washington dc was on the drawing board. in portland, social security. these ventures would be enhanced by issuing a condemnation of textile manufacturers in 1934 and alienating a good number of southern politicians that fdr
absolutely needed to achieve these goals. , thesenator robert wagner real author of seven a, and a liberal senator from new york, in sense that began to use symbolic, proposed the enactment of a real law, a real law with real substance and teeth for labor. roosevelt did not initially given his support. wagner persuaded him, as did others. the national labor relations law, motivated and inspired general motors in 1937. it was a violation of this law that the sit downers felt legitimated their strike. fdr waited in vain to hear champion their cause. however, i think entailment you must be united auto workers on one hand, united textile workers on the other, that the account of these two
strikes begin to divert dramatically. a labor historian writes the following about the auto workers in flint. the great majority of flint auto workers laid no active role in the great sit down of 9037. far larger numbers of general motors workers opposed the strike that belong to the uaw. while many more were in the words of one union activist, just sort of launching. -- watching. just sort of watching. the united auto workers which masterminded the sit down and had a near 4500 members in flint when the strike began on december 30, 1936. however, there were nearly 45,000 gm workers in flint at the time. intensely in an aggressive union in a workforce that seem to 9036 to be neither of those things. -- 1936.
plant, at oneuto point at the end of january, it was estimated there were only 20 strikers occupying fisher auto body number two. 20 out of 35,000 workers in gm in flint. on february 1, in a really maneuver, uaw managed to capture the crown jewel of general motors. the chevy ford plant. a plant that manufactured every engine in every chevrolet car in the united states. --february next to seven, 1937, the strike general motors to its knees. the union's national membership soared to 80,000 before the strike even ended, and then to 250,000 by april of 1937. by october of 1937, the uaw had
forwarded thousand members on its way to half a million -- 400,000 members on its way to half a million. if we contrast this with the united textile you are -- textile workers union, we have militants and the other top eventually spreading to the bottom. very opposite occurs here with the united textile workers. by the way, it's important not to confuse the united textile workers with the national textile workers -- a communist led union that really plays no areas role in the south. -- no serious role in the south. they unsuccessfully led a strike in gastonia. confuse these.n they were more assisted in starting a revolution and bettering the conditions of the workers in the south. of the 270,000 textile workers in the south with a 34 strike commenced, the union would later
claim that 180,000 were members of the union. interestingly, that's the number of workers that stayed out. simply because someone stayed out of the strike and went to work doesn't mean they support the strike or the union. historians reject that number and are more setting of another ,igure of 270,000 workers 135,000 were union members at the time of the strike rate and affiliated with united textile workers. that isa percentage four times greater than the number of unionized workers in flint. the union leadership largely representative of the afl had very little interest in being a general strike that strike rather was brought on by what historian
robert zeiger termed the impatient militancy of the seven rank-and-file trade in fact, indignant mill workers in alabama, 20,000 members of the union in around huntsville began the strike on their own. in july, well before the national union met to officially debate the issue. energy, then isolated strikes for years throughout the southern states with varying degrees of success is with tom will verify. southern textile mills were hardly strangers to localize strike activity higher to 1934. the leaders of united textile union, northerners of course, were certain that by the time the union delegates arrived in new york city in mid-august, the huntsville strike would have fizzled out trade thus enervating the southern representatives clamorous demands for a general strike. what happened in huntsville, that number in 1934 was a remarkable display of solidarity among those workers.
by mid-august, the strike and hunt will have yet to lose any strength at all. and this provided the inspiration for seven delegates, many of you hitchhike to new york city, where their finances compelled them to say five or six to a room. iny were nearly unanimous their insistence that a national strike a halt. some northern delegates who arrived intending to follow the leadership's call for moderation were themselves inspired and deeply moved by seven delegates fervor and their courage. the final vote was forwarded 90 to 10. for a general strike to begin on september 1, 1934. the photos also illustrate the different tactical approaches employed in both strikes. the flint workers were inspired by mastodons in france trade i think you could say the sit down movement in 37 was a french import.
there had been sitdown strikes before. there were a couple of early strikes in the early 30's. really, itt part, was not on the agenda in 1934 the purdue this. -- you could pursue this. thought why should we think it in the cold when we can stay in the plant and shut it down. for general motors, it was quite effective. choicecame the tactic of became the term the flying squadron of the south was not something i made it from the top down. it was something that emanated really from the workers. we don't have time to go into it, but the idea of this was a flying squadron that was interrupted here. workers were planted and shutdown would get together and have a caravan, sometimes this
was well-planned, sometimes it was spontaneous and it would go from one plant to another shutting them down. these were the flying squadrons trade some interesting, fascinating oral histories you find about how workers responded to the flying squadron. it's debatable how much violence was actually generated as a consequent of this. the most effective flying squadron, and they were all over the south, was really led by a greenville native, a man named paul christopher. histhen i discovered that real name was paul rivera christopher, and i thought how could you not use that name. -- he went to her high school, dropped out when he was 14, and at that time you start working. -- he went toy clemson for a couple semesters. then he went to north carolina, and he led a flying squadron of
2000 in shelby. i think that's cleveland, some of you know. he shut down all 22 of the plants in that county. ways,s was in some initially a very effective strike rate governor blackwood of south carolina called out the national guard here in south carolina to put an end to what he called the ruthless and insulin invasion, suggesting this was an invasion. there was somehow a northern influence in this area i suppose if you want to consider workers from spartanburg a northern vision and a greenville, then i think he had a point there. carolinarg in south was a real center of prounion activity and greenville was not. and why that was so, i have some insights on. looking at these two photos, the question presents itself, the
obvious one is why with the flint sitdown is not arrested. -- why were the flint sitdown arrested? policen the strike, the stormed the building, they were repelled. 14 june workers were shot, no one was killed was just astonishing. the workers were throwing all kinds of metal things down door hinges, especially. boxes and boxes of very heavy door hinges but no police were killed. it's rather astonishing. they could have been dislodged by the national guard. the difference here is a tale of two governments. as theurphy was elected liberal mayor of detroit. he was elected in kind of a fluke in 1936. he was the governor with this occurred. and frank murphy refused to use the national guard attend the strike.
in fact, he used the national guard to protect the strike rate is a buffer against the flint police and the gm guards, and the workers inside. he refused to allow the heat and water to be turned off in the plants. course,strumental, of governor talmage was in a reelection campaign in south carolina that was the democratic primary. he won that early on the strike, and then he turned against them. according to janet irons, after he took a $20,000 contribution from the textile mill owner, he declared a national emergency in georgia, and began, as you see here, stopping the flying squadrons. so in some part, that's one of the answers here. interestingly, all of the governors in the south -- governor blackwood in south used the guarded
one way or another. interestingly, governor benjamin miller in alabama fused to call off the national guard. not because he was a great supporter of the union, far from it. you just and think he had the authority to do it because you didn't think the flying squadrons were violating any law. it, andply did not do adjusting the, alabama is the only state where no one was killed. alabama is the state that had the fewest incidences of violence. governor miller was not reelected, as you might expect. another was frank murphy. in the midterm election in 1938, we all know what happened to the democrats in midterm elections in frank murphy got pulverize for his refusal to use the national guard. good thing,as a because fdr made him attorney general, and then put him on the
supreme court in 1940, where he issued his famous dissents in the core matzo case, the japanese relocation legalized racism. in the third week of a strike, and tom i be able to touch on this, about how it was really very difficult to sustain a strike of this kind. and how easy it was really in comparison to general motors. the union had no financial weources to help workers, can talk about that later. fdr had a commission to settle this. came outittee that with some suggestions, netgear said well there you go this will end the strike. in the suggestions were that the stretch out stop, not the reverse a, but that you stop it. and that all the workers will go back to work without any recrimination. so the union proclaimed a great
victory. which is absurd. because the military's and owners had no intention of following that order. i never said they would. owners never had any intention of following that order. they never said they would. the mill hands were ending the strike. frank will talk about the recriminations. let me just close by saying this. the fact is the textile strike of 1934 was the labour relations equivalent of ticket charge. it was undisputedly courageous, and ultimately foolhardy. an assault upon a safely entrenched adversary. to be sure, winning a strike against general motors was no easy. but gaining concessions from a single corporation whose after-tax profits at lord -- had
the sword from a .3 million -- soared. that was a piece of cake. compared to wringing out even the most modest concessions from hundreds of textile mill owners whose profits were gossamer thin at best, and where warehouses were stuffed with excess production. unlike defeat of seven soldiers on the battlefield, however, defeat of the picket lines in the south against overwhelming odds engendered no lost cause mythology. valor,nticized tales of no soothing psychological mechanism to soothe the pain it reduced. -- produced. he wrote this about the defeat. while workers at a handful of southern mills fought on into
the 1940's and beyond, most went back to their old lives, shutting doors in their minds and their souls as they cauterize the wounds left from the hopes and dreams of 1934. i want to thank all of you for your attentiveness, thank you very much. i want to move on now and turn this over to tom. prior to teaching at the university of south carolina, where he began his teaching career, tom terrill received his phd in history from the universe at wisconsin. an oklahoma native, tom received an undergraduate from west mr. college -- westminster college. >> it raises money. >> true. he has also taught at the university of north carolina at charlotte in turkey as a
fulbright senior lecturer, and in genoa, italy. as a fulbright lecturer there as well, where he also studied italian labor history, included in his publications are the tariff, politics and american foreign-policy, 1874 to 1901. the american south, history, e-work he co-authored with another well and historian. ,he american south comes of age and quite apropos for today's discussion, such as us -- seven horses -- southern voices of the 30's. he has also written for the south carolina encyclopedia of worked as a has consultant for a number of documentaries, including the uprising of 34 that i began talking about. he is currently working on article on the 1960 american presidential election for a turkish journal.
when the dust settles, a book that will deal with the issues. tom works as an arbitrator for the federal mediation service, which is fascinating. it gives him a unique perspective on labor issues. [laughter] [applause] >> good morning. that's a hard act to follow. providers of context for the strike i looking at -- [inaudible] 1900 -- for instance, by 1900 -- [inaudible]
involvement. the industries had -- [indiscernible] have to realize that the industry was essentially -- most the people who invested in textiles were from this region. ago, wemany years talked about when the mills moved down, how the industry must of known it was more property. the workforce that the mills had shouldn't come as a surprise. most of the remorselessly workers.
-- most of them were slave workers. slavery might carry over in more mills and carryover. mill, talk about the there's involvement roughly from 1880 to the beginning of world war i. after recovered from the longest depression in american history, that may come as a surprise to you. but the 1870's had the longest, not the worst, but the longest depression. the question is -- the factors that were very important.
leadership, some capital is crucial. of a great mill is relatively cheap labor. there was a great deal of that labor available for several reasons. after the civil war cut prices, riod of priceong pe going down. increasingly there was not an option for making a living, or to look elsewhere. few urbanrelatively -- there were fairly small cities and towns .hrough there been areas were not that powerful. -- urban areas are not that powerful. other alternatives might have
been logging in the timber business. people cut down their major source. they cut down the trees and moved on. somewhere in the 25 years, roughly 1880 into the early of , trees were cut down. it's almost like you took a bulldozer and just cut. there were other places you could do that. mining, or you might try to go west. most people looked around and said where can i go?
the mills address that. workforce in 1880 was women. and children. fiveildren i mean people years old, six result -- six years old. the workforce was all black. this is a change from before the civil war. this would become the standard a very important characters it. -- characteristic. people on the mills -- people who own the mills didn't go for the most usable labor. that would have been blacks. why couldn't they do that?
for one thing, it was an explosive issue. people made it clear that they were willing to work out if they had black labor. ,hey could work in the garden they could maybe open the bales of cotton, do cleanup. black women to the janitorial work. for a very little time, women came to accept an all-black workforce. [indiscernible] defeated.too easily that's seriously misleading.
white workers had to be there firsthand. clear, they very would use that handed necessary. indicate -- [indiscernible] out in the work lace. -- workplace. churches, their own and in summits this, -- some instances, abandoned denominations, and pentecostals flourished since 1900. [indiscernible] they were not passive.
like senator rubio. [laughter] the dominant part of the workforce from 1880 to 1900 is women, children. there's a lot of talk about male , this uncommon manner he disparaging language -- uncommon nunnery -- disparaging language. that really is misleading. did in af what they lot of positions that need to work. in 1900, the demand for mail labeled -- male labor stored in
the world had an abundance of cheap -- labor for cheap. people sometimes have the attitude that no workers weren't still work. skilled --kers want weren't skilled work. better at weaving, spinning, they did a lot of the to do their jobs more successfully. men in the mills -- certainly by 1880, they were [indiscernible]
they were now in supervisory positions. is going to change between 1900 and world war i. indication of-- how the mills became a better place to work were the things companies used when needed to treat their workers better. schooling, inth order to be -- to attract and keep workers. about worko talked -- [indiscernible] they knew the good places to
work in, and the sorry places to work in. [indiscernible] keptis a man who cap -- every page of work he ever had. he could show you the stack. he worked in a lot of different mills. [indiscernible] why did you move so much? i was on was looking for a better opportunity. it didn't work out that well, did it? a great storyteller. he moved people from one village to another. he had a team in a wagon, and he
moved people from one village to another. sometimes they had to stay campight, cap outside -- outside. there was a lot of always called welfare capitalism. at capitalists provide welfare. [indiscernible] services for mill workers. aese are reflection of growing, healthy industry. by 1914, on the evil world war i -- on the eve of world war i, the mill workers had a plateau.
there was concern -- the glorious day of 22% profits as you know he'sd -- talking about the company. -- new investment [indiscernible] a study 5%. eady 5%. there were a lot of people in orange on the way up here. there was a small bus of the first baptist church. great falls is now very quiet. at one time it was a major area of textile development.
about halfway between columbia and [indiscernible] not only were the mills [indiscernible] you would have problems with agriculture. you had coffee prices the lowest ever on the eu for world war i. world war i saved a lot of people. it increased opportunities, cotton prices soared, times were good. people started painting their houses. we had enough money, we could paint this house. could paint a house that had been painted in 15 years or longer. the workers flourished.
there wasld war i labor organization. the war ended. it hit the entire country. as much as we did in 1945, 1947 in world war ii. mills the ways the reacted to this was for greater efficiency. about theere you hear stretch out. the stretch out you had more people on the machine. thingsthe unfortunate the mills did -- during those
processes, they brought in efficiency experts from the new england mills. people would stand next to you while working and talk to you. might move over and tell you to adjust your arm to be more efficient. a friend of mine made a film about it. [indiscernible] about a famous murder in the 1870's. we were talking about women in the mills.
a couple of people told me they stretched out with women. experts --iency [indiscernible] .en did not like this there were strikes in the 1920's. of theere protests stretch out and the speed up. complicated by several things. no air-conditioning. often enteredou humidity -- countered humidity in the mill by spring water in the air -- spraying water in the air to reduce the amount of static.
[indiscernible] was also the problem with machines that generated a lot of heat. that was before people knew about a thing -- [indiscernible] this was before big technological changes recently occurred. they brought in very nice equipment with japanese manufacturers, the use of a very different type of loom, for instance. in the 20's, there were a series of strikes. there was a 1929 guess tony is dry. -- gastonia strike.
[indiscernible] i would ask how about 34, they would say what about 34? you have tremendous problems. the south was in the great depression -- [indiscernible] as one farmer told an interviewer, what depression? we've always been depressed here. in 1934, in the great textile strike, i want to add a couple of things to that. the stretch out and speed up, earnings.urs, lower
[indiscernible] the wonders of the gasoline andvery act ceased management had no choice to reduce wagers. this was the great depression. after a little further encouragement, company started deduction andged inductio the final blow came from the announcement of another waged induction that occurred in 1934. workers were hurt. [applause]
>> greg beauchamp grew up in south carolina. he went to work for a local won astation and scholarship to study journalism. with "miamid herald." he traveled the world, working for all of the major television networks. remember the days when they cover the world on those networks. traveling for president carter and president reagan, sending to egypt and worsen latin america, where he had the distinct honor of being arrested by the forces -- manwell-known rijeka well nor he ate up -- manuel
noriega. he produced the television spectacular "lifestyles and the rich and famous." >> my darkest moment. hiss a consequence of youds in producing, received a call from orson work onnd proceeded to a year-long project that ended es dieally when mr. well after a heart attack. he went on to work with tim robbins and released "the cradle will rock" based on orson welles' famous theater project play of that name. , yesdition to his book displayed his wide knowledge of south carolina history with
multimedia e-books on the 1968 workers massacre and a fascinating account about the black nightclub on myrtle beach that attracted white young reaction byalso the the ku klux klan. history,t be a phd in but he is definitely an historian and we are pleased to have him here. >> thank you. >> i'm going to stay here because the projector -- is it working, by the way? i don't think we see pictures, do we? >> now. >> i'm not sure why. it should be. well -- >> did you turn that on? >> well, yeah. it is supposedly on. i don't know.
maybe i should abandon this. i'm going to come up and just talk. >> on this question of being a historian versus being a journalist, i would like to say that in china they have two words for history. one is the official history, which is like the gentleman you have heard here. and then there is the oral history, which is translated into while history. that is kind of what i do. carolina, but i was raised and trained as a journalist. when i discovered the story of the uprising of 34, i went into a journalistic mode. it was about my own family.
it was a kind of thing that you have to figure, ok. i'm not going to do this. i started to apply basically what i know about journalism, which had a little bit of experience at that point. bath is a little town about 40 miles west. there, it was a town that was very protective. i never entered the cold no -- c aol mill while i was there. my mother was a history teacher. my father worked in textiles. you think i would know a lot about this, it was never discussed in my home. grandmother was the
own person that gave me a hint that there had been real violence there. i heard it but i could not find real evidence of what exactly had happened in 1934. story of the town -- i think i need to go into a little about it. is aney cap, i think it two-red light town. it was a one-red light town. we have three. it is a tiny place. i worked in radio station. textile.eard about the it was out of my sight and mind. a november of 1984, i got phone call at midnight from jack
bass. jack is a rough cut found the uprising of 1934 in atlanta. he said, do you know what happened over in honea path? i never got to a. he said, you have to see this. the office in new york city and got it performed. i learned that my own grandfather -- and it said this clearly, but he headed the mill during the strike were seven people were killed and 30 others were wounded. whose fault it was was an issue at that point. it seemed to rest on his shoulders. this is when i started to say i am going to look into this, because i want to know the story. i am not for or against union. was whatnted to know
the real story around town was. answers would get no from anyone. when asked about my grandfather, oh, he was a supervisor. my grandmother said to me when i was a child, we had some problems at the mill and a flashing on the ticker on times square and they called it little chicago. was exciting. i was too young to talk to him about that myth. --pplaud my knowledge applied to my knowledge to this stony, who dide the documentary, and tom contributed it, that is what started. they had done info on honea path
and a lot had been done. i was not in the film. i guess i could start with my grandfather. i wanted to know about him because he was a man, born 1977 -- 1877, worked in the know. he was not a 10 owner. he worked in the mill. he was a very enthusiastic man. to rise through textile mill.he he became the point man of the hatter family. way that the town was set up, he also became the mayor, the judge, and the head of the mill. in a way, he had complete power. owned the mill workers'
houses and he had a hammer over the head of people in that mill that wanted -- when he wanted something done, he could throw them out on demand basic. that was a very powerful thing. you either loved the mill or you did not. you have to go back and understand how this happened. the cotton industry there. the railroad came in in the mid-1850's, but the textile mill was built around 1900. it was about a 50-year span. 1994 walkn through town and it opened my eyes. he ran right through the middle about it. that was more than transportation. it divided a town by class.
it divided it by the way the anders lived, race, economic status. on one side and the mill, the workerswere the live, and another subset where the black people lived. it began to play out that way. that is the first time i really understood it. the mill workers had come from a barter society. after the civil war, they went from one type of slavery and poverty to another. that was the sharecroppers. they were working on a treadmill to keep up for paying for the land. when the milk came in and open millout 1902, -- came in and opened in 1902, it
was a first-rate place to live. they had a company george. it was the first time that many men had gotten a paycheck. they loved it at first. then the depression came. hours and the situations, it made their malt lives more intolerable. they decidedpened they had to do something to make their lives controllable. roosevelt had put out through his fireside chats the idea that and itok to join even would be good for the workers line. that is when my grandfather was told by the emmett family, you can't let that happen.
all of the activity you have heard about going on, but in honea path it was a simple thing. my grandfather said no way. not starting here. about half of the workers decided they were going to. there was a clash and there was no room for movement there. millamily that ran the told my grandfather to do know what -- to do what was necessary. they could not get the national guard in honea path. my grandfather got about 150 people, all workers. ne morning, in the blind , came byin honea path themselves, about 150, the mill was not supposed to open but there were workers inside.
the night before, my grandfather had supplied guns to those people. on the roof was a world war i machine gun that was water-cooled. they called it a water-cooler. it did not work were a lot of people said. we know whoo how gave the order in a minute, but basically one this group of people got together, a scuffle broke out. sticks,e using pickert which are wooden sticks with a pointed and that they used on looms. these were handed out to workers to the -- windows to the workers below. they started to hit each other and gunfire broke out. it is difficult to know who shot and who started it.
right or wrong, the name zola merged and mike -- the names all emerged in my grandfather put it out that he was responsible. i never thought that was true. named andrewtleman smith. mr. smith was there and he got shot. my grandfather was standing over him. he told me in great detail who was there any said your grandfather was not at all at home. he was there. i saw him. this started a trail of me writing letters to people i had seen. one of the most important and compelling was a lady named sue gi are skilled -- sue anders
ll. she was part of the uprising. i wrote her a letter. i apologize for what my grandfather did and i told her i wanted to meet her. it was christmas holiday, 1994. that the named ham was on the outside and it scared her so much, she would of freight. i did not know that my family name would have that kind of reaction. she invited me to come to her place and it was a very interesting afternoon. she was nervous. i said, look, i just want to know. my grandfather had died possibly two years ago. him, butdid i not know i did not know much about him.
i said you probably know more than me. i wanted to not miss a word she said. and spoke for several hours. she told me incredible stories about her mother. ,er father was caught in town who was killed that down a sidewalk. he bled profusely on the street outside the mill. her mother had six young shooting,nd after the 48 hours after these men were buried, the mill reopened. she had to decide what to do with the kids. and she did not have any way to support them, so she had to go back to work because she had the money to leave town. the mill agreed to allow her to go back to work if she was not
to say the word union ever again and was not to discuss her husband's death. she basically had to keep her mouth shut. she sat at home with her husband's letting close =-- bloody clothes in a chair. one first sons got so upset with dug them up. of went out and dug them trying to find her husband's close -- clothing. one interesting story is that cough. a so when they walked into town to get groceries, she would go behind the mill. that was to avoid the site line that her husband was killed him. in the profusely
sidewalk became known as the bleeding sidewalk. every time it rained, a dark bloodstain would come up on the sidewalk. the mill did not fix that for eight years. anyoneas if they did not -- the sidewalk became a symbol. tourists came to see it. after eight years, they took it out. she suspected that whoever shot her husband was going to go after her. finally, one day, i mr. tong stockton was identified -- mr. tom stockton identified himself as the shooter, and asked her forgiveness. he had shot him and admitted it. she said, i'm curious. she said, you've got it.
she asked him the same question. the answer was simple. he ordered the shooting. he armed the gunman. he put out the word that anyone in the town with the union on should be had. i have proven evidence that my own grandfather had not only been involved in the shootings, but the order. we then had a screening of the uprising. coming back this christmas, i y namedther lad kathy who they wanted to interview in a park on memorial day. -- i gave her $100,
and it turns out that i gave her the last donation she needed for the money. for anvited me to speak dedication to the body. i thought that having the story come up -- this has been a 60-your secret. people really want to know this. -- 60-year secret. people really want to know this. because the secret was out, people would be happy. they weren't. not at all. tohy could not get a place show the film in different towns all around. show theat wanted to film were ordered not to show it. banditarolina etv because the head of the time -- banned it because the chief
of the time was the son of one runners.ll people don't want to talk about it. i had some interesting conversations. i still said, why are you causing this trouble? wait a minute. you encouraged me to study history. she said, i'm knew you were trouble when i first saw you. [laughter] another lady on the board of burstyn college said why are you throwing this out? i said, don't you teach history? yeah. so why shouldn't i stir it up? i want to know the secret of this town. wyatt is the way it is. she could not understand that.
the doctor who brought me into this world stood up in a coffee shop. he stood up in a coffee shop in honea path one day and said this juryhould be shot and no will convict him for doing it. this was the kind reception. it still goes on. when i realized is this whole thing is like tossing a hand grenade down main street. it was a very controversial thing. i walked into the middle of it. what happened to promote the memorial thing -- i worked in radio with matt phillips, who was on wrix in anderson. of the peoplee that hired me and mentor to me in radio when i was out of high
school. he did not want to have anything to do with it. he said my advertisers say don't touch it. i got a call one day. he said, there are rumors going around that they are making a hollywood movie about that. people are calling. i need addresses. what do you want me to do? i want you to get on the air with me, but it is for one minute and we are going to get rid of it. ok. i was on for two hours. the people started calling them with their stories. it was an amazing morning. in that two-hour period, the whole town turned around. matt volunteered to do a live broadcast for the workers and i think that was the day the town embraced having the secret revealed. i often wondered, when i came home from college, i could not
sneak into town. it was in the newspaper. this, how do they keep a secret like this? 60 years and no one knows. it was not so much a secret. it was a social contract. the people of honea path had created a way to keep it in the and they knew they could not talk about it because the town was the only employer. they all agreed to not say anything. people to this day that think something awful will happen to them if they talk about it. haveof the people there since died, but the younger children of these people are all curious. it is a secret time. it is a tough thing that still goes on.
it is a pretty amazing story. i wrote about it. hass a story that i think such huge ramifications for people's live. i was 30 years old when i first started this. it was almost like i was living in a hollywood town. i grew up in a mill superintendent's house, meeting other superintendents from knowles that came by. strom thurmond came by. i have a picture of me sitting on his leg. all of these politicians and people, and they are also happy and i knew nothing about it. i guess since this has happened, i see the town in an entirely
different way. you see what the social dividers is that the mill has been torn down. they started the mall in 2006 or 2007. out, theook came demolition company decided the valuableght be so they started selling pieces on ebay. they mark them up. ae town was presented with proposal to turn it into a textile museum. --re is a proposal of doing because the village and the mill itself and the whole thing was still preserved.
it was an ideal textile museum. they did not want to have that. when the 80th anniversary came, end on this.he it could even be a novelty. he gave me some information about how people purposely i thought that was a very interesting thing. there are a lot of people that don't want to remember what happened. i do, because it shaved -- shaped my life and a lot of those who are there. i don't see it as antiunion, prounion, whatever. wrotes why i wrote what i and i think it is a good story. [applause]
>> i think what we would love to do is to have all of you ask some questions. you are perfectly capable of making a statement us all. that is fine. in the interest of time, if it is a question or statement, and needs to be somewhat sussing. anyone who once asked question, please go to the microphone i just want to wetion a few things about discussed in flint, michigan. we tried to start a job. losing in the middle of this massive industrial area. to risk your job in ,hattahoochee valley in georgia
and not just risk your job at your home and living, the leverage that seem to be exerted on workers here, and that is another thing that makes them so extraordinary, that the general motors story pales in to the fervor of the textile strike of 1934. i wonder if you had any, frank, this involves her grandfather, the idea of welfare capitalism where you expect major companies worried -- where they had company baseball teams and bowling teams. strikes in the 30's were much more effective than the strikes that occurred before world war i.
i am wondering if this happened in a world village. they have leverage on you because you could lose your house. a strike requires a great deal of cohesiveness. living in that kind of setting, workers -- and when you workers that risked everything, many of them were people who had worked and lived in those peoples and -- those villages a long time. in the course of the course of fall of 1934, 70,000 people were denied reemployment. that they would get their jobs back but that proved to be not so. on anything's you knew about -- in mill villages, there was a great deal of advantage sometimes for people who help people out.
that was another obstacle. >> my grandfather, and honea path they had a championship baseball team. a lot of people loved working for him. he listens to the radio. he had a new car every year. he traveled to florida every year on a vacation. he had dogs. he lived a very good life. but he was the absolute ruler of the town. it was an interesting story. one person had been brought up on a liquor charge for being drunk. my grandfather find him, but this was his supplier. he left him liquor in a tree trunk that he would find all the time. the guyfather is fining
was supplying him. it is a strange world. one of the people told me he was good enough to the workers, but you did not mess with him because he was the boss man and everybody knew that. mr. hammett, who was the last-living manager and owner of the mill, died, i think it was about -- it was after the thing in 1995. i tried to get him to do an interview with me. "the granvilled news" that he not only thought this was all ridiculous, but the workers deserved what happened to them. , he was a member of the greenville historical society, and they put in his obit that he was a good southern
gentleman. you can figure out what that meant, but he would not talk about it. my grandfather was strictly employee. grandfather had not done what he wanted him to do, he would have been on the back streets himself, just like the workers. blacklist.s a if you were out on strike, you got your name on a list. .t was then sent to other mills it has various means, not only of your job in greenville, but in you could not get a job in columbia, honea path, horse creek valley, because your name was on a list. if part of the 1934 strike problem had retired workers reading names -- they knew this
was from the community who were expelled. my dad was in a strike. he was 16 years old. by the way, your mother taught me in history. there were certain people who were pointed out to be killed. mr. cannon was killed across the street by mr. kamel, who was up high-poweredl by a rifle. the police shot mr. your bird in the back. they thought he was the leader of the union, but he was not. and wasis hands up shot.
as he turned to fall, they said, i killed my best friend. this is the testimony of all the people that were at the hearing in anderson. >> that was in anderson independent. ells everything done by danny hollister. he had a pistol put his side and told by the group he was with that if he moved, they would kill him first and killed the rest of them. it was a strike over kids working in that mill. somegovernment people or were so through, they were so little that they put them in 55-gallon drums and covered them with cotton until the government people got out of there and they would put them back. i went to see her quite them. she had a finger missing, and i asked her how she lost it. i was nine years old and working on a spinning will.
ripped her finger up. and made her it up work the rest of the shift. if everybody tells than who shot who, and everything matches, -- >> there were a number of people that testified that my grandfather had been shooting and he had never been called to testify. no one was convicted. fire -- your had someone with a picket stick. he hit him from behind, but was not killed. >> this was a town of about 2300 people. these people went to church together. their kids played together. the mayor, who was at first against the memorial, stood up and told us, this was billy gilmer, that he had learned in
researching this that his own family, part of the family was in the mill, and the other part was outside and they had split up and were fighting each other and he had never heard the story. this was really kept a secret for a long, long time. i felt it was very healthy when it came out. >> my name is kate burns. i am from honea path as well. i grew up with fake members -- the fake memories of my mother referencing the strike and i don't talk about. i did not think much about it because i was very young. i didn't know what there was not to talk about. when i learned your book had goe out, i decided i would to the anderson county library to see if they had it. mother sayingmy
that my grandfather was on the police force at that time. i went in the south carolina room at the library. sure enough, they had it. i sat down and started looking through the book and there was my grandfather's name. i learned that he had shot a man in the back with his hands up. i never knew him. his name was et k. this has been a journey for me since learning this through your book. it is something i'm still dealing with. we had hoped there would be some recognition and honea path for the 80th anniversary. there was a knot. me and a friend had our own memorial service to remember them. known family doesn't the rest of the story, but he was apparently a man that you put a badge on him, and he was like marching sides.
they said he stopped trains for speeding in honea path. .e has three photographs i don't know if they have been seen before, but they are original photographs of that time in honea path. i would love to talk you sometime. >> we all share the the same thing, learning about where we came from. with an aunt who had lived beacham, my grandfather, and she was angry i had revealed this about the family. i went and talked to to her. she said she loved the roosevelt. i said, if you loved roosevelt, why would you disagree with people that were doing this? problem it is a real because your grandfather was on one side and roosevelt was the other.
i really like roosevelt. it was like she just could not talk. we wanted to protect you young ones from all the horrible things that were happening. i think that is what they were doing. they created a social contract and the social contract was essential because if they were going to continue to work for -- chicola mill, they had to be quiet. some people put their children in orphanages in order to not have to go back to that mill. it was a horrible time. if you can think of that, that is why they did what they did. >> a little over a year ago there was a reunion of the kay family. i went to north carolina to see my cousins. they said bring things that relate to the family. low and behold, my first cousin pulls out the billy club of
e.t. kay. i was looking at it with a really bad feeling. i remember when my brother had his paper route in honea path. he said i went to this one house on a mentioned that e.t. kay was my grandfather and they threw me out of the house. i said, i have been thinking about that and you know that e.t. had a reputation for being racist. she said, these people were white. >> he was one of the three --icted and they were all all the charges were thrown around. i have heard many stories about him. you have one in your family as well. we all do. >> you might want to speak to the lady right here -- i'm sorry to put you on the spot.
of police of honea path at the time, his granddaughter is here. hotter -- is many minnie hotter. my daddy played textile ball and i have great memories. i would like to point out that even though the adopt the fair , a lot ofdards act those things continue to go on because i went to work in the mill when i was 19 years old and we did not tell them i had never heard of that, but we called them ids. they came around and they kind us. after this went down out, i left the mill in 1992 and i have been law-enforcement for 20 years. they were timing us.
haves very intimidating to someone stand over you for eight hours and time everything that you did. it was hard. when the mill started talking about closing down, i guess what happened had fear of the union mill people because the union people came to my home. it was in 1992. when they talked about the mill closing, the union started going to houses. i didn't say anything about union and they came to my house. we were all told that do not talk to them. >> one of the things that happened in honea path is the mill put out this thing of shaming the workers and saying they somehow brought this upon themselves. see it as being different because those seven people that died and 30 that were wounded lead to, and not directly, but they influenced the two laws
that give us the 40-hour work week, minimum wage, they kept children in school. these people did not die in vain. a lot of people honea path say they were troublemakers and got what they deserved. not through it all. they were 4real heroes. the textile industry trying to minimize what they did was a pretty sorry act. i'm not prounion or antiunion but it it was a bad thing to do. >> put a fear in us. we were told not to talk to them, so we didn't. maybe they are closing that plant. i feel the same way you do about the people who are here. we went to a memorial and i put a wreath on it. it is just a touching story. if you see people working in a textile mill -- i can remember
going there. my daddy spent over 40 years in the mill and when it closed in 1992, my daddy was 62. he had less than a year to retire and they tried to push him out. he couldn't do anything else. i got on the phone and i called headquarters and i got them to get him a job. they let him stay. but they put him at his age doing a very hard job and he ended up having a heart attack. i appreciate you all doing this research and putting this story out there. the people in honea path did not die in vain. hard, but ihad it have been in a different line of work for 20 years but i still have friends that we keep in touch. there is nothing like the bond that those people had. you cannot replace that. i appreciate you all. >> there is one little thing.
there was a mill worker in honea a famous became politician and that was owen johnson. when he was in the house of representatives, he held hearings on the mill owners. i think it was in 1928. workersery much for the and boy, my grandfather could not stand him. these were two people from honea path who were at each other's throats. n, when some people were blacklisted, he got them jobs. forid a lot of good things the people at the mill in later years, especially those who could not get hired back. >> [indiscernible] >> right. that was an interesting side of
it. a town of 2300 people at the time. it is really hard to believe that this kind of thing is going on. these are all people sitting next to each other in churches and schools. it is a tiny place where everybody knew everybody. that is one of the things that makes it so remarkable as a story. not to put too fine a point on this, but when i was telling you about paul revere christopher, there are a couple of quotes from the american revolution that come to mind in one of them you're probably familiar with, john adams, he is talking about the revolution. at the time the revolution was going on, he said we are 1/3 1/3y, 1/3 in different, and trueblue. the story may quibble that, but of the people
supported the revolution. in the textile strike it was a 1/3 of a lot more than people that went out and sacrifice. it is extraordinary how much courage it took and what it was like for someone who may have sympathized for the strike but could not sacrifice everything to do it. they had a family. i worked on a machine once when i was 20 years old. i worked in a place where half the factory was unionized, half was not then i wanted to get the other half unionized. it --as hardly a replace a repressive place at all. people were afraid to do it. i was 20 years old living in home. what that i care that i got fired? i'm telling a 40-year-old guy with two kids that they need to do this. there is a man named lacey right to wonder to read the interview,
-- who wanted to read the interview, but he sympathized. he said the flying squadrons, and give them the picker stick. when they come, we want you to have the picker sticks because they will have picker sticks and will chant for you to come out. they want you to go out and hold the picker stick. happensno, i think what is when they, i will go out the back door and get in a hole . woods.ame is jackson i am from honea path. i lived there the past 75 years. it took a lot of courage for you grandchildren to bring us a breath of what happened. all i know, -- you are grandchildren, argue? you in relation to mr. dan?
oh, you're the one. i'm here to talk about the scrap. some good things came out of it and bad things came out of it. i wasn't there when the strike went on. as the young man set over there, his father was about 15 or 16 years. i was, too, but not there. five years later i started to work there. under the hammocks when they were voted up. i started working there. when i started working they told us to keep our mouth shut. that is what we did. we did not talk about it. we knew what went on. i think the man that you worked for their was one of the shooters who became the superintendent of the mill about three or four years later and he
stayed there until 1950 as the mayor of honea path and he was -- i forget what his name was -- log cabin? i know him. >> he was one of the people indicted for the shootings and one of the worst of the guys. he was a really tough, antiunion put him asy superintendent of the mill to scare people from what i have been told by many workers. >> he sure was. a lady got a few minutes ago to talk aboute.t. kay. i know him because he was the police. another guy we called big john, big john smith. all of those were in the strike. i knew them. as i said, i'm not here to talk about it but it took a lot of courage for you to get up and let people know what went on.
while i'm up, i want to thank mr. nelson and his lovely family. we got together through mrs. maven knocks. they asked to come to my house. they came to my house and i want you to tell me, five of those blooms are still missing. five of those blooms are still living. they are still on my table. you told me to put for qubes every week. four of them are still living. in my house. you mentioned that they were making about $13. when i was working there, i was making 12.5 cents an hour. i started working there 1939. five bullets at her
home that you showed us when it was going on. she was really young. >> did any of you talk about it at all? >> no. we did not talk about it. >> was it just understood you should not talk about it? >> they told us. they told me. i don't know what he told the rest of them. they told us not to talk about it. we did not. i live within a mile from where your granddaddy's house was. right by the golf course. i live on harbor street. they had to film over there on harbor street. yards fromin 150 that place. , i come rightalk by where they had the films that. i know something about this. but i did not talk about it. i just wanted to get up and thank you, whatever is in charge of this, for letting the people know what went on. live ins it is bad to
the world sometimes when people die and you don't know what went on. i'm glad you had the courage. this is why want to get up to speak about it because it took a lot of courage to do that. but there are a lot of things anew about. as i said, some good things came out of it, and bad things. i have four children and we worked together and we educated our children from the mill. i worked there 55 mills. i started working in 1939 and it was 1994 when i stopped. >> what was your work in the mill? >> when i first started working in the mill, there was a guy by the name of ham strickland. black folk could not come inside, you know that. alw strickland -- hg strickland ran the job, but he could hardly run. he said, you know, if i could get you a job in the mill, you
would be making the best type of money, but i said yes, and he got me the job. i was a pit attended. i did that for 26 years. it was pretty rough. i was also a custodian. we won't go into all of what happened, but it was pre-rough, but after the years, i went older and older, i just kept my mouth shut, work, got along with everybody, and just kept increasing until i moved on up. i got off of three jobs. i was the first black man they got re-supervised. >> >> is >> 96. yes, exactly. [laughter] [applause] isthis young man that here
the son of brooke shelled. aren't two people living in honea path that don't know about this. >> i hate to throw you off, but we're running out of time. >> i'm through. i want to let you all go. [laughter] i want to thank you for being so good. >> it was an honor to me. anne knox heard the shots. i want to thank both of you gentlemen for coming today and it really was wonderful. thank you very much. [applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2014] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> here are some of the programs you will find this weekend on the c-span networks. c-span, actor0 on seth rogen discussing politics
and humor. c-span's q andon pavlich. katie , william 2 at 10:00 iewicz, what he thinks about universities missing the mark and how students should think vertically and have goals be on the material. visit lafayette and west lafayette, indiana. on c-span 3 today at 6:00 p.m. eastern on the civil war, the story and damien shiels talks about patrick cleburne and his role in the battle of franklin, tennessee.
1974y at 4:00, a investigative piece by san on polices korron tv brutality in neighboring oakland, california. let us know what you are watching . >> this month of the 10th anniversary of q1 day, and we are showing highlights. from 2005, kenneth feinberg's interview on the 9/11 victims compensation fund. 2007, robert novak honest
his 50 years of reporting in washington. our.2008, renew could to from 2009, conservative commentator s.e. cupp. >> history bookshelf features popular history riders and heirs on american history tv. next, frederick kempe discusses his book, "divorcing the dictator: america's bungled affair with noriega." anniversary ofnd o the invasion of panama. frederick kempe delves into the history of panama. mr. kemp was a journalist for the wall street journal or he is not president and chief executive officer of the atlantic council. this is about an hour.