tv American History TV CSPAN February 7, 2016 11:43am-12:01pm EST
fathers and early presidents knew in their minds that slavery was wrong. they knew it. but they were not willing to inconvenience their own lives to make that come true. tonight on "q&a," jesse holland discusses his book "the invisibles." >> the majority of the first presidents, they were all slave owners. they would bring in slaves from their plantations. george washington did this as well. new yorkt in slaves to and philadelphia from mount vernon. they served as the first of a stick staff to the united states president. >> tonight at 8:00 eastern on "q&a." >> >> all weekend, american history tv is featuring santa barbara, california. -- a santa barbara
native plant the first avocado trees. you can learn more about santa barbara all weekend here on american history tv. [church bell tolling] tina foss: santa barbara mission is the 10th of a chain of 21 missions built by the fransiscans in cooperation with the spanish, who were conquering california, essentially, trying to keep the russians out. ofy, along the coast california, established four forts, and between them spanish werere schools, which missions. the idea was to get coastal indians to be pro spanish and keep out the russians and possibly the english and whoever else might be encroaching on the northern edge of mexico.
it is the only mission in california that has continuously operated as a church from its founding to present day. in the santa barbara area, the linguistic group of the chumash justns came from malibu, north of los angeles, to san luis obispo to south of monterey county. in of the largest groups california if they inhabited the area from malibu to san luis obispo to the channel islands off coast to what is now current county -- kern county. when they established the mission, there were good relationships with the chumash people. that deteriorated and the population dwindled due to disease. and more restrictions came from
the spanish and mexican governments. but in the beginning, the chumash were welcoming. they enjoyed trade. the spanish noted in all of their early diaries that the chumash people were manufacturers of the most beautiful baskets, stone tools. everything they produced seemed to be high quality, and the spanish population was extremely impressed with the quality of the material culture of the chumash people. about halft on and of the chumash came into the mission system, there was some discontent. grew partly because of huge population lost due to disease. and there was a war restrictive afe as the spanish became larger part of the population. they had laws and rules that were problematic to the chumash.
they were cut off from their hunting and gathering places as ranchos expanded. , wein the mexican period see the chumash revolt in what is the largest revolt in california. the chumash wanted to control the -- the spanish wanted to control the harbor. missions inve chumash territory. the idea was to control the central part of the coast, which shipping would need in order to go from south to north, south to north, to expand this territory. it gave them a good deal of control of sea traffic, which is what they wanted to do. and control of the middle of california.
mission, we have an outdoor museum as well as interior museum rooms. huerta, a small session best section where we are standing. that thees plans chumash used in their culture that produced the foods and so on that were important to them. the other part of the garden, below us here, is all plants introduced by the spanish and the beginnings about the culture in california. and all of the plants were brought between 1769 and the 1830's and represent a cross-section from all across the pacific, europe, and asia. so those plants were brought by the spanish, who gave them to the chumash and said see if you
can get them to grow. the tree here is an island oak. there were many types of oak in california, all of which produced acorns, which were the staple food of california indians. ground up and reached to remove eached to remove the acids from them. nutritious meals. the chumash were maritime peoples. so lots of fish and acorns. nutritious diet for them before the spanish brought out the culture. the garden below us feature is the diet the chumash changed into and the things they learn to grow successfully. you can see in the distance the banana growth. there were bananas growing at two missions. noted by the french
explorer in 1790, growing between other orchards trees. apparently, to keep them from freezing. so this garden is from cuttings from original plants across the state to the, a mother bed. we are kind of involved in what the national park service likes landmarks to do, which is restoration of the cultural environment. this cultural landscape is important, because many times we walk to an old landmark building and it is surrounded by modern structures or plants that were introduced last week from somewhere else in the world. the idea of a cultural landscape is having the landscape around the building meet the same time period and give the visitor and experience of what it would have been like in its most culturally
important period. now we are down in the spanish period part of la huerta garden. you can see the grapes. they are just getting their autumn look. it is january, but we had a long drought, so they are just dropping their leaves. are infamousrapes for being terrible for wine but good for cognac. the missionaries always wanted a need -service, a set you - so you need wine and for that, you need grapes. and a very diet is mediterranean, heavily dependent on olive oil.
and oil used in blessings and so on. this is an early olive, taken cutting from a mission from the late 1700s. and this one is from gerald alejo's garden. withitrus, introduced grapes, are the two major crops still making a major part of our economic -- economic success in agriculture here. we are standing next to wait typical mission fence. this is a prickly pear cactus version that produces three things that are useful. it produces fruit.
it is the lucius. is prickly pear fruit fabulous. --n the little parents pads that you can fry with your breakfast eggs. is also producing the bugs on it -- these guys produce don't want to put my finger on it because it'll get me red and messy. a hugo this on a piece of paper, it will be a brilliant red. this was used to dye fabric. the would scrape them off cactus and produces the die for the fabrics they were weaving.
so you get clothes dye, fruit, and it is a service you do not want to push your way through. fenceeans it is the ideal for agricultural fields, because it will keep the cows and sheep and everything else out of your fields and protect the crops. recognizeally need to is that the chumash are responsible for the agriculture industry in california. certainly the local indians are the ones who made success at about culture. city staff recently traveled to santa barbara to learn about its rich history. you can learn more about santa barbara and other stops on our tour at c-span.org/citiestour. you are watching american
history tv. all weekend, every weekend on c-span 3.-- voting for bernie sanders because he is honest, has a good record, and cares about the people. >> this election is important, has neverr country been more polarized. if you do not participate, you do not have a voice. >> this year will be historic. either side could give us the first e-mail president. >> the taxpayers and the citizens of this country should not bear the growing national debt. next weekend on american reel america, vietnam hearings 50 years later. from february 1966, the senate floor in relations committee gave equal time to critics of the war and members of the
johnson administration in hearings that were televised live. here is a preview. >> the vietnam hearings were probably some of the most extraordinary ever held by congress. they were hearings and investigations into a war that was still being fought. the senate wanted to know why we were in vietnam. what the administration's policies were. they wanted to hear from opponents of the war. they gave equal status to critics as to supporters. george kennan was one of america's most customers diplomats and theorists about diplomacy. andas he wrote an article signed it mr. x. because he was a diplomat and could not take sides. that suggested the policy united
-- that's just the policy the united states should follow was containment. here was the author of the containment theory saying it does not apply. this was a mistake. it is clear however justified our own action may be in our eyes, it has failed to win either enthusiasm or confidence, and even among people normally friendly to us. i worn motives are widely misinterpreted, and -- our motives are widely misinterpreted, and the spectacle produced in thousands of press photographs and stories , the spectacle of americans inflicting grievous injuries on the lives of a poor and helpless people, and particularly a people of different race and color, no matter how warranted by the excesses of the adversary our operations may seem to be or
spectaclelly, this produces reactions through millions in the world detrimental to this country. i am not saying this is just or right. i am saying that this is so and that it is found, in the circumstances, to be so. a victory purchased at the price of further such damage would be a hollow one. >> did not hearings 50 years later. watch more of the senate foreign hearings committee next saturday, february 13, at and sunday,astern third floor and 14:00 p.m. eastern. reel america, only on c-span 3. monday night on "the communicators conquer a roundtable discussion on technology and cyber security
issues that the tech community will face in 2016. including the privacy issues associated with net neutrality. beyoud speak with lydia and kaye trammell of. lawhat was signed into the in late december. it was passed as part of the omnibus budget bill. the idea behind that is it is a first step in terms of allowing people to understand more about the hacking threat the country faces. >> there has been a lot of push and pull between the telecom community and the defense community so that people can get the happy medium they need. >> you will see many arguments that why is it ok for us to be regulated by the fcc on this
issue when other companies that also collect a lot of data like facebook or google do similar things with that. side is consumer groups say you are not just controlling where people go, but also how they get there. communicators" monday night at 8:00 eastern on c-span 2. catholic university professor stephen west talks about how and when former slaves experienced freedom. he describes the role of the freedmen's bureau and the creation of black coat that attempted to curtail the freedom of former slaves. prof. west: let's go ahead and get started for today. this is our first class about reconstruction. to talk about reconstruction i , want to first go back and talk about the war.