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tv   History of Greenwich Village  CSPAN  June 4, 2016 10:45pm-12:02am EDT

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american history tv? visit our website. you can see our upcoming schedule or see a recent program. road to the white house, lectures, and more. at c-span.org\history. on american history tv, architectural historian barry lewis discusses the creation and evolution of new york city's greenwich village. talks about the many changes the neighborhood has experienced since the early 19th-century and how it has been influential in american society and culture at large. topics include the building of the washington square arch, the rise and decline of bohemian art culture, the rise and decline of ethnic culture. societyyork historical hosted this. >> we are thrilled to welcome back barry lewis to new york historian.
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he specializes in architecture of the 18th and 20th centuries and teaches. he is best known throughout new his video walking tours presented by channel 13 including the emmy-award --inated shows "42nd street" "harlem." -- and this is where all of these great architects come from, from berries classes. if you have a cell phone or electronic beeper, please turn it off. we ask for no photography. --ase welcome me in joining -- pleasecome me in join me in welcoming barry lewis. : thank you for
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ordering the book at the end of the lecture. we're looking at greenwich village. for those of you who grew up in new york, you have your memories like i did. village that is why it is my favorite lecture. exist until about 100 years ago, but we will see that in a moment. it is about 1819, we are looking past the new city hall. in about five minutes, if you walked past broadway, you would be in the country. that is how small it was in 1819. if you want further up the river, the hudson river, you would see where christopher street started out at hudson river. it is one of the all roads in manhattan. most of the old roads are actually american indian roads. in the early 18th century apparently, some of the buildings went up at the west end of christian street by the river. they called their little village
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greenwich. really, you know what greenwich, england, is like. indigo jones, christopher wren, a floridian goes through it. burg.as a tiny little they finally got a great building in the 1790's. the city built its new prison, newgate prison. if you got into trouble you ended up down at the battery. you got sent up the river to newgate. when this area finally started inting middle class people the 1820's and 1830's, they immediately closed newgate and renamed it sing sing. they are still being sent up there. map, obviously lower manhattan is on the left. the yellow shaded area is the
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built-up city between the battery on the left and city hall park. is the road they carved out of the waterfront on the west side of the island in the 18th century so it could finally reach the greenwich. it was called the road to greenwich. some of it was filled-and land. we call it greenwich street today. not greenwich avenue, greenwich street. streets wester, to of greenwich. notice the blue line. that is broadway. it starts out at bowling green and runs up past city hall parking and moves into a vast swamp. this is a swamp that extended from the hudson river about two thirds of the way across the island. was washed out.
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if you wanted to get out of town, you went to the east up what we call park row, up what we call the boundary, and you wind up the east side of the island. if you were coming from greenwich, the top of the map, the blue line through it is christopher street. you have to go all the way across the island get to the north-south road because the north-south road had to go andnd the swamp any 1800s 18 tenths. in the 1820's, they drained the canal. they called it a canal and they would extend it. see thethis map, we -- the blue- sorry of 1811. the grade after 1811, they are going to build after the 1820's and
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1830's. the grid basically starts at house and street but we know instinctively as new yorkers that in fact west of broadway, it is not houston street that is the beginning, you have to go way up -- actually, the northern end of this green area, that is greenwich avenue at the northeast quarter of this green area. area was a series of street systems laid out by different property owners and they got together and fought the city because they did not want the grand to rip down their street lines. it is ironic that this section of town has already started fighting city hall but they did. got their way, but it worked against them in the later 19th century. moveddle class new york into the grade, people began not
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wanting to go to lower greenwich avenue or 4th street, they said no, narrow streets, different street systems, it is always getting lost. we like it, we find it to ask. he did not find its wheat. they found a dangerous, uncomfortable. they gave this area over to the irish by the 1850's and 1860's. the 1890's, the italians move in and stay there for the century and most of them have moved on by now. you notice in this map, broadway has been cut by the meadows and it runs north. that allows developers to build suburban housing. you notice that broadway finally, the yellow road is the bowery. the main road out of town. meet and unite broadway and the bowery. and bowery unite and
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that is where we get union square. it has nothing to do with war or anything, it has to do with the union of broadway and bowery. what they called the lower east side, we call greenwich village. the creek still runs under there in a culvert. that is why you have so many street systems, the creek. streetsre a number of and places called minetta. it became one of the first areas where african-americans moved in. blacks one of the oldest neighborhoods in the city. by the 1820's, the 1830's, 18 left the old city and moved up to these new london
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style squares. union square, madison square, washington square. gramercy park. you can imagine these were the northern suburbs of the city. this is where the wealthy moved to. this is what is known as middle class flight. the 1930's city of to commerce, to industry coming in. they are getting out of there and moving to different parts of town. the north side of washington square, we see what is still there today. belton 1831. one of the finest residential complexes in the country at that time. when they built this and 1831, a few blocks north was in the country. that is how small the city was. east of fifth avenue was the road. west of fifth avenue this is
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what washington square looked like until about 1951 when in at the bottom of fifth avenue, they demolished these buildings. demolished these two greek revival mansions and these brownstone houses. it gives you an idea of how long this area was there. it stayed a posh area for quite time. had you been in that area in the late 19 -- 1820's or 1830's, we're looking west. the street that runs across it is broadway. at houston and broadway. the church is st. thomas's. built in 1827. posh people lived around that area.
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later was wayon uptown. st. thomas gave up and moved to 83rd street where they still are today. when st. thomas moved in the 1870's, this would be the upscale shopping and the other district. st. thomas's was probably replaced by a fancy store. by the 1890's, they rebuilt it on that site. mckinley and white was asked to do the building on the corner. when they built it in the 1890's, in the basement of the building they had a huge room which house the cable machinery for the cable cars which ran along runway. they called it the cable building and today the angelic theater is in the building where the cable machinery was. on the west side of washington square, very posh, upscale washington square, and the 18 -- on the western side in 1830, up goes the first -- second
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university. the first was columbia. .olumbia dates back the men gave their males a classical education. leptin, they could target to cicero if they could dig them up. they went home to their business fathers who said, i need you to speak latin. i need you to make money. -- i do not need you to speak latin, i need you to make money. firm who built it. a fellow in the firm got the idea of wrapping this brand-new university in a running country, they wrapped it in a gothic revival style that remind you, is supposed to remind you, of cambridge or oxford. i love the way we americans think and by the way the chaplain the middle is actually modeled on king's chapel in
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cambridge. remember, it is going up the posh new part of town. when he goes up, the stock market crashes and the posting ,rea canal boom is over and nyu a single building and they could not dealt it up. we know nyu is on the way to being the 51st state, so how could this be? one building and they can't fill it up? they could not. there was a depression. so they went to the classrooms to artists and it became de one of theccident, first in new york. you had a j davis, the architect, another architect from paris. his first studio was in there. do i have to, explain them? he is in there. , nyu. epstein morris
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we know him from the morse code. pioneer of photography takes his to the -- takes a sister to the roof, photographs or, creates the world's first outdoor photograph portrait. this building was alive with a artist. the identified with the building. remember, around them, including the people who owned the house on the left, was wealthy upside eastern new york. the building is identified with artists. you are is a photograph. it was taken away in the 1890's. our galleries are now in that building. when they replaced it in the 1890's, industry was moving into thought the they main building would eventually be some kind of a factory and they were concentrating on their new campus in the 1890's, 1900s. it is now called community
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college. inn this building came down the 1890's, richard morris hunt had a studio in there. he was heartbroken. heartbroken because this was his youth coming down. wanted to say, richard welcome to new york. you know, i where you hang out when you are young is probably not there anymore because that is how the city works. view of justter how pre-1811 that part of the city is. i lived in new york all my life. i never know where i yam, it is part of being in the village. you notice west of greenwich avenue, there is guns worth street. greenwich avenue. that represents one of the old east-west roads and you see it becomes the northern frontier of pre-1811 new york. it is ironic that the high line
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begins at guns worth street. it is ironic you are standing in, you are standing over here, post-1811anding in new york and looking into pre-1911. washington square was east of 6th avenue. the lower westside was west of sixth avenue. never did they mean. if you grew up in washington square, he lived in washington square. you know how it works. i have never got past washington avenue. [laughter] >> they just would not know. 1857, a new center of -- phoneme in his somewhat up on 10th street just east of 6th avenue on the north side. and is now a red brick
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apartment building. this was a studio building. richard morris hunt designed it. the first building built in the united states for artist studios. are a puritan country and the visual arts in this country were frowned upon. said, haha you are not his, you just want girls to take their close off. -- their clothing. these studios wrapped around a central room that ran the height of the building with a huge skylight and you can use that central room for art shows, expositions, wine and cookies, that kind of thing. there were doors between these studios and on the weekends it was open house for people to shop for art.
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the doorss opened all and people can circulate around the entire building so it is not just for making art, it is selling art. a very yankee building. it,ou saw the front of redbrick, 1857. this was a hunt building. hudson river brick. slab of plaster of rent make it look marble and then my verizon and everyone whipping was marble. not this building. brick.wn hudson river look at those decorations. it is almost like a precursor to 1930's architecture and the streamlining of the 1930's. it was turned down in the 1950's. -- torn down in the 1950's. here is one of the studios. it might be richard more sense but i am not sure.
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the architect of the building moved to studio to this building. look at this ceiling height. remarkable two-story height. there was a fashion in the into studiorn them apartments. two-story high rooms. kitchensbalconies with underneath. here on 77th there is one, 60 seven st a lot of them. buildings.t studio today, what they call a studio apartment is basically a one-room closet. you are supposed to be happy you are living in new york, you know. probably the idea for the original studio apartments came from the studio building itself. this was up until 1953. lived in it.ne who they were thrown out when the building came down. here are prince of uptown middle-class people coming
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downtown to 10th street in the 1870's. these people are shopping for on 42nd,ably living 57th street. coming downtown, probably inside -esqueur-story glass ceilinged main room. here they are looking in the studio. i am sure the art is probably provided them with plenty of sherry and port to make the art look better. i know know if this is an artist or this lady's husband, but the artist that these people are dealing with, respectable artists. an artist, bute they came from respectable families and respectable people. a few blocks away worthy not respectable artists. walt whitman, openly gay. minkin, not exactly his girlfriend. out in 1857,d hang
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1858. a swiss german opened a bar underground. the west side walk of broadway. these characters, walt whitman was openly gay. ada minkin, these actually were a lot of clothing or her. pantaloons. wear pants and the in 1930's, smoked cigars long before marlena dittrich did. she was quite a girl with quite a career. identified not with the neighborhood. above them was the luxury shopping district in the 1850's. they did not identify with that, they were literally underground.
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l train opens.e like in chicago and philadelphia. a true l-subway system. little cars. a two-track line. took forever to get you to harlem but it was better than the street for sure. it gave us what we already understood. east of 6th avenue was washington square. west was the lower west side. nobody ever crossed that line. west of 6th avenue mike ross the avenue to work as a servant in washington square, but believe me, the people in washington square never went on the other side of washington square. believe that. on the lower right, opened in 1878, going past the practically
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brand-new jefferson architecture house. in 1870 six, they put up a courthouse. courthouses all over new york city and those days because the court served whenever crime was committed in their district. this courthouse in 1876, by the way because of where was located in 1906 is where the trail was for the murder of stanford white. because he was murdered at madison square garden when it was in madison square, which was nearby. jefferson market, the farmers farmers aey gave the 24-hour american hall -- market hall. then they had a four-phase clock in the day when nobody had watches. a pocket watch was expensive. a public service. that was a fire watchtower, by the way. then there was a police precinct
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and a jailhouse. whenever i look at this, i think of rudolph giuliani. i picture him shoving the perpetrator. he is a happy man. [laughter] >> this complex came down except for the courthouse which was still in operation in the 1920's and up went, on the site of the prison, the women's house of detention. i do not know how many of you have found memories of the women's house of detention but i know i was on greenwich avenue in the 1970's and the love letters of the girls on the sidewalk was one of the colorful aspect of being in the village back in the 1960's and 1970's. when they toured on the house of detention fought back and this became a garden as it is today. the jefferson market course else itself, one of -- courthouse, one of my favorite buildings.
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part of american architectural history. the codesigner of central park did this 10 or 15 years after central park. this is a punk building. brickhudson river red just like the artist studio but this is a court house. plain red brick. plain white limestone. like a woman going out without her underscore. the route ofbecame modern design in the 20th century, form follows structure. decorations, mindy she -- medici gothic decorations. this would later be demolished. get a nearby, in the
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future she is going to found the french architecture and fight to save so home. her first fight was to -- to save soho. saved it does and it turned into the library. a wonderfulture was man but people thought he was crazy because in america you do not recycle old buildings. that is ridiculous. ofsaid no and did a number projects but one of my favorites is the courthouse. you how different these populations were, bleecker street when i was the main street of the italian greenwich village. he 419 30's, before mayor laguardia took away the pushcarts and made them in illegal. he hated the pushcarts.
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street was always, for years the main street. if you go along bleecker street on sixth or seventh, you can still find a little bit of the shops left. remember, those italians who shopped on bleecker street, they lived in these act streets. this is minetta street, and 1890's, early 1900s. none of us would've gone there back then. you will went there if you are looking for trouble. drugs or prostitution. few years, the new generation of middle-class young people are going to discover this neighborhood and start moving in and they are going to debit with a new name, greenwich village that none of the people photograph ever heard. in the 1900s and 1910s in this tenement apartment, this young
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couple would be there and in the next apartment, and italian them who thought they were the lower west side. you are looking at jefferson courthouse. patchin place is in this photograph. slum alley. only a few years later, it becomes a center of residence. i think judah barnes actually lived in patchin place. louise bryant probably came over. maybe it does st. vincent delay, maybe evident goldsmith. ande were a lot of women greenwich village. they gave the man a run for their money. look how different the world is a few blocks away. believe me, people who lived in a street and 5th avenue never went to patchin place.
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cummingss a kid, e.e. the poet was there. we would always recognize him. we were new york kids. only tourists and people from jersey went there. the whole of the world from patchin place. if you looked away, it was so new york. paris is like that, that is why i enjoy it. the pre-civil war richard would washingtont of square until the end of the 19th century. of1889, the 100 anniversary aorge washington, they built triumphant arch spanning university and eight street. if you want to know what their life was like, pre-civil war, look at washington square.
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read henry james's washington ,"uare or see "the heiress with a live you do havilland and montgomery clift. what a movie. oh my. they loved the idea of in arch because i think they felt that by the 1890's, the uptown rift -- rich, vanderbilts, morgan's, we did not hang around with them so they built the downtown -- the downtown rich built a permanent arch. it became the symbol in the would be what greenwich village. as a matter of fact, that is the arch that in 1916, a bunch of people broke into the arch and they got to the roof in 1916 and declared the independent republic of greenwich village. int is not why it was built
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1891. here is another matter. there is washington square. very well-to-do. the dmz zone. the lower west side. a new generation of young people discover this area. what is happening is the tenements and italians are moving from the south from the lower east side, gradually moving up to the southern ends of washington square. on the east side, factories are moving in from broadway and lafayette and on the west side, you have the mostly italian immigrant city. a ghetto. she didn't square was surrounded on three sides by tenements and get is from the fourth side, where the old houses. they were hanging on. when the young people in the 1900s and 1910s discovered this area, the radicals were all a
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bunch of middle-class, but the waifish ones settled into the tenements and housing south of washington square. mcdougal became the main street for these young people. that is where the cafes were, the bars where were they hung out and got dead drunk. the theaters were there. mcdougal street, right here, is washington square west. mcdougal street became the main street. sixth avenue runs north. seventh avenue begins at greenwich avenue and runs north. what is going to happen in the 1910s, with the expansion of subways, 7th avenue will be plowed through the middle of the village in 1917. prior to isolated that, which is why the young people loved it but it is suddenly on everybody's map and it is so easy to get there and
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will change everything. this new young generation is going to produce a whole new kind of culture and is additions ofn in this magazine called "the masses." a social magazine founded in 1911. in 1912, 2 young men took it over and we did it graphically and read did it in such a spectacular way. they understood the 20th century was all about visual. and they redid it to grab you. several years lady -- later, they were socialists, against world war i. they were shut down by the government. the government try to throw them in jail for sedition. it went to pre-trial and never got anywhere. in 1917, it made roy dell and max is and the most famous men in america and put greenwich
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village on the map. this is the beginning. this magazinef are absolutely sensational. so beautiful i cannot believe it is a socialist magazine. vegan meatloaf. they dressed horribly. never danced at bar mitzvahs. i would never be a socialist. illustrations included a painter, one of his views of the village. looking up 6th avenue. the l hudson runs down leaker to west runway and seventh. in the distance is the jefferson market courthouse. fleming'scal of john paintings, called the ash cans school, simple, everyday paintings. what are these guys doing? they are trying to pick up these girls.
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that is original. this is everyday life. it is this generation of painters who discovered factories, everyday life on the seat. show, they have the famous armory show and these guys become famous across the united states. show, three women put it on. this is jon sloan. there's max eastman on the left. along with floyd dell, they transform the masses. layout had a lot .o do with the new yorkers based on max eastman's ideas. he is with his sister, not his wife. that is his sister.
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they came from to minister parents. very progressive minister parents. max eastman 1910s, married a young german girl. she wanted to keep her maiden name. akin those days, it was a big deal. the newspapers had photographs of them. my goodness gracious. one of the paper said, if women were allowed to keep their maiden names it would lead to lose morals, sexual promiscuity, and divorce. we know from 100 years later, they were right. but they were having a good time. so, you know, a goodness. what about this couple? jon on the left. louise on the right. both very strong people. talk about eight wills.
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-- equals.ow they were at each other all the time but had great respect. he started a communist reporting. she did reporting for which she did tremendously good reviews. she died of typhus in russia. -- he was book disillusioned but he died. so they do not have to kill him. she comes back to new york and marries a third time. her third husband was boring. everybody divorces a spouse who is born. the divorceine rate. her third husband found her in bed with a woman and got the kids in the divorce. that is done now, i look and say, oh please. if you know history, it has already been done.
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here is where everybody hung out. playhouse founded in provincetown, rhode island in 1915 or 1916 came to new york settled onudied -- mcdougal street. mcdougal street on washington square became the place where all these bohemians hang out. goeserm bohemian itself back to the 1840's, the french dreamed it up for these young middle-class kids who came to paris and did the starving artist routine. they lived in carrots, lived on press of bread for three days. they would be jumping around apartmentment to look and people said they were gypsies and in those days everybody thought gypsies came from bohemia, which is now in the check republic. i don't knowrote if it was a play or novel but he
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"the keys to the bohemian life." 40 years later, the opera. playhousencetown started a tradition of off off that runs inter the village into the 20th century. is, 1960 when it opens up, 1924 agnes st. vincent play opens a theater on the west side. , and there wasd greatle in the 1960's, a pioneer in alternative theater and after him, a theater opened on the east side. street.ornelia
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we used to sent on the floor and the actors would be sweating on you. this is all on mcdougal street. right next to the provincetown playhouse was the first real hope amy and playhouse that was not based on a bar. -- the first real bohemian playhouse that was not based on a bar. celebrities, i don't think any of you recognize them and i certainly do not which .hows you the only person i know in this dell.ricature is floyd it is floyd dell and max eastman that the united states will go out in the sedition -- actor in
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the sedition trial. and here's where floyd dell and max eastman began their addition of the masses. feministf the first clubs. the heterodoxy club. club,pstairs, the liberal which actually invited boys from harlem to join them. a big deal. this is what the real one looked like. this started a tradition of bohemian cafes. a lot of them run by gays. in the 1920's, the gays were open about their lifestyle. withchanged in the 1930's the coming of repressive laws. changecist 1930's would things but this was the 1910s,
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the 1920's, when to be gay was no big deal. 1920'sr of famous figures were gay. for instance, at the st. vincent delay. room,he walked into a women fell in love with her, menthol of there, she fell in love back. enough, by 1925, she leaves the village, goes off and marries. she and her husband had in open marriage but they truly loved each other. they were very much a soul couple but whatever they did on the side was their business. each other.loved 1949 he died, 1950 she dies. interesting, interesting person. st. vincent milary.
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interesting, interesting woman. woman was married to a dentist in buffalo, did not find that exciting, so came to new york. she was lovely. she lived at ninth and fifth. she had her own salon. together. get in the 20th century, she brought together a lot of writers, is. even one of the black writers downharlem would come here. which is interesting because all of the readings i do, you do not hear about too many blacks from harlem. the harlem renaissance was already starting in the 1910s but there was not too much mixing as far as i could see but she really -- it is kind of interesting she invited one down here. what she was good at we are not sure, but she certainly looked
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good posing. she did that very well. with14, she had had it greenwich village and she went up somewhere else. remember where, but she went up. talk about north of washington square, the women bohemians. vanderbilt whitney. an interesting lady. came from this uptown rich family. downtown and created a second life. had both lives at the same time. they goodness, no facebook, note twitter. what she did in the village stayed there. a stable on an alley and turned it into an artist loft. she was a sculptor. not terrific at she was a great
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collector of modern art and by the late 1920's, she creates her studio in a stable in 1907 or 1908 and 20 years later, she has an incredible collection of art.n she opened the metropolitan museum of art. they said, are you crazy do want that garbage? she opens in on it street in 1930. how interesting, right? the whitney has now left the upper east side home they are now on guns worth street and who is in the whitney musm but deep metropolitan museum. this is the lady that started all of that. work desk.s at her here she is a few years later. she is going to create the whitney museum. her artist studio is down here. mcdougal alley.
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east. looking if we were looking down mcdougal alley, it is still there today. stable is on this side of the alley for washington square north houses. the stables on this site for 8th street houses. artist, i do not remember his name in 1900 who thethe first to turn one of stables into an artist studio. he got other artists to join him. gertrude and about whitney joined him. now, she is going to gradually let her collection grow. she is going to break through to the house on 8th street which then stable was for. here they are constructing what would be the new whitney museum
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and here they are opening up in the 1930's. today it is the studio building, the studio of in art school and it is a lovely place and one of the last places in greenwich village dedicated. i wish them the best with the real estate values. i do wish them the best. a wonderful stuff of people. this is the entrance, it still looks like that today. it is the studio school and you would still see that today. here is the original whitney. i love it. barry bonds. different from what martial warrior gave them a 1950, right? the studio school, if you walk in today, it still looks exactly like that today. and back of the studio school, coming in from 8th street, is the stable that gertrude bought in 19 -- 1870 and turned into an artist studio. this is that stable.
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hired a-- 1917, she wild and crazy guy from one of those mayflower families. mayflower hethe probably would have sunk it. he would plaster and redo the fireplace, chimney, ceiling. way, it was all done and brilliant colors. sometime in the 20th century, they whitewash the whole thing. today the studio school is trying to raise the money, they now have a lot of money, they are trying to raise the money and the day they restored it will be fabulous to walk into. if you look closely at the fireplace and chimney you'll notice the flames rising up. look closely at the flames and you will see devils, which is, and i don't know what else you are going to see. to the ceiling, here
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is the chimney. and the a smirking son rays of the sun cut across the ceiling. , here'sg the clouds just one view. i do not know if you can see that as well. there is a ingrained. and what looks like a small shark. what is holding onto the stingray is a nude man who looks like he is going through the flames of hell. a fortress probably. whoe is another nude male looks like he is going through the fires of hell. withould line the floor gertrude vanderbilt's party and trip. the day they restore this it is going to be an amazing piece of history. we thought we were crazy when we
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were hippies in the 1960's. really, it just shows you craziness comes with every generation if you look for it. all of that is going to change with the coming of the new subway line. the original subway on the left bypassed greenwich village but in 1913 they made a bunch of new lines and the west side line was extended through the middle of andvillage under 7th avenue this isolation you see is going to disappear with the coming of the trial, the three trials of sedition for these guys in 1917. remember, they were against the war. never convicted them. instead, the government made them deem most famous people need united states and if this was the 16th century, most people would say or none at the
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state but this was the 20th century and most people said, i am going to go to new york and go to greenwich village and see the bohemian lifestyle they are talking about and maybe some of that will rob and suddenly greenwich village was on the map. everybody in america wanted to get on the bus and forget the metro poem -- much of college and opera and metropolitan museum, they wanted to go to greenwich village. it became a tourist trap. people would hire friends, put them in a smock, put them in a andmy apartment or studio throw paintings around and threw paint around and bring a tourist from midtown or out of town and this was an artist tour of the real greenwich village. if you go to williamsburg, you get the same thing, i'm sure. .ere is a 1924 map
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there are maps all over the place. i am going to show you the real greenwich village. the real scandal, the real story. there is washington square. it was redubbed greenwich village suddenly the whole area was greenwich village. street was no longer a dmz zone between the right and wrong side. mcdougal street became the main street. tea shops during the day. province town playhouse. when i came along in the 1950's we 1960's, this is where went to see bob dylan when he first came to new york. leader, paul, and mary the first year they were together. joan baez. we saw them all on mcdougal street. even in the 1920's, mcdougal street was the heart of the
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commercial part of greenwich village. there was a second kind of subsector and that was christopher street and that was because of the subway and that became a second center and came to be identified with gays in the stone wall is going to be built in the 19 60's. -- the bookstores, the tchotchke shops. say, i know the secret greenwich village and will show you that. you can see from the women's orsses it was the 1920's 1910s. the cafes on mcdougal got more and more touristy. they all had a theme. long before disney, a theme for every restaurant.
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here is a woman wearing a smock dress. they all had to be on the basement, you could not be on the top floor and had to be in the basement or it was bourgeois. here she is, the furniture is all furniture found on the street. everything purposefully mismatched. here is another place. i love this guy, look at him. he is probably looking for another pirate, he is not too interested in her. [laughter]] >> that was east village, greenwich village, you found your own kind. everybody had their favorite place in greenwich village. exposed brick wall. halloween decorations hanging from the ceiling. no table cloths. mismatched crockery.
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tot was the stick of going greenwich village. a dive. a little hangout. town it was linen tablecloths, red velvet on the floor, waiters and tuxedos. not there. you could let it all hang out. she in her many layers of clothing, he and his suit, they are letting it all hang out in greenwich village. in 1913, there was a paterson labor strike in paterson, new jersey. when of the few instances they got together for a political purpose and what did they do? they hired a halt, it is still there. popular, the 1913 ball, they started having them
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all the time and the drag ball at webster hall were infamous. sometimes they had two of them a week. i think it was only the depression that stop them. you think, we are so clever today. we are transsexuals, whatever we had today. but no. they had it all. and they let it all hang out until the 1930's closed it down. and you know the story, the village becomes popular. developers come in. they got these places and turn them into middle-class places for people from uptown. , theis like bushwick today same thing. but he 1920's, the village has become bourgeois. seemays of the bohemians to be over. you have number 1 5th avenue on the left, one of the great article buildings of the city.
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eleanor roosevelt, i think that was the building she lived in. that the a sign village has become gentrified. you still have the whitney museum on 8th street and the new school that built its headquarters on 12th street in 1930 one. i just went past it. i am an alumnus and social research, actually. given village touch was an1931 by giving it industrial look. here it is in a photograph on the right dated 1931. asdoesn't to the theater part of the new school still in operation. i just walked past it a few weeks ago. a wonderful theater, very much german expression is stick and a way. the seats are wrapped around the
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stage. the architecture. it reminds you perhaps of radio city music hall a few years ago. by the way, there is the lobby. the theater is on the right. not much of a lobby. amazingly had, to, not 1, 2 murals. where in new york to get murals? them in europe, france, not new york. you get/funding in new york. financier in. but the new school has very different artists to do these hand this is kansas city. this is thomas hart benton. he does america today, meaning 1928, 1929, when he went across america and sketched it. he was a macho guy from kansas. life, he became rather
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right wing. interesting in this visual essay of america in the 1920's, there is some really far out images that were quite controversial with the right wing crowd. the way he sketched women. the way he sketched the hooch encouraging dancers. she -- hoochie ko theyo wanted atc theh met andie today itda has its own room and canncers. appreciated. along with jose clemente orozco, a communist mexican winter. he is painting social justice in the world. wasainted it in a room that the meeting room or cafeteria or dining room, today it is used as
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a classroom. he did it in fresco. oil.n painted in benton was mr. wright wing, mr. macho. and roscoe was a communist. they are wonderful. and rock shoe because it runs round the whole room and the fresco, where new york to get fresco? i have to explain to design students what fresco is. american kids do not know what a fresco is, tying kids do. communist kind of thing. clemente orozco doing his work. a fellow communist painter, diego rivera is doing a famous mural across the way, which is
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destroyed. got his revenge. that is the rockefeller murals slightly changed. i cannot really find it, but somewhere in there diego rivera a -- he gotco as back at rockefeller, rockefeller did not deserve that but that is a different story. see the mural in mexico city. wonderful. it gives you an idea of the tensions of that decade. depression, fascism, politics. a grim decade and isn't it theic that in that decade
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village got its mojo back. i was fascinated when we did an interview of the village vanguard. i never realized it was famous for poetry. i always thought it was a jazz publication. you could a teenager, drink at 12 if that is what you wanted to do. that's while the kids from new sidewalk.ew up on the but vanguard, the owner on the left died in 1980, his wife took over, now the daughter runs it. in the late 1940's, the vanguard -- it started the whole trend of the folks singing
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trend. they had to disband but they of peter, the basis and, and mary and bob dylan all the different folkies of the 1960's, they started it. in the village vanguard, they also had judy holliday, comity. bernstein who became famous later for his musical talent. all of this began at the village vanguard and what about this club in the ground floor of this building off sheridan square in 1938. barney josephson, a shoe salesman, opens up cafe society. was the first integrated nightclub outside of harlem. the harlem nightclubs were
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segregated, but not all of them. but the first integrated club outside of harlem was this one. he said, i am going to open a club where anybody could come and they did. on the upper left is judy holliday at the cafe society. there is barney josephson. his brother was a communist and the club had to close down by the late 1940's, early 1950's a record made from the cotton club for one of the -- not cotton club, cafe society jam sessions in hand some of you may remember the potpourri, 8th street and university, now a barbecue for many years. and he brought back a singer,
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she is probably now in her 80's. from the oldrful, school. you don have that kind of singing anymore. we were so lucky to have her, barney josephson brought her back. , i reason i put this in think greenwich village is not foring enough credit integrating new york. i was a kid in the 1940's and 1950's, white new york was ethnic new york. there were no blacks around. you did not hang around with black people. it was simple. i was a teenager, we would go down to mcdougal street, hang out in the jazz clubs. we would go to because clubs. it was integrated. it was the first time in my life i associated with black people and i had no problem with that and it took me two seconds to act, ties and that was it. a done deal. after that, the civil rights
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alabama, montgomery, i said, what is their problem? todon't give enough credit greenwich village. in this time, if you went up to the latin quarter, it was probably all white. i can tell you when i was in my 30's, i was talking to a black guy who was growing up in harlem when i was great but in queens, he told me what he was taught growing up in harlem in the 1950's, the role was no blacks out between five and 10 street after dark unless you a job. ask anyone warned during that time and they will tell you that was the way it worked. and greenwich village help stop that and i think them for that and and the 1940's and 1950's you get a whole series of club -- clubs run by jews and what did they showcase? gays and blacks.
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here we are today and a whole different world. i saw barbara streisand. i went down the stairs, that i was going into hell and she came out and i looked at her and i said to my friend, are you sure about this? she was wearing used clothing. -- second-hand clothing. and yet a jewish know she would not fix and i said, i don't know about this. she is a little kooky. then she opened up and can you imagine that voice? extraordinary. i saw all of these guys. dylan,vallance, bob peter, paul, and mary. there is a young barbra streisand. and you know something, you could show up at the venue 10 minutes before the show, put down your money, walk in. now you have to go at midnight on line by five seconds after mid-night every ticket is taken. who needs that?
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i would rather stay home and watch pay-per-view television. the other pioneer in the village of coue. christopher street station of one-to-three lines open to the late 1960's. a whole different kind of gay place from before. the windows were not ordered up. the windows were open, you could see inside. people went there, every type of person you can imagine. they did not care who knew they were gay. it was one of the reasons in 1968 these guys fought back and rated the joint. they would regularly write them. they fought back. they cannot possibly imagine that one day there would be gay marriage and america. i mean, they could not possibly imagine that. in the 1970's, by the way come along with the gay scene in the village, i was so lucky. in the 1980's,
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but in the 1970's, in the same spot that cafe society was the 1930's, charles had a theater of the ridiculous and funny.brilliant hysterical. we're are on the floor laughing like crazy. oh, we had wonderful times at his theater down in cherokee square. and in june of 1969, who would know the gay movement would achieve what it achieved today. i hand up in this scene with 1961. we know what she is doing but i love this one on the left. this is what we used to call a coed. she is now a woman. a young woman. she is dressed like a security -- sorority girl but with those sunglasses and hairdo, we know she is a hip chick sitting there in washington square in the
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early 1960's because a few generations earlier, these people on the upper right gathered together on mcdougal street and basically created the first of america's bohemian greenwich village. thank you. [applause] announcer: this weekend, this c-span city to our hosted by our cox cable partners explores the history and literary culture of nevada. we will visit an independent bookstore in downtown las vegas. about the lasalks vegas literary scene and why he chose to open the only independent bookstore in the city. >> there are a lot of great
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readers and writers here and the city has a little bit more literary vibrancy the people are aware of. announcer: also the former las vegas mayor talks about his book. weeks later ae phone call comes into the law the man says, who is the best criminal lawyer in las vegas. the fellow who lifted up the phone update and said, who is the best criminal lawyer in las vegas and turned to the person who did the criminal lawyering for the man -- and items related to the history of gambling in las vegas.
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>> gambling in las vegas goes back to the beginning of las vegas. by theas was established railroad. a ranch and decided to lay a town out. announcer: then we will visit the national atomic testing museum. 65 miles northwest of las vegas, the site was established in 1951 for the testing of nuclear devices. 1950's-19 90's, mushroom clouds from the tests could be seen for 100 miles. >> they started to advertise in advance a local people and tourists planning their itinerary could come to las vegas and plan on witnessing or observing a nuclear blast. the tour: watched
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throughout the day. d.c.'s manat 2:00 city store, working with our cable affiliates visiting cities across the country. >> this weekend on the presidency, colonial williamsburg hosts a >> jerk -- hosts a lecture on george washington after he retired from the residency. >> washington has five farms, totaling 8000 acres. nine miles of fence to give you dealingof what he is with. you can imagine how full his days would be. in one sense, he is almost running a hotel because everyone, friends, the curious, visitors, want to stop and see him. he is the greatest man of the age. there is an interesting note he
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wrote, it says, if no one pops in for dinner it will be the first time in 20 years martha and i have dined alone. that gives you an idea of his schedule. and remember, he owns over 50,000 acres of land out west. he is trying to collect rent. he is dealing with the potomac and now company to try to find the waterway to the next the east to the west. loc in theks capital city that will be named after him and he is deeply involved. announcer: watch the entire program sunday at 8:00 p.m. and 9:00 p.m. eastern here on c-span3. citizens have got to feel that their vote matters. that their voice matters and whether they can not spare a
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single cent to help a person running for office or whether they can write a big check. their struggles will be listened to and followed up on. >> sunday night on he helped shepherd to the change senators were not appointed by the legislature but demanded elections. i don't know if those were the first but the idea that it wasn't going to be the party bosses who made the decisions about who the nominees were in smoke-filled back rooms. but rather the people. in free and fair elections. >> sunday night at 8:00 eastern on q&a.
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clemson university professor roger grant talks about the history of american historytation and the of interurban electric rail at the end of the 19th century. they were similar to trolleys. for the rise of the personal automobile these local systems allowed people from rural areas to get to city centers and a cheap reliable way. he talks about them as precursors to the light rail of today his class is about an hour and 10 minutes. >> we are going to begin a three-part study. it is certainly one of the least studied aspects of american transportation history. the overall theme and one that i want you to keep in mind is that we can make the argument that the electric trolley is the

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