tv The Civil War CSPAN November 28, 2015 5:00pm-7:52pm EST
>> coming up, the african-american civil war memorial and museum, and u.s. he argues they played a broader role in defeating the confederacy than generally considered. the national civil war museum hosted this event. >> good afternoon. i did spend 21 years in the marine corps. whenever my marines would complain i have promised them i would not get my haircut for 10 years after i got out. theatersin movie across this country, you could have seen a film produced by the u.s. government entitled "the
negro soldier toca the film was directed by arguably the top director in hollywood at the time. in the film they covered african-american military service in this country from the 1770's to world war ii. there was no mention, no image of a single soldier or sailor. 10% of the union army. african made of 1% of the northern population. highest awarded but not a single mention.
why? the story was indeed a lost story. there was active suppression of the story. when we talk about who suppress the story he will hear it was the lost cause. there's a southern propaganda campaign but sought to make it appear that the war was not fought over slavery and a part of it was suppressing the african-american story. if it was the southerners and the lost cause, i do not think they could cap get out of that .ar department film this is from our elite universities. a lost story. they were suppressing the story.
it was won by a union, a team of persons of african-american descent. there's a plus, not an or. that's a lost story. to examine the story of the day in this lecture, we're going to begin by examining the emancipation proclamation as a strategic document. are going to get the views of the president of the united states and the view of the president of the confederacy. we need not be confused, but why the mess patient proclamation of issued because the offer
the proclamation told us it was a fit and necessary war measure. declared lincoln forever free, all persons held as slaves in the 10 states at war with the united states, only in those 10 states -- there were 15 slaveholding states, there were sections of sleep holdings dates exempt from the emancipation prop nation because they were recognized as being functionally back in the union. 12 parishes in louisiana, around new orleans, exempt from the emancipation proclamation. , inwestern part of virginia june of 1863 would become its own state, west virginia. the counties around norfolk, , exempt from the emancipation proclamation. the emancipation proclamation only applied to those parts of the country that were in active
rebellion against the united states. i want to point out that ,rederick douglass in 1861 said that's how it's going to look. african-americans were not surprised. but what was the strategic value of the emancipation proclamation, in the opinion of jefferson davis? what the jefferson davis have to say about the emancipation proclamation? the emancipation proclamation was quote, an authentic statement by the end of the united states of its inability to subjugate the south. jeff davis believes the emancipation proclamation is an and vision that they need the help of persons of african descent.
it is an admission, we need the available talent to win this war . abraham lincoln is criticized i some union men saying, we don't agree with this proclamation. we will fight for the union, but were not willing to fight for the negro emancipation of slaves. lincoln tells his union supporters, i issued the proclamation on purpose to aid you in saving the union. it's very clear what the purpose of the emancipation proclamation is. where can i do this -- go back here. he says, the admission is to save the union.
in issuing it to save the union, we must offer them something if we expect them to risk their lives. what we're going to offer them is freedom. we can't expect them to fight if we don't offer them freedom. , andissued it on purpose we've added emancipation to this because like any other man, we need to offer them a reason, a motivation. they must have a motive to fight . that motive of emancipation during he says, once we offer this, we will not take it back. we see that lincoln supports very strongly and amendments to the constitution to ensure that this executive order has more meaning and has a lasting power. the effect it has on america upon african community is huge.
for those of you in the earlier lecture, you know what i mean when i say uncle tom. the importance of the emancipation proclamation, it made him, like the disciple thomas -- he says, this is the real deal. douglas who once recommended you denounce the constitution as the guilty compromise with slavery to form the union is now saying, i was wrong. we are going to be able to end the tyranny of slavery and lead with the constitution he says, , since the stern necessities of the struggle have laid bare the naked issue of freedom on one side and slavery on the other, freedom shall have in the future of this conflict if necessary, my blood, close quote.
lincoln's proclamation has given this iseason to fight the name of their secret organization. provides the most prolific recruiters of african-americans. secret organization of believed a day would come when in league with the constitution we can rise up and strike a blow to liberty. this was an asset that lincoln had to know about because his head of intelligence in the first 18 months of the war in the eastern theater was allan pinkerton. iskerton observed yet prevented in taking of defense in arms of their rights.
existed.new this asset emancipation proclamation, he expected to get some assets from the african community. he does get some assets, and those assets are far better trained than we have been left to believe. would say, of this organization were able to commend all the intelligent and effective black men as agents in the united states. pinkerton had been familiar with john scoble. a lot of times when people say john scoble they look for a single individual. scoble is a code word or code name telling you that these are men who are familiar with military operations who are inside the confederacy providing .s information
if the lost story is where you've been, you have no idea who john scoble is. scoble school pinkerton on the loyal league and its objectives. many of these soldiers, many of these operatives, they were trained in canada. williams still in his book on , a goodrground railroad athlete who comes to the philadelphia office, he often says he's a good specimen for john bolton. -- john bull.
still would write of galloway, abram allied himself faithfully until uncle sam became involved in the contest with the rebels, then he would go down to north carolina, working closely with benjamin butler. scoblentessential john he was faithfully aligned to john bull, the british equivalent of uncle sam. in this relationship of fugitive slaves and americans of african descent in canada, with the , was somethingy that was nurtured by the real u ncle. inerit beach stowe's --
harriet beecher stowe's novel, she does not give you the model for her character. henson does escape with his family and makes it to canada in 1830. in 1837, he is appointed commission a captain in the british militia of upper canada and is the commander of the second essex company in the british militia. in the rebellion in upper canada, his company is instrumental in putting down the rebellion. relationship that has been nurtured with the british in canada. when william howard day, hezekiah fort douglas, when harry at seven, --. tubman -- harriett tubman, when
a number of important individuals, when they go to canada, they are going there and getting good military trainings ordered by the british -- supported by the british. this is a relationship that was nurtured by captain josiah henson. that het to point out was known for recruiting for the u.s. colored troops for the u.s. and he was kind of heavy-handed. one person complained said, he tried to make me enlist and that's against the law. he goes to court, goes on trial he's found not guilty. that key, john scoble, is abraham galloway.
galloway decides he wants to get his mother in wilmington, north airliner. he gets his mother in the middle of the war, brings her to the new northern carolina where the union occupies mainly because of the work of his network of spies, while saying we want to help her get to the north in safety. it's essential gone -- john scoble -- quintessential john scoble. he is speaking king to the early successors of benjamin f. butler. with abraham galloway, one thing butler discerned rather quickly is that there's no way you're going to convince the negro is in. . -- inferior. a lot of his early successes was because of his information
network he was getting, and abraham galloway. another general that benefited early, a lot of times these generals that anything early from the contributions of her sons of african descent -- persons of african descent, they have a tendency to give something in return. fremont,john seda general fremont in 1856, he's a republican candidate for the presidency, and he ran on the ticket of the champions of freedom. he's very much an abolitionist great one would say too radical to get elected in 1966. in 1960 the republicans sought a more moderate candidates. congress passed confiscation act that said anyone working in a military capacity for the rebels, they would be given refuge by the union and anyone who is contributing.
it doesn't say that your emancipated. what fremont does out in , missouri is a slaveholding state and you've got a civil war inside a civil or in missouri. fremont is successful in defending his position mainly because of his spy network. the loyal league it worked. moses dixon being the key leader and i alwaysouri, like to say that when we look at some of these leaders we can look at them as being associated with organizations. you can track a lot of who these loyal league leaders are. very common connection you will see among these leaders.
one of the rewards that fremont has legislation passed, he issued the emancipation proclamation in the department of three. lincoln tells him, you can't do that. says, i will do it if you send me a public letter. but you have to publish that letter to the public. lincoln basically says, you have over the authority that congress has given us. as aln is using congress good executive. somebody said, he did not do that always. the constitution only gives that .uthority to congress butler's spies had told him what was going on and lincoln did not want to reveal who the spies were. lift, tos required to resent his emancipation
proclamation. abolitionistlina, general david hunter, when he takes command, he sees the benefits of this guerrilla force led by prince rivers, later rivers. during the war he's a sergeant. sergeant prince rivers is the and when hunter takes command, appreciating the work these african-americans have done there, he issues his emancipation proclamation. issues and emancipation proclamation and lincoln immediately tells him to resend it.
this is may of 1862 and it's illegal. lincoln ignored it for a while. and there was a congressional inquiry. the congressional inquiry asked if he had organized a regiment of fugitive slaves. this is hunter's response. for the first question i reply that no regiment of fugitive slaves have -- has been or is being organized in this department. there is a fine regiment of persons whose late masters are fugitive rebels. got that kind of response on the floor of the house. regiment disband the
because it was illegal. 1865 -- july 17, 1862, the militia act of 1862 was signed into law giving president lincoln the authority to employ persons of african descent in any military capacity he saw fit. after this act was signed about a month later, the water department gives orders to general rufus saxton to go down to south carolina and reconstitute his regiment and gives him the authority to raise at least four more regiments of 5000 men. thece rivers would become leader of the south carolina regiment. higginson would get the appointment as the commander. higginson would make it clear that when it came to all of the offices, prince rivers had a
great authority over the troops. he makes this clear in and he makes it clear that prince rivers should have gotten a commission in real time, because that was the regiment. he goes on to say that whenever they go on rates, he would never assign anyone over a rate when prince rivers was on it other whenprince rivers -- raid prince rivers was on it other than prince rivers. four raids going on. higginson makes it very clear that prince rivers' raids were always the most successful. also down in south carolina in late 1862 when his regiment was reconstituted, you have one of those spies trained in canada. had a letter of
recommendation from the governor of massachusetts and said, put it to work in a military capacity. higginson points out something very interesting. this applies to a lot of the united states color troop regiments. he said it always seemed an insult to me to these brave men to have novices put over their heads on the grounds of color alone. the men felt it more keenly as they remain longer in service. they kind of knew who could really play quarterback or middle linebacker. they knew, so this was an insult to them. higginson is noting this.
slip coming with african-american officers are louisiana native guard. guess who's responsible for bringing these african-american officers? regimentstwo legal brought into the service are louisiana native guards. in a regiment you have 60 line offices, captain and lieutenant. the captains our company commanders. people say, they were brought in but they weren't in command. the word commander after company men they were in command. who brings them in? benjamin s butler. those first regiments, all of their line officers -- and these are very confident regiments.
butler takes note of that. they are being drilled by african-american officers. quote, i observed a very remarkable trait about them. they were outstanding from the beginning. butler is noting this. why are they outstanding from the beginning? many of them come from military tradition of african officers captured in war and brought to the mississippi river valley. there's a secret organization organizing every since henry garnet put out that call from buffalo in 1843 for soldiers. you have buffalo soldiers, freedom fighters who were well trained when the civil war begins. that is what butler is noting.
officers, no's officer, gets promoted. competent officer, gets promoted. their principal duty is to guard the communications line, also along the roads, transportation railroads. them.s, i don't want i don't have no confidence in their ability to fight. he says, i also believe their very presence is going to cause
a violent insurrection. his chiefght back to of staff, at that time major george strong. strong is making butler's case to say, you don't think the negroes will fight? you know more than general andrew jackson? general andrew jackson leather fathers into battle and he had a very high opinion of them. fathers into battle and he had a very high opinion of them. he says, haven't you been watching our army? we encourage insubordination to their former masters. anyway.oing to happen command, they captured
louisiana. in december of 1860 three, butler is replaced by general daniel banks. is a former governor of massachusetts. in 1859 when the general assembly passed legislation that allowed men of african descent ofjoin the state militia massachusetts, banks had vetoed legislation. does not like having these african-american officers in his command. he comes after them. when yous very clear start looking at who gets discharged first, they tend to be the darker skinned officers. the lighter skinned officers stay around.
feigned -- them had they once volunteered with the confederacy. their acts of sabotage when they're in new orleans, it's really quite evident. it's quite clear what they're up to. a number of these officers did not even come from louisiana. lewis, also the of the lodge there, he was actually a formerly enslaved person from the city. however, you track the history, he will never say he was a slave. soldiers,ese buffalo they believe they are captains, prisoners of war held against their will and all men can make
them a slave. they will refer to themselves as freeman. he refers to himself as a captain and a free person by god's will. and i do not recognize the injustice of man in defining who i am. that would be someone like captain, commander of company k of the first louisiana native guard. he was a captain during the civil war, commander of company a. page back could have passed. pinch back's sister in 1863 was writing him letters saying, why don't you pass? an easy life if you passed. but he refused to. he proudly wore the fact that he was of african descent and he
probably were his father's name, which was of european descent. recruitingen he was he gets these two recruits. they had been brought over illegally in the transatlantic , oven referredng to as slave trade, but it's human trafficking, so they're not slaves. there enslaved here in america and kidnapped in africa. enlistst they tried to -- at first pitch accent, -- pinchback said, you don't know english well enough. i've been drilling them. they know the drill. inchback gave them an audition.
say theyt isabel would were as good as any soldier they had in the second louisiana banks does not like having these african-american officers around. he has these review boards to get rid of them. isn you start looking at who gotten rid of first, is the darker skinned officers. banks has this idea of a texas expedition where he wants to go down the red river in the spring of 1963 and go into texas, but by the general in chief, says no, you need to help the operations against vicksburg. go -- i want you to attack fort hudson, in louisiana not far from baton rouge. i we -- i want you to attack there. your main purpose is to stop the from going todson
vicksburg to reinforce the garrison there. keep them detained there. the assault on port hudson on may 27, 1863 is led by captain andre cal you. he was so highly confident that banks did not want to get rid of him. however, in his own words, he in america.kest man he would leave this assault on port hudson. their performance was such, their gallantry was such that the rebels could not reinforce at vicksburg. though you might say on a tactical level this was a failure, on a strategic level it was a success. this is a very important
success. often we analyze military operations on a single level. there can be tactical victories that don't result in strategic contributions. case, this is a tactical failure that resulted in a strategic contribution. guard alsona native would have one of three feel great officers of african was at, ernest dumas major. initially he was a captain, and then when the second louisiana native guard was split into two he wasents, one on duty, the executive officer of that camp. this created some serious problems because he is the executive officer at the camp,
but he's an african-american officer. all of the officers are subordinate to him. they have to relieve all the officers and replace them with noncommissioned officers and then they don't want to take orders from african-american officers. dumas's was the executive officer. this was the problem that banks had to deal with, and something that becomes significant in organizing the 54th massachusetts. west, you have another african-american officer whose very report -- important in recruiting officers in kansas. senator james lane also referred to as general james lane, who fought in the
bloody kansas campaigns, he goes back to kansas right after that session when lincoln signs it into law and he says, in this state we will organize the colored regiment. thatf the companies in regiment was organized by lieutenant william matthews. he was given a state commission with that regiment. later when that regiment would be mustered in the federal service, he's denied a federal commission. later in the war under captain hezekiah fort douglas, he would be an officer in the independent colored battery of leavenworth, kansas. he does eventually get his .ederal commission matthews, as a part of this kansas state militia, first kansas colored infantry, would lead his soldiers in a battle that often was described by a of journalists as impetuous actions on the part of the officers because the rebels outnumbered them near butler, october 29, 1862, and
these impetuous officers led their green african-american troops into battle and even though they were outnumbered, they want. this was in the national press. lincoln's signing the emancipation proclamation, he has a military report. we add this to what pinkerton is telling about the loyal league. americans of african descent know that the emancipation proclamation is only going to free any slaves if we put down the rebellion. they understood how this strategically important executive order was going to work. they had to help put down the
rebellion. when the 54th massachusetts starts recruiting, you have this problem on ship island that i told you about. governor john andrew, he asks the secretary of war, should i bring a colored officer? should i do this. , i would not recommend it but you do what you want to do. story will say that lincoln's administration would say there will be no african-american officers. these are some distinguished scholars. you can hear them on c-span. they will say there were no seal grade officers. that's not true that lincoln is saying there will be no officers, because there are.
he selects officers that he thinks are suited. suited for helping to take care of his negro soldiers, who can defend them against others who don't want african descent soldiers in the field. he goes through and says, the abolitionists or sons of abolitionists. these sons of abolitionists are not highly competent. robert groshong was not in the state militia. he was not in the private militia. he never played football before he went to college. he was a college dropout, low performer, but he was very wealthy and his father was a leading abolitionist. when the war began, he did volunteer and became a staff officer in the new york state
alicia, working on a general staff. that company was not highly thought of and they were not sent to battle. antietam, they're not really in the action, unlike what you saw in the movie "glory." he's more confident than shaw. goes to back -- back when higginson is saying. that's what's happening in the 54th massachusetts. lewis douglas, he's very confident himself. just asd say he's had
much experience as george stevens. he becomes a sergeant major of the regiment. if you saw the movie "glory," you saw that irish drill sergeant come in -- he never existed. that's moving, not life. there was never an irish drill sergeant. the lead was frederick douglass's older son. highly competent noncommissioned officers in the 54th, most of them should have had .ommissions, all things equal if not for race prejudice, they would have had commissions. of them being bumbling fools is coming from the mind of of the who's a victim lost story, not coming from the primary sources. if you get a scholar in the 21st century who tells you that the movie "glory" is in line with the historic evidence, you've
probably read it yourself, they are the historians in charge -- that historian is either lying or is not familiar with the primary sources. in the movie they have this raid. they make it appear that this raid is something that is criminal. eading thehave shaw l raid, writing a letter to his father. the raid was led by colonel montgomery. colonel montgomery was a jayhawk are like james lane. colonel montgomery was one of those officers that believe this was a war for god and liberty.
that's the way he trained and recruited his soldiers. his loyalty spies, they knew everybody that was pretending to be loyal to the union but were not. barnes, theyhe burned the houses because they were giving refuge to rebels. shaw did not like this. w is not going to write back and threaten -- in the movie he threatens montgomery. he threatens the general that he's going to tell on them. if a kernel threatens, you send that colonel home. go to important, if you these rains and look at primary sources, it was already in the papers. one is about a week before the raid that sahw is on -- shaw is on, this is a newspaper out of boston reporting the raid. and talk about 300 men,
their guided by who? a black woman. this is harriet tubman. in the movie, i'm going to tell that you stole something. that belongs in a sexy movie but is not a real part of the story. the raids conducted by the first and second south carolina infantry our highly successful. in today's vernacular we would call it a special operations raid. certain skilla set. anyone familiar with organizing special operations, they will tell you that your troops and noncommissioned officers are some of the most highly regarded troops that you have in your
army are marine corps. screening.ough more because they're acting independently, they're expected to have more discipline on the battlefield. with the raids you don't have the structure to control you. these are highly successful raids. shaw doesn't like them. he doesn't like being in special forces. he wants to do a conventional attack. he is petitioning of the command for the opportunity to take part in a conventional attack. general george shaw used to be chief of staff for general butler, is not in the department of the south. general quincy gilmore is of thishim in charge assault to be conducted on fort wagner on july 18, 1863.
54th massachusetts did not get any sleep that night as they were traveling. once given the opportunity, shaw took the opportunity. when shaw should have been to add sabres to his have -- we have to call it engineers. instead of planning that, him and strong go and have dinner. his troops do not eat. he leaves the assault. his troops behavior outstanding. they make it all the way to the parapets of the fort. shaw is one of 54 casualties --
fatalities. there's 281 casualties representing 21.9% of all union casualties. are 54 retell it he's. shaw is one of those 54 fatalities. his heroism is in his sacrifice, not his competence. we must honor him for his sacrifice, but we must not teach our future officers to behave like robert. they sayvie "glory" that for was never captured. that's what you got in the postscript. that's not true. how do we find out the truth? we go to primary sources. corporal gooding was a member of the 54th massachusetts and he's talking about on september
second, they took the fort. going to use the general and chief of the army. the general tells us they capture the fort, and that this was very important in the siege and bombardment of charleston. since the fort was captured, they were able to close charleston off from any supplies natural state is under siege for over 500 days. is under siegeon for over 500 days. we get scholars telling us the fort was never captured. photograph ofd
what went on. you can't trust it. out in the mississippi valley, lincoln had an emphasis for recruiting african-american soldiers. 62 in as made clear in ' letter from the secretary of treasury. has suggested that the only way you will open up the mississippi south as you will take the black population and turn them into defenders. he would in college -- encourage the military governor of tennessee to move in this direction. johnson would help draft the
joint resolution of congress that passed in july of 1861 stating that the war was not to overthrow interfere with slavery , but to maintain the supremacy of the constitution and preserved the union. when lincoln is encouraging johnson to recruit colored respondhe is slow to but i will stand up for johnson and say that johnson was in theseng them to go labor camps, building railroads, which were critical. what johnson is doing, though we might say it's because of his racism, sometimes a mistake can be an asset. in this case this was strategically important for the union, some not going to be mad at johnson taking like a military man. nathaniel banks, he was told -- i'm sending this new york lawyer, daniel human. daniel complained about not recruiting troops aggressive
enough. he sent of the river to recruit. river tohim of the recruit. lincoln knows he's going to get resistance from officers who don't want colored troops brought into the army. lincoln since the general of the army to the mississippi valley. this shows you lincoln's emphasis on recruiting. he is sending the general, and the soldiers that are recruited, and the african brigade -- they would impress many in june of 1863. they are outnumbered. many of them just got their weapons, haven't even been trained on how to use them. many of them who have weapons don't have ammunition, and a number of them don't have weapons. the two days of combat is mostly hand to hand combat.
the african brigade and the 23rd iowa infantry are outnumbered almost 321, hand to hand combat hand to hand combat. gunfire assistance of from the uss choctaw, they defeat that larger rebel force. it just so happened that when this battle was going on, a large portion of general grant's staff is that milliken spend in lake providence doing an investigation. say, in this battle most of the troops engaged for africans who had but little experience in the use of firearms. conduct is said, however,
to have been most gallant. grant would go on to write capturedhat vicksburg, on july 4, 1863 -- lincoln had called vicksburg the key to victory. grant tells lincoln, we could not have captured vicksburg without the help of these soldiers. he makes it very clear to lincoln. he goes on to tell president by arming the, negro we have added a powerful ally, close quote. the general does not say, we have added more items to our army. powerful allies, that's what the general has said. in the story you will get, they just added more bodies to the
army. but when you dig a little deeper, you get to the true story, and its powerful allies, that's a language used by the general. west, that kansas regiment i talked about that was organized, they went down the indian territory about the same time that for wagner is happening. on july 17 there in indian territory. civilized tribes, the five nations had signed .reaties with the addressee if you listen to their say it was, they because the federal government had abandoned them and so these bandits were coming in and attacking their property when the civil war began, but the confederacy made an agreement that they would help protect their property, so they signed treaties with them.
it's an active campaign to bring indian territory into the union fold. kansas would fight and honey springs in july of 1863. would sealry there the fate of the confederacy in indian territory and the five nations would be brought into the union fold. then home guards are created in the five nations. helping the union is them defend themselves, in the home guard, the officers are of european descent. ,he noncommissioned officers the translators are of african descent. ceo's established in indian territory are african descent noncommissioned officers. in arkansas in 1863, the rebels are on the run.
there are over 10,000 african-american soldiers in arkansas, including the first and second kansas colored volunteers in late 1863. martin delaney wrote in the that whencan in 1859 this fight for freedom began, the first state to be free would be arkansas. he knew nothing about the emancipation proclamation. in the enforcement of the emancipation proclamation, guess what the first state of rebellion was that was brought back to the union? arkansas. just as delaney had called it. it was april of 1864 that formerly arkansas was brought back to the union. the emancipation proclamation, it took one year and four months to free the first enslaved person.
again thatr think the emancipation proclamation freed the slaves on january 1, 1863, and with that understanding, without foundation and understanding will never say that you were freed by getting the word of the emancipation proclamation. you were only freed by the enforcement of the ms patient proclamation in the first state where the proclamation was enforced, and there was a heavy presence of united states colored troops was in arkansas. nathaniel banks wanted to go on his texas exhibition. on a texasto go exhibition, but they had called off his red river exhibition. no,strategic plan said that's not what i want you to do. didhe strategic plan, they not want to send a lot of troops to texas. however, what was important in texas was to stop locate runners
from bringing supplies in. bringing contraband or goods in. galvestonhad captured in october of 1862. it was the union navy. they put a small detachment of army to hold it and it wasn't large enough. on january 1, 1863, the rebels took galveston back. the union navy was able to blockade galveston, so there was no problem preventing contraband from coming into galveston. here ins a problem down brownsville, a lot of contraband was coming in. in the strategic plan they tell down, we want you to go and take the southern tip of texas. --ks in july of 1963 remember they had kicked a lot
of those african-american out?ers in july of 9063 there were rumors that new orleans was going to be attacked by a rebel worse. get in the same officers he had kicked out and say, i need you. get the sameto officers he had kicked out and say, i need you. you're going to give us commissions? banks says yes. in these thirty-day regiments, he commissions african-american officers. he had change them out before. -- changed them out before. one of the officers he commissioned is jordan noble. 18 -- he was 60 -- something years old. he was commissioned captain. they call him captain liberty. another part of the deal is they all the louisiana
proclamation is in texas in 1863. what is not there is the enforcement of the emancipation proclamation. they only have the tip of texas. pleased withal what is happening with the emancipation policy. his address to congress in 1863, he tells them the emancipation proclamation is working. he presents evidence that it is working. evidence is that we have split the rebel territory in two. rebel territory.
his policy is working. strategic executive order that is working good that is what he is saying to congress. he goes to thousands of recently freed slaves to bear arms for the union. lincoln --re scholars will tell you that lincoln did not want to use it. that's not what i'm tracking one i go to the primary sources. we can find the story in the primary sources. war in's secretary of does anal address -- he annual report every year. 1861, it came from simon
cameron. he wrote that we should arm the slaves. that to the press before he released it to lincoln. he gets an quite a bit of trouble over that. he gets sent to be ambassador to russia. [laughter] so i am going to imagine that what happened with the report is that he put it to lincoln first. one of the things he says is that the slave has proved his manhood. this is 1863. we have some lost story scholars today that say the slave had his manhood taken away from him. they did not know that formerly enslaved man. stanton did.
he said they have demonstrated, and we have always known from their service in the navy that they make good artillery men. so you have african-american soldiers serving as artillery men. time, anme african-american in south carolina is earning the metal of honor for actions in december 1863. he goes on to say that i have got a report on this calvary thatent in mississippi shows they make good calvary men as well. wherepretty clear lincoln's war department stands and what they think of these african-american soldiers and sailors. highare holding them in esteem. they are serving in every branch of the army and navy by the end of 1863. according to the secretary of
war, not harry jones, they have proved their manhood and are performing at a high level. the first american of african , let meto be awarded repeat this, to be awarded the medal of honor was a sailor. ember 25, 1863 -- december be 1863, robert blake with one of seven sailors to receive the medal of honor during the civil war. scholars will not talk about this sailor being the first. you will hear -- this is national park service -- let me correct that. national archives, it says that
he became the first african american awarded the medal of honor. you know that william carney got his medal of honor in may of 1900? he is the 50th. this is what happens with lost story scholarship. the records show that he is actually the 50th. the records show that. what they are presenting to the public in teaching from documents is that he is the first. so what happens to the scholar who learns from this teaching? what gets lost his 49 american heroes. gets lost. that is because whoever rewrote this -- we need them to rewrite it because we pay them -- whoever wrote this is a victim of the lost story.
grade inot intentional do not believe in any way that this is intentional. this is what happens with well-educated people who are deprived of primary sources. however, there is a gold mine of primary sources at the national archives. there you will learn that william carney was the 50th african american to receive the medal of honor. controllede union areas in green. soldiers are part of all of these operations. theater in the ,pring of 1864 and the army there is no colored regimen. the army of the potomac is the jewel responsible for the
defense of washington. general grant became chief of the army and spring of 1864, and what did grant do? you begin transferring them immediately to the army of the potomac. when grant gets there, he immediately starts. he wants his adrian peterson carrying the ball. he pulls them in immediately. getoln had tried to african-americans involved in the virginia theater, the main stage. lincoln had been trying since january of 1863. he wrote general john decks and dix and said you need to recruit them. it.s not ordering him to do he is encouraging him to do it, and he does not do it. guess who does it when he
replaces dix? benjamin butler. when benjamin butler takes over from he equalizes pay in his commissaryoffers privileges for people who are not noncommissioned officers. ers commissary privileges to help equalize their pay. he has a formula for the noncommissioned officer receiving equal pay. he does this when he takes over demand. this helps his recruiting. he makes it clear to any officer who gets in the way of recruiting has to answer to him. he aggressively begins recruiting infantry, artillery, calvary. he does the works, and this the department of
virginia and north carolina drastically. butler to battle under and our outstanding from the beginning. campaign against petersburg. petersburg is an important logistical hub in supplying richmond. it's connected along the wilmington railroad with wilmington, north carolina, where blockade runners are still able to come in frequently, so this is the main source of supplies for the eastern confederate army. petersburg is one of the keys, and butler's troops would attack the confederate position near petersburg, capture the artillery, and many would say if they had been encouraged to continue, they could have gone on into petersburg. we do not know that because they were ordered not to.
general smith ordered them to stop and wait to assess the situation. by that time, lee was able to read enforce and we find a stalemate. the siege ofe in petersburg, there is a desire to ne toomething do penetrate rebel defensive. there are these miners who say let's do an explosion. less explode underneath the confederate position. theill exploit that hole in confederate position and we can go into petersburg. that is the plan. this had been tried once, and it did fail at vicksburg under grants command. a mine explosion and it was not successful. as a military officer, you want to keep your troops active. that is a good thing. you don't want them sitting around. let's do something and maybe it
will work this time. exporting thisof mine explosion was given to general burnside's ninth core. he decided to go to a division of african american troops in the army of the potomac. he would go to them and have them exploit this explosion, so they start rehearsing, preparing for it. the commander of the army of the potomac says, no, you're not going to send the color troops. it is interesting when you listen to general meade is that somebody is going to think -- this might be a suicidal mission. first, somebody's going to accuse me of doing it to colored troops because they are colored. when i say suicide mission, i am a marine, i see them on a sacrificial mission. not a suicide mission.
we don't do suicide. sacrifice is sometimes necessary. the decision was made not to send the color troops in first. burnside gets angry. he goes over general meade's head to grant to appeal to grant to get general meade to do it. grant did what any officer would do. he said go back and talk to general meade. don't you think i'm going to usurp the command of one of my junior commanders. you go back and talk to him. don't ask me. grant did what a good officer would do. burnside gets mad and does not behave like a good officer. he pouts. so instead of giving an order to lead the exploitation of the , it is an absolute debacle. the united states colored troops
would come in as a last force trying to exploit this explosion. there are many dead in the ,rater now, filled with bodies and the united states colored troops become the primary targets of the rebels on the edge of the crater firing down inside. there inhem are killed the crater, senseless. it is a failure. , and a humiliating defeat after this human lading defeat defeat, one of the commanders of the color that the blamey will go to these colored troops, but they are not to blame. whenwere performing well another regiment came through and made everything disorganized. the chaplain for the 28th united states colored troops would say it is the cowards, and guess who
comes to the defense of the color troops? benjamin butler. he writes to grant and says we have to investigate this. ity investigate and found was burnside's poor decision-making responsible for this. it is not the color troops. butler says, would you please give me them to me. that is what butler said. i want them. give the appealing to colored regiments to him. that is what butler wants. grant does it. butler gets them. 1864, butler is given an order to attack a well fortified position.
it is well laid out, brilliant engineers laid it out. experienced troops that are in defense of this position along the newmarket heights road. texas troops are some of the most respected in the confederacy, respected by union and confederate soldiers. butler was not a general who with these kinds of odds. in fact, he actually admits to some who would say he was not a good general. he says, i was not that kind of a general. he says if that is your standard, i am not one and i have no intention of being one. then he says in newmarket heights that i violated my own rules and sent the color troops there. them?d he send
he said that i determined to put them into position to demonstrate the fact of the value of the negro soldier. i want you to notice his language. he said not demonstrate the value, but demonstrate the fact he he did not question it. he was putting them in position to demonstrate the fact of their value. what did they do? they organized in pennsylvania with soldiers from harrisburg in their number. would lead the assault along with the fourth united states colored troops of baltimore, maryland. they just kept coming. they suffered over 50% casualties that they, 1864, and they just kept coming. fort,y approached the suffering over 50% casualties, those taxes regiments ran --
texas regiments ran. they took off. the next day, the counter attack on september 30 was led by robert e lee, and butler and his troops defeat the counter attack and return to richmond. butler has achieved a major victory over lee, a victory that hooker, could not claim, and he is just captured the closest position to richmond with united states colored troops, troops he wanted. he pointed out that if you go to the army, everybody wanted them on their flank. everybody wanted their ray lewis. this is what he is saying. and also in those two days of fighting, butler would recommend 14 men of african descent for the medal of honor. he would site 14 men. all 14 of them received the medal of honor.
of the 18 african-american soldiers who received the medal of honor during the civil war, butler was directly responsible , and another, making it 16. of 18. mostr isn't taught in courses. he is only defamed. he is called a name, and i know scholars who would talk to me about him and never read a single order written by benjamin butler. lost story. also invented his own metal, awarded to 200 men. the butler metal. .- medal african-american soldiers and sailors had impress a lot of people, outstanding at sea and on land.
it is very clear that these have beeng soldiers appreciated by every general. if you go to lost story scholars, they will say that we and tecumseh sherman didn't use troops -- william tecumseh sherman didn't use color troops. that he wasn'te a racist. bear bryant got african-americans on their football team. i will tell you that we can , and the primary sources will give you something totally different. first, i go to that commission, three commissions. one of the things they said is the use of colored soldiers and the one thing we can do is you
can organize companies of colored guys in connection with ps.h of your army cour they gather information and guide you through. sherman is reading this recommendation, also appreciate sherman is a good friend of admiral david porter and general ulysses s. grant. are powerfuley allies. you think sherman is not listening to his friend? portrait uses extensively african-american messengers and guides when doing naval reconnaissance, and sherman had been the beneficiary of the work of these guys in the vicksburg campaign. sherman would talk about it. to one of his he don't use-- color troops, remember that? he says to one of his subordinates that, let's go to this one. go find the negro.
that is what he is ordering them to do. you think sherman is not doing it if he is telling his subordinate to do it? occurringhe is doing sherman also tells us in his the one campaign that part of that campaign was surprised. this takes us back to governor johnson. remember when governor johnson would not recruit immediately? he had them work on the railroads. the regiments were formed out of those working on the railroads, but the 12th and third team united states colored troops out of tennessee built much of the railroads that needed to be connected, and then there were asked to do what? defend them. this prepared them very well for the defense of it am a because they knew the land very well. this is working strategically very well.
they get the assignment to guard these railroads. you have united states colored troops guarding the railroads coming in and out of nashville. who does question, in thom who isr george, guarding the railroadsa? african-american soldiers. blessing is going to do hecinnati -- to do something thinks can't do the job. -- the last thing he is going to do is send someone he thinks can't do the job. they needed a lot of these supplies coming in through harrisburg. for need a lot of supplies this army sherman has taken to atlanta. the lost stories scholars argue with me and say that sherman did not use them.
that is correct. letter datedin a september 14, 1864, "we have no negro allies in this army, not a single negro soldier left chattanooga with this army or is with it now." this letter is addressed to hood, sherman's enemy. meanwhile at sherman's headquarters, you get this correspondence, where sherman --s that in dalton, georgia coming through sherman's headquarters -- in dalton, , new york and somewhere else and how many companies of negroes? six companies of negroes. dalton is south of chattanooga. i want you to know that.
, one thing irhood don't have any negroes. that is his talk. you have to check out his walk. your enemy will deceive you. your enemy is not going to tell you what he is going to do. sherman says i have no negro allies. a month after this letter is i negro just came and was reporting on hood. what was sherman supposed to do? yes, i have negro allies. they are spies. [laughter] storynes: the lost scholars believe sherman had no negroes paid why? they are not using primary sources. you go further, sherman have the 16th army pioneer battalion.
he had the first alabama calvary , it was integrated. a union calvary integrated. when he leaves atlanta, this is his security. very different than what the loss story says. his spies are so good, and we know what he recommends others to use, so we can imagine who he is using. he navigates around all the fortifications in atlanta. successful campaign in the intelligence arena. he knows where he is going because he has good guys and outstanding spies, but the final kicker with this claim that he has no negroes with his army, here is a picture of one, a corporal. i've had people say he could not have been there because sherman did not have any negroes. hood did not good did
think that. ,herman writes in his memoirs "i doubt whether the history of war can furnish more examples of skill and bravery then attended the defeat -- defense of the railroad from nashville to atlanta during the year 1864." what should we do? we should go to the order of battle and find out who was guarding his supply lines. isn you do, you find that it the same kind of team that wins the super bowl, a team of african descent and european descent. you can't win without bringing forth your best. sherman may have been a racist, but one thing we know, he was not a loser.
george, commanded these soldiers guarding his supply line. thoma was as virginian. when robert e. lee decided his oath to the constitution of united states was subordinate to his allegiance to virginia, george thoma son of slaveholderss,, disagreed. he held his of to the constitution as primary. the commander of the army of the cumberland, would have color troops garden supply lines and in fight with him in december in the battle of national. this virginia, son of slaveholders, would write "gentlemen, the question is settled. the negro will fight. let's not debate on this again." meanwhile, in virginia in the camps of the army of the james, general butler is approached by
a young general who is now a major general to be the commander of a corps that tells general butler that you were right in louisiana. general jackson knew more than me. they do make its shoulders -- make a good shoulders -- soldiers. he would not mind if his new cor descent, andican butler gives him command of the 25th army corps. the only army corps in the history of united states made up of only african descent. ps --hemand of this cor did not change his mind because he fell in love with being a non-racist. he changed his mind because he wanted to be a winner.
he thought highly of the soldiers. corps -- in to this that same december, the 25th army corps is formed. butler is given orders to go down to fort near cape fear. he is given orders to go take it . along to be part of a reconnaissance in force. butler goes down and he is told to attack. andt around christmas butler gets down there and he sends a message that this is a task force navy and army. commanderse naval
that i am about to send a party of reconnaissance, 25th army corps. is sufficiently strong to build a landing in a foothold. when they come back they will do a reconnaissance. them that if not, he will attack. if i actually doing -- don't know what i'm up against the run reconnaissance. he is using large force reconnaissance, because if they find out the artillery has been they have the numbers advantage, he is going to attack. if not, he said i will not do it. he comes back in the numbers are higher than the union thought before. attack.alls off the
because he calls off the attack he is released -- relieved of his duties. in agencies to five, he goes to his troops and says, i refuse to order the useless sacrifice of the lives of such soldiers, and i am relieved of command. he says the blood of my men do not stay in my garments. he says for my actions i'm responsible to god and country. scholars say butler was a coward. it doesn't take courage to send other men into thy. that is not a measure of courage. we can take that off the table. it a fiasco.led
the truth is, he ran a reconnaissance. with this reconnaissance that he ran, when they go back down to fort fisher, they know what the rebels have. troops.d 10,000 more as they know that they need them. they had a reconnaissance which is not a fiasco. a can say that he did not compost that mission but we cannot call it a fiasco. -- butleris troops tell something special to the u.s. color troops. he tells them, in this army, you have been treated, not as laborers, but as soldiers. he says you have shown yourselves worthy of the uniform that you wear. the best officers of the union seek to commend you.
bravery has won you the admiration of even those who would be your masters. fidelity, andm, courage, have illustrated the best qualities of manhood. also wonder why he is getting lost in the lost story. he says, with the bayonet you have unlocked the iron gates of prejudice opening new fields of freedom come a liberty and equality to yourselves and your race forever. says, he's the color troops hold him in high esteem. he treated them not as laborers, .ut as soldiers
he recognized them for their gallantry more than any officer in the history of the united states. is why they hold butler in high esteem. and that army corps was on the front lines. general who the gets commissioned. he was a part of the garnet guards. part of this training committee in harrisburg in the underground railroad. and his parents who owned that oyster house were involved in the underground railroad and he has been groomed in this. when harrisburg was under threat he comes here as a captain and runs two companies that help
build trenches. with thes traveling philadelphia press he is representing his pennsylvania soldiers. he is able to write new press to defend -- to defend them. to speak to them and their competence. what are the things he made clear is the reason they were on the front lines before richmond is because of the confidence he had in them. lost story scholars will tell you they were put on the frontline because grant did not think they were good enough. ask a football coach to send his worst in first because i don't want my best to get injured. in the marine corps, we both go in first. battalion goes in first. if you believe they go in first because they are the worst i don't want you in any military
decisions. he makes it clear why they are on the frontline. early morning of april 3, 1865, the united states colored troops in the 25th army corps would capture and occupy richmond, virginia. is this my opinion? or is this my report? i claim that it is my report. for my first source i will go to garland white. he was born in slavery in virginia. he was sold to a georgia planter. sold out of richmond and sent down to georgia. separated from his mother and family. .e became a manservant he came up to washington.
attempted to escape and got caught, taken back. he said i will not try to escape again, i love being your slave. escaped. with the help of william stewart. at that time, a senator from new york. he escapes and makes his way to canada and goes to overlook preparatory school, becomes a pastor at the church. recruited for the 28th united states color troops, then enlisted as a private. he performed the duties of the regimental chaplain. officers wrote a letter and he requested that he be appointed the regimental chaplain. they got a reply from secretary stanton ordering him to be discharged and then commissioned him an officer in the united states volunteers. he was a chaplain of the color troops when they entered
richmond on april 3. as he marched down main street, a woman spotted him and she went to a union soldier and asked, who is that young men? he looks like my young garland. that was garland white's mother. after 20 years of separation, his reunion was on the day he arrived in richmond as part of a liberating force, a commissioned officer in the united states army volunteers. for those lost scholars to say there were no officers, this story gets lost. it is an important american story. he returns home and is reunited with his mother and is even asked to give a speech on broad street. and he writes that there are some who would say the color troops did not capture richmond. he said, that will happen. appeals to the
persons a part of this and said don't beat timid. you scored that touchdown. you captured richmond, go ahead and say it. he said this is what will happen. i like to have one stance alone. in the philadelphia press would've read an article from report,nd he wrote this there is a little bit about that here come a too. chester wrote that report was sitting at a desk of a confederate legislator who told him to get up. in chester put him down. .hat is the real story chester writes that the report tells you who came in first, it was general draper's brigade and was the 36th in on states color troops that were the first to enter richmond.
these are southerners of african descent. capturing richmond, virginia. favoritee is my newspaper article. there is a washington dc paper. the daily national republican with headlines on the evening of april 3 and a special edition glorious,, extra, captured by the black troops. it's pretty clear who captured them in that article. this article goes a little bit further and says that really the glory is to butler, because he organized the 25th army corps. this is his army. he had been relief that they go further than to say that. weisel makes it clear they captured richmond and petersburg. i had some people say they were the first to enter but the
rebels left the camps and they did not capture it. i will not argue with those people anymore. this is all i did -- they didn't capture it. i like to use primary sources. we will see how william sherman processed this. he first gets a communique stating that petersburg and richmond has been taken possession of. then he writes back and says in his communication that in consequence of the capture of richmond, i think that he thinks it was captured. so who shall i agree with? there and the general who is highly competent, or the scholar who got his
education under the umbrella of the lost story? i am citing with the facts on the battlefield everyeducation . that newspaper says that grant -- lee retreating, grant pursuing. in pursuit of lee's army, the united states colored troops. in the early morning of april 9, 1865, a brigade of color troops came along the road south and west of appomattox. in that early morning to get into a skirmish. you have soldiers from harrisburg in this battle, in this skirmish. it lasted five hours. a.m., zero 800, lee
continued to determine he could no longer prosecute the war and later that day he would surrender to general grant at the appomattox courthouse in virginia, because that is where he was stopped by the 25th army corps, the lead element, the 44th unites states color troops, the pennsylvanians. when you tell the story in the lost stories in the it out you are leaving out your pennsylvania story. that's like saying since my quarterback at ohio state was quartered, i will not claim we won the champ -- national championship last year. that is ridiculous. you need to claim your own. .hese are your men these are pennsylvanians who were there, who stopped lee's army. there were 11 united states color troops present. it is lost in the lost story.
in this same day there was more fighting going on. the attempt to capture mobile, alabama, when they go to take , theynfederate defenses mustered in the navy guard. commit the last act of massacre in the civil war. day in the last major battle of the civil war. more battles that happened after this but they would capture mobile alabama and march onto montgomery. many of those captured soldiers, those given quarter had a very hard time after lincoln was assassinated. so there is documentation on what happened to the confederate
soldiers after lincoln was assassinated. the united states color troops as theirln not emancipator. they saw him as the great facilitator. and they held him in high regard. they were not asking for lincoln to free them, they were asking him to work in league with the constitution. johnson would say it lincoln hasaham done his work. he said his tears are not for lincoln, because lincoln did his job. many soldiers made a sacrifice for this victory. so lincoln had committed in enormously to this victory so he held him in high esteem as his commander in chief.
countrytears for the and the state, he once got the save the state because this is what he is fighting for. it was not over. frederick douglas made that very clear. lincoln was assassinated and richard was -- richmond was captured. said ok, it isas not all over, let's go home and go to a party and have a grand review in washington. all the color troops come out of the field. he says there are people talking about their in willington and south carolina. the only reason this is, is because of these 200,000 soldiers.
that's the only reason they are saying it. so what message is he sending? don't take them out of the south. that is a very clear message. two days after he gives this speech and boston, there is a skirmish near the civil war. troops outes color of missouri are involved in this skirmish. holdout.a meanwhile, we have the 25th army corps six days after that skirmish that gets orders to stand ready for embarkation. they are about to be sent to texas.
other colored units not necessarily with you during the colored calvary, we will transfer them to you so they can join you in this trip to texas. are the soldiers upset? are they saying, they planned a grand review in washington, i want to be in washington hanging out. said whenris chester they got the word that the negro cork up the word and they were putting on their warpaint, they look forward to a period of embarkation the great deal of satisfaction. they stood ready and were excited to go there. time, this is the eve of the first of two days of the grand review in washington. i wanted to know there are over one million soldiers in the union army.
andwhere between 250000 250,000 african-american soldiers. only 80,000 shall -- soldiers participate in the grand review in washington. if they had all non-african-american soldiers in that you have 800,000 soldiers. this is not the grand review of all the armies for the civil war. this is the grand review of some armies. 8% of the army. but there are also those who were victim of the lost story. u.s. color troops most of which are being transferred, that they were banned. you actually read where they say that sherman did it. there stuck to this idea that he must've did it. they are stuck on this. army.ou look at sherman's
interesting.y if you read the order and actually says in the order that the 135th united states color troops are going to be in the parade. this is the official order. lost story scholars are so lost, that they will tell you that african-americans were banned by sherman of being in the parade and the only african-american soldiers to march in the parade are under sherman's command. this is a lost story, but where do we find it? in the primary sources. you can say, i went to the official record and read this special order and this is what it said. >> the united states color
troops, far from feeling like they had been slighted from being in that parade. they understood their importance in in forcing the emancipation proclamation. of 1865,at time in may you had in the army of the james, 12 men who had been awarded their medal of honor. they are marching around with a medal of honor. do you think they said, they can have the metal back i want to be in washington in the grand review? of course not. these are proud soldiers who had been recognized for their acts of certain -- courage. proud soldiers on a mission in texas important to them. among them is the highest ranking african officer in the union army. lieutenant colonel alexander augustine.
these are proud soldiers. they are proud of the fact that martin delaney is a major of the carolina,own in south and forcing the emancipation -- emancipation proclamation. they are very proud. that is a lost story victims feeling slighted. not the soldiers. meanwhile, in texas, governor markell doesn't really want to surrender. he was to be a holdout. he is counseling with the generals. there are three united states color troop residence present in texas. the 62nd which came out of missouri. the 87th out of louisiana. reorganized in texas is
the 87th united states color troops. i emphasize that because there are those who say the word of the proclamation did not get to texas until june 19. we are about to straighten that out. they say that it gets to galveston to 19th. 5, galveston was captured and occupied by the navy. be -- ifhatcher would you look at an official record, he will talk about how everything going on and how june 5 they occupy galveston. the union plan for texas is to send troops in from every direction, north east, west and south. they send troops in because governor morrow doesn't want to surrender. he wants to be a holdout. the head of the department of the west's general sheridan.
it's just that he came out of the shenandoah valley. like unitedout west states color troops and he didn't feel slighted either. gordon granger was put in charge of the department of texas. to return report to general frederick steele who by the end of may is in brownsville texas in the southern tip of texas where the 25th army corps is commanded to go. one of their principal duties is to guard the real grunt. a brigade of the 25th army corps has problems with their ship. as a consequence, they land in galveston june 10. they land in galveston. there are thousands of african-american soldiers in texas on june 15, 1865. thousands.
morning, -- with soldiers in galveston and along the rio grande, governor morrow and 10,000 rebel soldiers are chased out of the united states across the border into mexico. texas is now brought back into the union. there is no confederate government in texas. on june 16, frederick steele makes it very clear that texas is now under federal control. gordon granger is ordered by phil sheridan, general sheridan to write in order stating that texas was brought back into the union and to issue that order when he arrives in galveston. he arrives in the early morning of june 19. hen he arrives in galveston
writes, that when he got there there was of her of the 25th corps. there are over 2000 african-american soldiers in galveston texas. in the state legislature of that younia they say 19th is a holiday because that is the day that they got the word they had been freed by the emancipation proclamation. that legislation and your state is a product of victims of the lost story. they are not telling the truth. they are giving you the impression that the negroes did nothing in texas to free themselves. it wasn't we be free or they showed up. union has been preserved and texas has been brought back in the union and the emancipation proclamation
has been in force. arkansas was the first and texas was the last. so you should amend that legislation and say we are celebrating when the emancipation proclamation was enforced in texas if you want to tell the truth. troopsted states color in the 25th army corps, the principal duty was along the border with mexico because mexico was in a war with france. the what to make sure that is regulated. is one of their principal duties of occupation. south, the color troops are on provost duty. martin delaney becomes functionally a judge. they enjoy this duty. those who want to go home, some of the officers call them silly
minded men. he says i don't want to go home until i have the right to vote. it's bigger than this. we want more. we want our rights. he goes on to say there are certain things happening in the south. president johnson is doing this. at one time he was not so chummy with large slaveholders. he owed eight himself that he was on a large slaveholder. but now he's got chummy with them. about provostaint marshals enforcing the law and they want them pulled out. saying that congress needs to do something about this but congress is not in session. they will not coming to session until december so what happens are these vagrant laws, which are returning people
functionally back to slavery. you think they want to be on parade somewhere? . this is disturbing many of them. congress does react. in theyy come back neutralize johnson and establish these military districts and get rid of these pegram laws. so what he asked for was what he got. meanwhile, colored troops are pulled out of almost everywhere by the end of october. greeted by, they are many who say, you are heroes. the reception for these heroes is in harrisburg, pennsylvania. talking orad them
coming to harrisburg, none of them said anything about what happened in washington in may. but harrisburg is important because for a long time since the underground railroad, it had been a place of facilitating committee cases with the interior and the seaboard for african descent secret society. this is been headquarters. this is where he settled after the war. so when they have this reception for colored heroes, that's what is in the paper. i call in the grand review. when you talk about a grand review that's not what they ever used to describe what was happening in harrisburg. if you go to the primary sources, where i love to be. you will see that it is called the reception of the heroes.
that's what is called here in harrisburg. in this reception is organized by none other than the barnett league. rubber him calling for soldiers in buffalo in 1843. it's him is like they're clearly telling us this is the headquarters because when we formed our militia we called garnet militia. when they formed their equal rights league which was to secure their rights as citizens as the war came to an end, the offers and harrisburg was called the garnet the. and guess who is here in harrisburg. william howard day. the man that martin delaney informed us was in charge of
arranging slave enlistments along the underground railroad. where would he go to and rage enlistments along the underground railroad. does he go to washington? no. harrisburg? . yes. facilities with the interior and the seaboard. this was the best place to be and was the keystone in the fight for liberty. that's where he comes and he is the keynote speaker as his reception of colored heroes. thishe grand marshall of procession is none other than thomas morris chestnut. is he in this position just because he is from harrisburg? they hold him in high esteem. so he is there grand marshall.
this is their advertisement. do you see anything about a grand review. anything that seems like a complaint. they are not asking for your sympathy. they're asking for you pennsylvanians americans to be proud of freedom fighters. that's what they are asking for. i would say they are demanding it. and if you do anything less you're not just a victim of the lost story but here at the national civil war museum, where you can go in the primary source. now you are a propagandist who does not want to tell the truth. now you find the story. they said it wasn't over. even here they tell you in these
heroes, this is bigger than them. member the garnet league. their fight is not over. this is about one month before the 13th amendment was ratified. 1 had been passed on february . then you have 68, the 14th amendment which represent -- recognized birthright citizens. demanding it. that was another loyalty to couple schmidt. would they keep talking about, the ballot. poster for the 15th amendment, you will get a good appreciation for the heroes where the prince and the clergy soldiers and at the top here is the lady and hiram robles.
what does the 15th in them and do, it's the ballot. they've accomplished with this set out to accomplish. if what you do in telling the story of these heroes is talk about how discriminated against they were, and you leave out what they accomplished it is all right to talk about the discrimination. is theall you talk about beat down when your daddy got up you are not giving him good service. when you tell him to get up you are telling the story of american heroes that end the tyranny of slavery and gain their right to birthright citizenship and the right to vote. is because it, it you have not been true to the legacy. longer a losto story. welcome to our american story.
[applause] >> thank you, very much. are there any questions? i will answer however many questions that are but the university of oklahoma kickoff is at 3:30. [laughter] do we trust what we are reading in some any of these books? to primaryoing back sources. one thing i'm excited about in the college board for their new curriculum for history is they are encouraging young scholars to critique secondary source.
you critique that source and then go to the primary source. there are a lot of good things happening or these primary sources are becoming easily accessible and we are teaching students how to properly investigate history. understand that a secondary source is somebody's report and from there perspective you can inspect that. textbooks arehe being repaired -- prepared and go around the country. and in their one of the things they had said was the africans were immigrants brought over as slaves. of the interesting things that we have in this is a fascinating part of this debate. if you say it is the transatlantic slave trade, initially they took the slave trade out. africans who were captured and kidnapped took slaves.
why are you calling it slave trade when it is human trafficking? i find less fault in texas and i find it washington, d.c., new york city, philadelphia, and what is in the curriculum there. they are shipping it to be a liberal-progressive lost story. we spent too much time complaining about texas and not enough time complaining about massachusetts and new york. i want to point that out because i examined the texas curriculum. there are certain ways they are saying things that i am not offended by. i was raised by my great-grandmother to understand that our ancestors were enslaved and held captives. if you call them a slave, it's because that's what you call them and not what they call themselves. so how will i present the history. i will say they were enslaved and held us captives. i will use the term from the
convention of 1850, our brethren in the south are prisoners of war, not slaves. the challenge is getting the balance. i agree that we need to do this. like the college board had a curriculum in 2014 that was criticized by conservatives that came in and did tinkering and then the liberals were mad. when it is just the liberals or progressive's it, i thought it was bad and if it had just been with the conservatives it probably would've been bad. but tween the balance we got something better. we need people from the left and right to debate and instead of saying one or the other is rightly, with a better product. i like the fact that we are even arguing over this because then we start bringing things out and get a better curriculum. to believe that we have a good curriculum in pennsylvania schools and washington, d.c.
schools is to deceive ourselves. >> since there were so many black soldiers in the civil war, i am doing ancestry. i'm trying to find out who my ancestors were. are there records on these black soldiers so we can trace our ancestors? maybe they were in that work. my people are from south carolina. >> can we track our ancestors in the war? the answer is a resounding yes. there are descendents in this room, including myself, who have done this work. the national archives has the records of every regiment. as ital park service online where you can identify the names and the regiments they were in. with was a cooperation ancestry.com.
>> [inaudible] >> i'm not sure about that site, i have not use that. but there are a number of good sources. the african-american civil war museum in washington, d.c. there are a lot of descendents who come through like that memorial with the names of the soldiers. there is a lot of sharing that goes on. i have had people come in in one serendipitous situation. i was getting ready to leave and left something and went back and he asked about a soldier out of an arkansas regiment. an earlier that day i had someone from arkansas asked about the same soldier. but one person was from barbados and another person from little rock. siu brought them together at the museum and they both gave a presentation. on every first -- first saturday of the month, we were told how it could be discovered.
how they discovered who their ancestor was. so their research is governed and what they learned. there is a lot out there. >> have you written any books that cover this topic? one called "the road to emancipation." i have written three that are unpublished and i would love to find a publisher. >> i just wanted to say for the lady making the inquiry, i'm sure that here in this room there are a lot of people collecting the history within our harrisburg area, and i think they need to identify themselves so we know who the go to people know thaty because i
the history is really being very beautifully acted. those people need to identify themselves so we can make sure that we connect with them to start doing this research. i want tong that mention is that harrisburg, you have some wonderful resources. one person i will quality -- call out is caleb jackson. [applause] if you want to know about harrisburg, you need to talk to caleb jackson. historicalhin county society, i've gone there to do research a number of times. i am a targeted researcher. i do a lot of work beforehand. but usually it takes me maybe eight hours to get what i want. kim's organization is such that it has never taken me more than
40 minutes. because it is not even digitized yet. i have spoken to a number of , todd and jim schmitt. very good sources on what is happening here. but if you want to know the african-american history of harrisburg, caleb jackson is your go to guy. i wanted to comment, i am sharon williams, and even slaughter was my great grandfather -- ethan slaughter was my great-grandfather. >> for those of you who do not --w, ethan was from the north carolina. if you go over there, you might think he has returned to life.
and was against it. source, a small pocket where the history had been preserved because of the i willat cap curtain, not profess to speak on this as much authority, but there are other pockets of historical information being preserved, and we know that there is a small pocket of resource there as well. i'm sure that a lot of churches probably have this information, also. >> i had the good fortune of interviewing people from southern churches. and wesley ame zion. this is an important church in america and harrisburg. >> i am an educator here and harrisburg and i would love to get with some people to create a curriculum for our young
children to open up a book and see where history really starts. not with martin luther king. taking them back to the things that you say. because once you know when you come from you build a pride about yourself's you can know where you have to be headed to. i am interested in that. this is the importance of what is happening here at the national civil war museum. pride, not sympathy. when we celebrate this 150th anniversary of the reception in harrisburg, we need to understand it is pride not sympathy. it's because they want more. wondering i have heard that there were college troops the confederacy,
and if they were, with a john scoble's? will answer that first by saying that north carolina is the only state in the union in 1861 that allowed african-american troops to join the state militia. the law reads that you cannot enlist a negro or free person of mixed blood into your army except as a musician. musicians are signalman. so let's not ignore the importance of these musicians. but they are in the north carolina state militia. so when they get called up they get called up. the national government clearly has some problems with this. they say that the negro has no place in their army.
north carolina passes a lot in september that says that they are to be paid by the state. so that is in the law of north carolina. you won't have thousands of them , and the ones that i found are nine, there are more than nine, but in research i took likely candidates and searched them out. there were nine musicians and of those nine, five had been manually omitted and with special legislation allowed to stay. if you are manumitted you had to leave the state. three were voters. mixed bloodn of who, as the lot read, had no negro in their line for the last generations. married within the mixed
population at their voters and persons of african ascent. in louisiana they are john scoble's. they're led by jordan noble who was a part of the loyal league. he is actually the chairman of the commissioner of the louisiana branch of the loyal league. and he is the one who convinces thomas more to organize the louisiana national guard. and later, the confederacy does not pass legislation to allow african-americans to come into the militia of the confederacy until march 13, 1865. signed into law by jefferson davis. theney got time between and april 2 when jeff davis is on the run to recruit, i want to know his technology.
>> the individuals coming from canada, where they emancipated slaves? people who were freed? how did they end up in canada? >> the people in canada, what was their status? were they enslaved persons, that they escape. the answer is yes to all of them. when i talk about the real uncle tom, captain just sigh at later becomes a kernel. he escape from slavery in the maryland area around washington, d.c. and made his way to canada so he was a fugitive. anyway his company -- i'm from oklahoma. sometimes a speech problems. most of his soldiers were actually fugitives. and a lot of them were fugitives. back,en they're coming
garland white was a fugitive. hezekiah at fort douglas was initially a fugitive and his half-brother purchased his freedom so he is a free man. the of abraham shad is a free man and isaac was a free man. everybody ask about is there and then they come back. before, you said that some of these people in canada before they went down to be john scovel's, how were they able to know where to go and know how to stay under the radar and not be identified as summary from outside. that is the loyal league. that's come from years of captivity. in particular it is something that developed by these african military officers like colonel abraham or prince abraham. they knew how to do it.
in fact they were so good that many descendents of africa today will take their codewords and say that they are insults because of the weather they played it. for example, sambo means a brave warrior. societydy in the secret , if you refer to some of the as a sand boat, they might be a little bit query to see if you know what timbuktu means, where the word of god and the treasures of wisdom could be found, but if you are outside, it will call it not a center, but something else. if they find out you know what sanbow means, then you are in. when he was dancing, he often danced for confederate officers. when he is dancing it is a form of martial art that comes from wrestling. name of the full
people of west africa that is over 2000 years old and it means brave warrior. it is a code. is this coded system that they have which led george sharp to say the negroes are eminently secretive people with a mutual understanding similar to freemasonry. he used negroes, but i would not use that,. a lot of people did not know what they were saying. esireeould say, y massah, or nosiree massah. siree native tongue, means evil intent, and massah means catptor.
he was shocking and jiving. calling him evil master. nobody knew. it is how you move around, there are times when you don't little hole code but they give you little pieces of code, and you are supposed to use them. they use the bible in gospel talk and used it for their purposes. martin delaney writes it quite a bit of this flipping of the scriptures and gospel code. there are very important codes that in the lost story we will never investigate. we need to investigate and what we need to do is to ensure that the african languages we use in our schools are from west africa meaning that swahili has little value. [speaking coded language][ if you stick with swahili, you
will never do that. >> a little on the role of african-americans. >> the question is to expand on the role of women african american in the civil war. i brought up both harriet tubman and marianne kerry. they both represent different types of duty. one is administered of duty who is a leader. that's marianne kerry. she is an educator and an organizer and a leader. tubman is really very much a leader in the field. that is why she goes and leads rates. highly competent. martin delaney in his instructions on recruiting leaders says, select the best person, man or woman for the job. and this organization there looking for the best person. there are a number of women that would've been listed as soldiers that we will not know about because their peers knew who
they were and kept them secret. so we have a difficult time with the women who enlist. lucy carter, we know more about her, because they found out she was a woman trying to get in. but they found out she was a john scoble, herself, or josephine scoble. she would be a spy for the union in the european theater. then, there is a very important african-american spy in the naval operations whose name is known as mary true vestry. she was working in the norfolk naval yard when they took the uss merrimack and the confederates turned it into an ironclad and she found out that they were ahead of schedule in production. when she found out, she determined it was important that the navy found out about it, so she commandeered the plans, used
the network and made her way to washington and deliver them to the secretary of the navy and gideon welles would testify to give her some payment after the war saying, it was invaluable. thatct, she is the reason the uss monitor was expedited in its production. but there are so many women playing the role of freedom fighter doing it without recognition. it is hard to get a grip on them. so i like to use these examples and say that is probably not the end of it. i hope future researchers can do some digging and find what i have not found. in order to look for it you have to appreciate that it exists. your question because i'm telling you that it exists. the question is whether we will find it. archives thathese are not visited enough running
the voices of african-americans coming in. one of the problems, if you teach at howard university and you say that there were no field grade officers in the union army, you are not encouraging your young scholars to investigate martin delaney, or ernest dumas or alexander augustus because they were field grade officers. this is one of the problems. we are not investigating because we're are being told it doesn't exist. that's the problem of the lost story. it is important with even the women we investigate. i've a lecture on c-span that women in the civil war, african-american women, and their contributions. i lay out what i call a template for research. i give you the places to go look.
>> will the rest of america hear what went on here today? >> thanks to c-span, yes, the rest of america will hear this. thanks to harrisburg international civil war museum, the rest of america will hear this. museumery important this has made sure that the lost story has been presented. this is the national civil war museum. in this museum, they are actively seeking to tell a national story, and american story, and all-inclusive story. scholars have said you cannot include everything. i say let us include everything that is germane and have curators that will help us do it. [applause] >> yes sir?
--space to africans that have come here from all over africa they were able to unify under the christian umbrella, is there any research that shows how we actually got converted into christianity? i see that is a big element of the presentation. the christian influence really helped to shape our ideas and influences. was is there anyi research on the christian influence in our country on the africans? if you take someone like prince abraham, when he went to school in timbuktu, he got his degree at sink or university. he got a degree in arabic literature.
he studied theology. he learned about coptic christians, ethiopian christians. they were christians long before the catholic church under the holy roman empire. when they view christianity, they don't see it as a product of europeans. they see it as a product of god's work. this is their view of it. communityook at the and the scholars today, a lot of the scholarship has been moved toward what i will refer to as a marxist or communist propaganda campaign that teaches that christianity was used to keep you enslaved. a lot of scholarship on studying the laws of the various slaveholding states have prohibited your christianity. the invisible church of the
south was notable. read your own ancestors. outlawed toyland the recognition of slave christianity. they thought it would lead to manumission. we can do the research on it. ofn you track the laws slavery, remember, no federal law is slavery. iserson held for their labor allowed in the constitution. it does not regulate slavery. the regulation of slavery is how many slave states there are. you don't go to federal law, the vote state law--you go to state law. that determines where you are allowed to have an african-american preacher, pastor, and where you are not. most of the states will not
allow you to congregate. they will cannot preach from exodus. you can find this in law. i will argue in the progressive, liberal movement, they are so far left and anti-christian they do not allow it. you cannot bring it up. i will argue, you cannot get funding doing the research i've done. research with money from any--i never got to research money from anybody but me until now, cause because people in major universities are not telling you the truth. we need to be honest. the christianity, it is to have christianity so marginalized in the story where it is critical. is interesting to have the
constitution so marginalized in a story where it's critical. the story with understanding the christian soldiers and their devotion to ending slavery and gaining the rights of citizens in league with the constitution of the united states. [applause] >> you cannot tell it. it's not possible. it becomes a lost story. yes? >> what do you believe is the motivation for keeping the lost story secret? motivation?he a lot of it is the commitments of the dissertation or thesis. a lot of it is that. that is your brand, you have made your name. you told people for years there are no african-american officers. . jones showed up--harriet jones showed up.
she gave your students primary sources. you're not happy. we need to understand this is no longer a race problem in the 21st century. scholars of the lost story are not of any particular race or ethnic identity. we cannot treat this as if it is a race problem. this is a scholarship problem. it is not something unusual in the sciences. an innovation like the theory of relativity, some people get to stop. -- get pissed off. these are not vicious people. these are not people trying to deceive you. these are people who have been deceived. they're trying to protect their turf. this is turf protection. it, theythe excuse for are saying, "we can't include
everything." that's what they'll say. so we are going to admit this-- omit this. i hope my doctor doesn't say that. "too much information. i can't find out what is wrong with you, so i will exclude this test. it made my head hurt." [laughter] >> i did mention the victory session. come to theto victory reception, which is november 13, here at the national civil war museum, you can sign up here. -- we reception, i am not have got a fiddler who will be here. chelsea green. is going to be a celebration of our colored heroes. [indiscernible] >> i'm not sure what time it
starts. here we go. >> 5:30. invite-only. andou want to put your name your e-mail down, i will send you the information by monday. we have a keynote speaker. d'oeuvres.e hors at 5:30.ovember 13 it's free. >> question? , on wanted to make sure this question of spiritual practice, of africans that were , the adoptionrica of christianity with strategic-- strategic as well as some
of them having understood this belief. are you saying it was confined to christianity, the spiritual belief of africans brought to these shores? >> absolutely not. i would never say that. can you clarify the totality of the spirituality brought the shores by the africans? clarifyuestion is to and bring greater light on the spirituality of the africans. many of the you're the, i will go to them first. many yorba had their own society stories--messiah stories. you see the revival movement in nigeria today. it is fitting into their own spiritual practices. them saw themselves as
descendents of abraham who had migrated into west africa. they had converted into islam. within their tradition was a requirement based on circumstance to walk as the ereas if you just converts to christianity and your only pakistan, they call you an infidel. there ist, the yorbas, a spiritual tradition. one of them gets confused, because they appear, and i come from a very similar tradition. we are very much monotheist, but we appear animist.
we honor our ancestors. great grandmother raised me, it was important for her to tell me i need to know what my fathers called themselves. you need to call on their spirits to assist you. if cannot say sambo is a clown or a fool. you cannot defame him. there is an ancestral, i will not collect warship, -- call it worship, but it is a recognition. that is part of the monotheism of africans. sometimes, you get in the people saying they are going off here and there. tradition.african if your ancestors prayed to you 10 generations ago, you get
answers. if you defame them, you don't hold them in high esteem, you won't have an answer to their prayers. you will get that blessing-- won't that thaget that blessing. christianity is something that for many of them works within their own traditions. they shape it around their traditions. in the baptist church, you can see in this whole being reborn, you can take that back to yorba-land and see that as part of the process of coming to age. >> i wanted clarification. tradition, by way of abraham, we know when abraham was born, the great pyramid of t
cell was already-- of giza was already 1200 years old. a great civilized nation had already existed. leaving their oppression as though this concept of spirituality was a purely christian concept, as one that legacy ofrom a large the first people to actually have had that kind of high authority. >> i want to comment on that. timbuktu and of say you want to read the hieroglyphics, they will never send you to a greek interpreter. this would be the tradition of educated africans. there is research we can do.
this should be in all social studies classes, a study of west african and east african civilizations. that should be a part of social studies. this has an impact on american and european history. yes? >> i've seen a very recent interview from african scholars, and people who were related to slavey trade,-- to the trade. 60% of the slaves were descendents of black jews. >> i was actually encouraged never to talk in public about african jews.
, ins in washington, d.c. the late 90's. a good friend of mine invited me to a session at a jewish community center. the presenter presented a story of how the jews of messina, in theu, were suppressed late 16th and early 17th centuries. and how they went underground, and had come back public. this was, at the jewish community center in washington, d.c., he provided impressive information. that is what i said i will say something about it in public, because it is public. in thelaney was censored 1830's because he talked about africans.
there are dna tests. this can be discussed publicly. you were not supposed to talk about this publicly. there is a gentleman by the name of william crowley. rally was from the eastern shore of maryland. he was the deacon of the baptist church in guthrie, oklahoma. he was concerned about african descent jews. when he created his denomination, he called it the church of god and saints of christ. they are jewish in their practice and meet on sundays. this is kept secret in america. among scholars, i find there are more african descent scholars who oppose the when i grew up in
oklahoma, among people who, i didn't say it publicly, but usually around people who had already been educated within the tradition of recognizing that a jews neither black or white, a person of mixed race. he can be from africa, europe, asia. yes? >> in your research on the civil war, i thought i read somewhere wasre artillery units in pennsylvania. >> i have this man in my exhibit. he was in the washington artillery. i am trying to recall his name. he is in the exhibits and washington, d.c. she is a volunteer that does not get paid. is not officially in the unit.
he has been drilling for years. when they march through is hit in the head with a brick and is considered the first casualty of the war. 's name will come to me in a moment -- his name will come to me in a moment. i have a photograph in the museum. we do mention him. what do you think of the buffalo soldiers? those who are called from buffalo, in 1843, and answer that call and become freedom fighters are the buffalo soldiers. they are the buffalo called the soldiers. the first regular soldier was martin delaney, the first african-american legally made a regular soldier.
he is a regular officer. he is the first regular buffalo soldier. they accuse of being buffalo soldiers in the planes, that is what they never called themselves. i challengeto find-- you to find a primary source where the african-americans did. you can find secondary sources, but not the primary. i grew up in oklahoma among the colored regulars who fought in the planes. jones, i used to call him uncle martin. he never mentioned anything about a buffalo soldier in his experiences as a colored regular. they never called themselves that. when you get the name attached to colored regulars, it is in 1939 when the first peacetime draft is implemented by franklin
delano roosevelt. you get african descent persons drafted who don't know what they are doing. they say they don't want to be associated with them. so we are going to put a patch with a buffalo on it and call ourselves the flow soldiers---- buffalo soldiers. so they are victims of the lost story. [indiscernible] >> he just told me it is almost halftime in the oklahoma game. time to wrap this up. [laughter] >> have a great day. [applause] >> you are watching american history tv. history of american programming every weekend on c-span3. follow us on twitter for
information on the schedule and keep up with the latest history news. >> this year, c-span is touring cities across the country, exploring american history. a recent visit to syracuse, new york. you're watching american history tv, all weekend on c-span3. chief tadodaho sidney hill: what an exciting thing going on. to me would start of the game we are playing here that has a whole history in itself it is a part of our history. part of our entertainment. it was played on the other side.