tv A World Verdict CSPAN January 4, 2015 4:00pm-4:31pm EST
the nose was so disorienting that the sailors were unable to figure out what was going on, and they began to load the canons one ball after the other after the other until they had so many cannonballs that the balls rolled out of the end of the barrel. another case where they put too much powder in, and the cannon exploded. battlefield. at the very end of the naval battle, the british struck their colors. that was seen by general provoke sitting up on the hill. when he saw that happen, he lost the battle. without the navy, without the ships to take his army south, there is no point going on any longer. so, he recalled the army and the next day, they left and went back to canada and the battle is over. he planned to comment fight again in spring, but the treaty
of kent happened in between and the soldiers were never seen here again in the united states. >> you are watching american history tv, all weekend, every weekend on c-span3. to join the conversation, like us on facebook at c-span history. each week, american history tv's real america brings you vintage a book affairs homes that help tell the story of the 20th century. 1963 u.s. information agency film -- "cuba, a world verdict" traces the history of the cuban revolution from january 1959 through the cuban missile crisis and includes observations by a variety of journalists from south america and europe who were eyewitnesses to the rise of
fidel castro. >> i was pleased to see democracy was coming to that island. >> i thought castro was a real colorful, popular national hero, a savior of his nation. >> unless we were reactionaries, we would have no right to think castro could not fulfill his goal. the victory of phil castro was the victory of all of us latin americans, proud, nationalistic lovers of freedom. ♪ >> savanna, january 1, 1959. ♪
>> this 26th of july movement led by fidel castro turned out the tyrant i.t. stuff. to the cuban people and the admiring world, there could be no better way to start the new year. ♪ a correspondent remembers those heady days. >> 23 days after castro's victory, we received him in caracas. he had just triumphed over a
dictatorship and therefore, we welcomed his revolution. castro was an impassioned man but a civil war is no joke. we had hoped that he would allow the cuban people to decide on their own future, to take her place in the sun and that their institutions to their desires. >> the revolutionary leader to to republic square in havana to tell the what victory meant. there would soon be general elections, there would be a free press beholden to no one, there would be land for the peasants. this revolution, fidel castro told the people standing in the sun, is as native as the cuban
sons. but that her was further bloodletting to be done. the world had mixed emotions about such violence as convicted torturers fell at the maximum of publicity and the minimum of due process of law. it was the seventh month in power of the cuban revolution. while the people waited for the first free general election in 20 years as fidelity promised. vertical orientation was carried out under the orders of che guevara, an argentine with the botticelli angel's face and a scholar of marks. -- scholar of marx. it was a fiction curiously tolerated by castro. on the night of july 13, the provisional president, a liberal judge you had denounced batista
and had been forced into exile for his pains went on national television. there, he warned communism is not concerned with the welfare of the people but constitutes a danger for the cuban revolution. among those who listened and watched was the man who brought the president back from exile. four days later, he took to the television channels to accuse him of treason. he resigned it was put under virtual house arrest. later, he once again sought local refuge. -- political refuge. a member of the socialist party of italy recalls the time. >> it was the degeneration of the revolutionary movement. no elections were held, there is no democratic debate inside the revolutionary movement itself. the ideas of dissenters were not discussed since those who expressed opinions indiscriminate with the majority
were persecuted. as happened in the case of or tomatoes who was sentenced to 20 years. >> it was a tense month for the cuban revolutions. >> to serve truth, one must serve freedom. these are the two recommendations albert camus made to the writer and they can be applied to the journalist. journalist who wish to examine the situation in cuba for years after the revolution had to begin by knowledge and three undeniable facts that underlie everything that happened later. the first was the arrest in october of 1959 of commander hubert matos, one of castro's colleagues and arrested his general headquarters. he was arrested for one reason -- he wrote a letter to castro
in which he expressed his disagreement with the commune icing position -- it was not yet a communist one, but a commune arising position of the government. he took, he played no rebellion he just wrote a letter to a friend who is also a chief. he was arrested and despite castro's request for a death sentence, he was sent to to 20 years in jail and stop i believe it is this fact that camus where he still alive would have born in mine when he prepared those two principles. >> in early 1960, the serious communication program that existed between the united states and cuba grew worse. the u.s. ambassador who had come to cuba would support
ingredients for the revolution was rebuffed. what would amount to $350 million worth of land property was expropriated without compensation. united states offers to reconcile differences went ignored. from his sweet high up in the event hilton hotels where he would often seek his own tormented counsel, castro made his choice. on february 4, 1960, the havana airport resounded to the excitement and read -- and confusion attendant to great occasions of state. the arriving celebrity, the first of the premier of the soviet union. in the months that followed cuba and russia signed economic and trade agreements. henceforth, cuban sugar would sweeten the cups of russian tea drinkers. $100 million with credit would be extended. soon after che guevara and
fidel's brother raul went to communist eastern europe. toasts were offered and so were arms. in this 1960 havana mayday parade, the arms are checked. soon, they will be soviet. from the kremlin, crete -- nikita khrushchev said the soviet union is extending a helping hand to the people of cuba. in the case of necessity, he threatened, soviet artillery men can support the cuban people with rocket fire. meeting in san jose, costa rica the foreign ministers of the american republics declared such extra continental intervention endangered the security of this hemisphere. in response, castro's foreign
minister walked out. in havana, and a rambling monologues which is now famous fidel castro attacked the organization of american states and denied the soviet union or communist china had interventionist intentions. moreover, said castro, cuba would establish relations with the chinese people's republic. as castro speaks, no amount of leicester can disguise the people -- no amount of bluster can disguise the people's unrest. people's brigades are rapidly formed. children are encouraged to inform against their parents. anyone protesting work criticizing is a counterrevolutionary and as such can be sentenced to the wall. a brazilian journalist revisited cuba during this time. >> i return to cuba in march of
1960 and things had still not been clearly defined. many people still believed in it all castro but i must say i found a series of promises that had been made had not been fulfilled. fidel was leading the country via television and speeches made all over the city. and with his police. many persons had been held in prison for four or five days without being interrogated. thousands of political adversaries have been shot. this asker lost fidel many sympathizers in latin america. the great land owners who lost their land had found the land had not been given to the peasants. the land had been nationalized in the peasants comments of serving the land owner were serving the state itself. something that was even more distant and abstract than the landowners.
fidel had nationalized the great enterprises, which was fine, but through a work law, he had done away with rabbit property and small business, however humble it might be. the state has the right to intervene and nationalize a shop. if the employees were not satisfied with what they were being paid for the treatment they were receiving, the middle classes that had raised fidel to power were now deceived by him. in an interview fidel gave at that time, he told me socialism as far as he sought was the best way for latin america but he wanted a more strict type then what existed so far. all the answers he gave last night were of marxist inspiration.
he did not belong to the soviet block but he had become a self-taught marxist. in schools, the textbooks had been substituted by marxist textbooks, trade union said no more authority and they had become organs of the body of a long soviet alliance. one day, a very well-known cuban journalist, a close friend of the dell's told me i had been misled. a few days later, fidel would throw them out of the country. this correspondent had to leave cuba for mexico. >> the next time fidel castro came to new york after a triumphant first visit in april 1959, it was not as a conquering hero. soon diplomatic relations would be severed altogether.
the news man who had once then impressed now took another look. >> i obtained a clearer and when i look back more accurate teacher. when he returned to new york for the general assembly in the fall of 1960, that general assembly when a great number of heads of state were there and castro had to be there. it was a memorable performance he gave with low and vulgar taste, quite obviously cynically and well-planned. and centrally directed.
castro chose first and declared he would live in a tank in central park. then he went to a hotel in the colored quarter and chris jeff visited him and they embraced. everything that would be cheap and vulgar was to be seen until the time castro went to the rostrum of the united states and a full five hours with his shirt color open spoke for five hours to the general assembly. at the occasion of this general assembly, i believe any illusions one might have had about castro would have had to disappear. he who would say perhaps there is only an alliance with the communist or as a tool of the
communists or was trying to use the communists for his own means had to recognize he had been completely wrong. it was clear there was a cynical plan for an alliance with the eastern bloc. little by little, it came so far at the occasion at the u.n. that cuba voted with the east. >> and other journalist sought in pen and ink this way. during the third year in power cuba economy was in serious trouble. unskilled farm labor, students and clerk were commandeered. through government mismanagement and lack of incentive for peasants to work on state owned land, the sugar crop began to grow sparse.
by 1962, cubans would be speaking of the harvest of the bitter sugar. there were cues for rations. there was hunger for clinical freeman as well. tens of thousands of cubans became known as refugees. >> three ideas. those human rights we could establish. >> no oratorical harangue would disclose with their faces told of the real cuba as they went into exile. where once castro had promised a new life to the cuban people, he chose instead to restock his arsenal.
in 1962, he boasted of having 350 medium and heavy tanks 300,000 machine guns, rifles and pistols, more than 100 jet fighters all at a cost that would be enough to feed, close and shelter every newborn cuban baby for the rest of its life will stop what manner of men is this former revolutionary? what works in the mind of a man who in april 1959 said -- >> i'm not a communist stop i am not agreed with communist. >> and just two years later at -- earlier agreed i will be a marxist-leninist and will be to the end of my life. what kind of consciousness does this man own question mark the man who told the man who works the land must own it.
those who work the land must have some. three years later, he told the same people why should we give land to the present? soon, he would want more and more and he would become a large land owner. a man of many faces. surely these are questions that will intrigue the historian and analyst for years to come. >> at this moment now, not as quickly as some, but not as slowly as others, we have realized castro is not following the right path. he had not called for elections in cuba. he rather consulted the people in open plaza to support the reject policies interject policies naturally imply certain number of risks. we in latin america have long
experience dictatorships and know full well when the people if consulted in the open plaza is because there is a dictatorship and we know a dictatorship always rings about jailing of groups, suppression of public freedoms stop from that moment on, we can no longer support the castro regime. >> in october of 1962, the world was not only disillusioned with the human revolution but disgusted with the discovery of 10 missile bases in cuba. aerial photos discovered their menace. the missiles could reach and conceivably destroy washington or lima, peru. >> now, your leaders are no longer cuban leaders inspired by cuban ideals. they are puppets and agents of
an international conspiracy which has turned cuba against your friends and neighbors in the americas and turned it into the first latin american country to become a target for nuclear war. we know your lives in land being used as pawns are those who deny your freedom. >> the president of the united states announced the nation's intentions will stop among the decisions, and insistence upon immediate dismantling and withdrawal of the missiles will stop a quarantine not all offensive military equipment on shipment to cuba and continued increased surveillance of the military buildup. hemisphere support was quick. the organization of american states by a vote of 22 nothing approved the resolution. some nations offered active military assistance. surveillance did continue in the air as planes made passes to photograph missile installations despite cuban antiaircraft stop -- antiaircraft. and on the sea as the u.s. navy
task horse steamed to a fateful rendezvous with cuban ships. all cuban bound ships would be commanded to heed to two research. one week later, prepare chris jeff who had never once consulted castro issued a new order calling for the return of the weapons to russia. then, like a penitent rigler caught in the act, he wrote to president kennedy -- "after all you and i understand what kind of weapons they are." editorial cartoonists around the world expressed their scorn.
but even though the missiles lived in the world allowed a self the first five relief in days, the fact is this -- million cubans remain imprisoned on their island and more than 250,000 are without a country. each without their displacement was only temporary, that they would return to create a free cuba. >> the news arriving from cuba is very encouraging to us. the workers have not gone over to communism. the peasants have not gone over to communism. the students have not gone over to communism. the regime exists today because of two reasons -- because of the apparatus of betrayal and espionage and because of the military apparatus set up and handled by the muscovites. >> the world awaits the next active history with millions of people in cuba and throughout the world directly affected by the next turn of castro's
ambition. the world now awaits with anxiety and content. this is their verdict. the deputy prime minister of thailand prince one. >> these subversive attempt to bring cuba under communism has been done tortuously in the manner of a snake. it is only right that the united states has taken out the snake's fangs. as shakespeare said, the snake is touched that not killed. castro is more dangerous than a snake. >> we see cuba moving in an opposite direction. x -- >> when it turned -- when it joined the communist lock, it
turned matters worse. from that moment on, it had no longer our support. tomorrow cuban correspondent without a doubt at the end of four years, cuban -- fidel castro has converted the country into a concentration camp everyone in cuba can see. next it's a depressing factor to me because we know a country to believe in democratic principles. >> i deplore that 6 million cubans have been swindled i revolution which promised them freedom and democracy and gave them death and slavery. >> we also request -- regret cuban workers have not been granted the rights and we regret there's no freedom of press and a country. we believe the freedom of press as fundamental as we consider
the press to be the lungs through which we breathe. >> the cuban revolution was at first a local revolution but later it was utilized as a total one by the communist in their attack against free world will stop -- the free world. >> communists have been taking advantages of contradictions in the country to stir up trouble to further their aggressive designs. >> for the purpose of seizing power, the communist revolutionaries found it to their advantage to be on the side of the people at the beginning. but once victory was secured they did not hesitate to turn their guns on the people. from our own bitter experience people in the chinese mainland have come to rely for fate in store for the cubans can't be any different from what has befallen the chinese people. >> this is a living example
which should be studied carefully by all latin american countries because of the lesson which can be derived from it. >> 100 years ago, the great cuban liberator wrote -- "among the dreams of men, there is one that is most beautiful, to overcome darkness. perhaps one day, cuba will overcome the darkness and truly no freedom and peace." ♪ >> tonight on "q&a" the president and ceo of the national council of larose accommodations largest hispanic civil rights and advocacy group
on the state of hispanics in america, immigration reform, and her compelling personal story. >> i had the great privilege of experiencing the american dream here in this country, born in kansas, my parents came to this country in the early 50's, the very early 50's. my parents came from mexico with no money and very little education. my dad had an eighth-grade education and my mom had a fifth grade education. yet they believed in the promise of this country and they were seeking better opportunities for their children will stop they work really hard and sacrificed as so many latinos and hispanics had done in this country because they wanted that better future for their children and they believed in the promise of this country. they taught us important values that have been our guide for our
lives for me and my siblings, my six brothers and sisters. they taught us the importance of family, of faith, of community hard work, sacrifice, honesty, integrity. all of those were important values they share with us. >> tonight at 8:00 eastern on c-span's q and a. >> coming up, a look at the book "insurrections of the mind." the book was public -- published four new republic's centenary anniversary. jeffrey rosen of the national constitution center speaks with mr. foer about the book and the magazine's vision. this was filmed two days before franklin foer resigned