tv Holocaust Survivor Anna Grosz CSPAN August 16, 2016 11:03pm-12:06am EDT
americans dropped an atomic bomb on hiroshima and over 100,000 people were killed. it was -- i couldn't comprehend it at age 10 that there was such a weapon, and even today it is hard to comprehend. but you must remember that during president eisenhower, which was over 50, 60 years ago, when he was president, kids had to learn, each school had to have a shelter and children had to learn when there was an air attack, they had to lie under the table and fortunately this never came to pass. >> and we have one more question here and then we'll wrap up the program. sir? >> you certainly experienced many challenges as a young person. what was your attitude when you
were a senior in high school or kind of transitioning, because i'm sure that many of us have experienced certain difficulties, but maybe not to the extent that you have. what can you say that your attitude was, even as a young person? >> so as a high school senior say having been through all that you'd been through, what was your attitude in terms of going through transitioning of that life from being a child to a young adult, given all that you'd experienced? >> it's a very good question. unfortunately, i'm 87 now. it's hard to remember what it was like to be 19 or 20, but as i said before when you are very young, very elastic and plastic so you can adapt to -- you forget bad things and you just concentrate on the good. >> thank you. all right.
thank you very much. i think we're going to close our program now, and so, again, after julius finishes, joel will come up on the stage and i'll ask you to stand at that point and we'll get julius heading upstairs to sign copies of his book. so julius. >> yes. i was asked to make some concluding comments. i will tell you something that i said before. in massachusetts there are over 6 million people, and when kids ask me what was the holocaust like, i would say, imagine you get up in the morning and all the people of the state are dead. but what i -- in addition, so this is very important. what's also important is that we
should not forget that people can do bestial things to each other and the holocaust was one and darfur and sudan, there was another holocaust, and in africa, there are many holocausts going on. they're not as well publicized as the holocaust that happened to the jews. but this was the first time in history that a whole people of ethnic origin were exterminated and they were exterminated in term ways. also human life was not considered as human. they were -- the nazis considered jews as less than
animals and so i just want you to remember something to make sure that we never have a holocaust again. >> thank you. american history tv airs on c-span 3 every weekend telling the american story through events, interviews and visits to historic locations. this month american history tv is in primetime to introduce you to programs you could see every weekend on c-span3. our features include lectures in history, visits to college classrooms across the country, to hear lectures by top history professors, "american artifacts" takes a look at treasures at u.s. historic sites, museums and archives.
"real america" revealing the 20th century through archival films and news reels. the civil war where you hear about the people who shape the civil war and reconstruction and "the presidency" focuses on u.s. presidents and first ladies to learn about their politics, policies and legacies. all this month in primetime and every weekend on american history tv on c-span3. tonight on american history tv primetime, holocaust survivors tell their stories of how they made it through world war ii. we begin next with anna grosz who survived, and then what the holocaust was like in the netherlands where she grew up. that's followed by survivor julius who tells his story of getting through the war in poland and lithuania. wednesday night on "american history tv primetime," civil war
and reconstruction. at 8:55, photographs that show the history of emancipation. 9:45 p.m. eastern, the political battles during reconstruction after the civil war. and at 10:50, historians discuss the different narratives created after the war to explain why the south lost. next on american history tv, holocaust survivor anna grosz recalls her family's experiences after hungary annexed a portion of romania that included her hometown then imposed anti-semitic laws. the family was confined along with other jews to a ghetto when nazi germany occupied hungary. they were transported to auschwitz concentration camp and later forced to do hard labor.
this was part of the "first person" series. that's little over an hour. the life stories of holocaust survivors transcend the decades. what you're about to hear from anna is one individual's account of the holocaust. we have prepared a brief slide presentation to help with her introduction. anna grosz was born into a jewish family on april 20th, 1926, in rasca, transylvania, a part of romania as anna seelfreund. anna celebrated her 90th birthday yesterday. the arrow on this map points to rasca. these photos taken in 1919 show anna's parents samuel and ilona seelfreund. am samuel owned a vineyard and was a wine merchant while ilona cared for anna and her five
series. in 1940 rasca fell under hungary rule and the people there became subject to anti-semitic laws. under the new laws anna's father vineyard was confiscated and he was conscripted into the hungarian labor service. samuel never returned home. this photo from 1943 shows anna and her sisters in order from left to right is clara, elizabeth, margaret, margaret's daughter suzan, violet, anna and gisela. in march 1944, nazi germany occupied hungary. hundreds of thousands of hungarian jews were turned over to the custody of the germans. anna, her sisters and her mother were placed into the satu-mare ghetto indicated by the circle on this map and then deported to auschwitz-birkenau. auschwitz is indicated by the
blue arrow on this map. nazi authorities selected anna and three of her sisters for forced labor while they sent her mother and two other sisters to the gas chambers. in june 1944 anna and her remaining three sisters were sent to stutthof concentration camp indicated here with a red arrow. later they were transported to praust, a sub camp. in february of 1945, ss s evacuated most of the prisoners including anna's three sisters marching them on foot. soviet troops liberated them around march 11th, 1945. anna was left behind with other injured and sick prisoners because she had previously broken her leg. on march 23rd, 1945, soviet troops liberated some 600 prisoners, including anna. anna later reunited with her sisters gisela and clara and found out that her sister
elizabeth had been shot during the forced march. and we close with this photograph of anna in 1946. anna would remain in romania until emigrating to the united states in 1964. anna, together with her husband em ary grosz and their two young sons alex and andrew were allowed after much difficulty to leave romania and begin their life in the united states. they settled in new york where emery went to work as a fabric cutter in new york city's garment district. anna found work as a seamstress in a clothing factory working with fellow hungarian dark speaking holocaust survivors and refugees. anna worked at the same place for the next 27 years driving 2 1/2 hours to and from work each day. after finishing high school, their two sons attended university and went on to very successful careers and are now retired. alex was an attorney at the u.s. patent office. andrew was a geologist with the
federal government. anna has four grandchildren and a 5-year-old great-grandson. after the retirement, anna and emery moved to the washington, d.c., area in 2003. anna's husband suffered a stroke in 1999 and anna cared for him until he passed away in 2009. she also was the caregiver for one of her sisters prior to her death and then for her receisis husband. anna now volunteers with this museum's visitors service. you'll find her at the visitors desk on tuesdays from 10:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. she has spoken about her experiences to local schools. for example, she recently spoke to 500 students at a high school in west virginia. anna's son, alex, and his wife, karla, and anna's niece, suzan, are here with anna today. suzan also volunteers here at the museum, and with that i would like to ask you to join me in welcoming our first person mrs. anna grosz.
september 1st, 1939. before we turn to all that happened to you and your family during the war in the holocaust let's start first with you telling us a little bit about your family, the community, and you in the years before the war began. >> yes. hello, first, friends, thank you for coming to listen to my story. what i have to tell, made a mistake, i'm not 90 because i turned the 9 to a 6 like this so i'm 60, not 90. i have actual time to tell my story, but i'm going to try to take the essence from that. one year you read through the family and all of us jewish
people is unbelievable. the torture and the humiliation and something that i sometimes think that am i still normal? i doubt that sometimes, you know. so before the war, we had a nice family, right. my father was a wine merchant. i had five sisters, so there were six girls. the older girls were sent to high school and the younger girls were in school. i was only 14 years old when the hungarian occupied transylvania. everybody knows this because that's how they make the horror movies from transylvania.
the first thing what they did is they stopped the jewish people to go to high school. so that was the first tragedy for me because i couldn't go to high school like my older sisters. >> anna, i'm going to ask you just a couple of questions before we go there, if you don't mind, and i hope later you'll talk more about what that loss of education meant to you, but your father, he had been a decorated soldier in the first world war, hadn't he? >> yes, he was, but in the first world war he was in hungary, and because the germans lost the war then in the first world war also, it became romania, and the same thing happened in the second world war because the hungarian, the germans gave it
back to the hungarians so that's why we became hungarians again. my father married my mother in romania so he remained in romania. >> anna -- >> so as i said before -- >> one more question. >> yes. >> you told me that your parents, both your mother and father were very respected members of the community. will you tell us a little bit about them? >> yes. i would say that they were very honored people because my father was very correct man. everybody who bought the wine and brandy from him, they bought it in advance because they knew he would deliver it 100% what he sold. so my parents, what i have, i have no school education, but i have -- i have it from my parents and my very sweet
grandmother who was very studious. they taught us manners and discipline. so when she died, i wasn't so sorry for her because i did not like what she wanted me to do. well, let me go back to the family life that we had. we lived in peace. everybody had a job. my older sisters in school. gisela did not go to school because we had a little business at home also, a textile store, and i helped out my father with going to the vineyards and arrange for workers and everything. one day we did not know anything
was happened in the world. we had two stations on the radio, budapest and bucharest. we did not know what happened in the world that the germans occupied, germany or something. nothing about the war. only when they occupied transylvania, and then changed everything, schools, offices, everything in hungarian from romanian. not long after that started they took away the license from the store. they did not let jewish people out without the yellow star. they couldn't keep non-jewish
help, so it became they were not allowed even go through the street without that yellow star. in may the 4th, transylvania was occupied on march, the 4th march, 140. >> 1940. >> 1940. >> 1940. >> 1940. in 1944 hungary was the last country that the germans occupied from the whole europe, in 1940, so when they did all these things to us that they did not let us out, humiliation, even said that i am what i am but i'm not a jew.
so we were totally humiliated and that's -- i don't know, to me, that's even worse than suffering, the humiliation. >> and anna, after the hungarians did all these terrible things to you, they took away your family business and the textile -- >> they took away everything. >> how did your family -- you had a lot of mouths to feed. how did your family manage to make it? >> my father took care of that before. we had flowers. we had bread. we had -- and we had brandy we sold because we had a brandy machine also. a still, they call it. and we sold that and he lived from that. it was enough even to help other people. so it came the day, may the 4th, and family by family, they took all of us in the synagogue and
they said that we can take food with us for four days. >> anna, do you mind if i just go back and ask you a couple of questions? >> sure. >> before that happened, your father was con skriscripted int of the hungarian labor battal n battalions. >> yes. >> tell us about that. >> well, the worst thing was that the first thing and the worst thing was that they took forced labor all the young men from about 18 till 45 or so. they took all the men who was the heart of the people and it was all the people, the young people, and they took them to live in forced labor in the country and also i think in our
parts of hungary, and they -- they worked so hard and they tortured them. i don't know. i still don't have the answer for that. if they wanted to kill us because we were the enemy, the jewish people, why did they have to torture us before that? why did they do that before the killing? you know, one example, who did not happen to me but to my husband. it was two jewish people there who were forced laborer, and a hungarian soldier who was the guard said you say that you are a stinky jew, and the man said
why should i say that? and he said, because i told you so. so if you don't say that, that you are a stinky jew, i'm going to beat you. so he said. he went to the other people and you say that -- you say also that you are a stinky jew, and he said why should i say that? i am a college professor. if you don't say that, i'm going to beat you. he did not say that, and he started to beat him until he was half dead, then he said, i am a stinky jew. so this is -- and similar humiliation happened of which i can't say all of them but it happened. let me go back --
>> yes, you were going to tell us about your father. they took him away, and you never saw him again. >> my father was sent in a camp. he was a translator from german to hungarian, and he was sent a postcard for us and had budapest of a camp and never heard after that of them. what happened to him. we didn't know what happened. after we were taken, the whole -- the whole little town who lived, 50 jewish people, jewish family, they took us in the synagogue and we stayed there for about two or three days. and that synagogue, the children and the old people sleeping on the floor. it was a terrible thing and we didn't know why.
and what's going to happen after that? after four days, they put us in carriages. every -- the non-jewish people have to carry us about 37 kilometers from our homes in a ghetto where it was only jewish people who live there. they took the houses from non-jewish people to have home there. we didn't stay too long there, and then they said take food for four days with you, and they still didn't know what happened but i shouldn't say it was a surprise. it was a shock to us, because it came only that we didn't know what happened before that in the world.
so in the ghetto, we stayed there for about sweeping on the floor, mostly children, and old woman. because men were not there. and after four days, they took i don't know how many people. they took them to the train station, and they put them in a wagon there, and when they took our family, i was the 92nd in that wagon. we didn't know where is my mother, where is my sister because they pushed us in. and it was a battle in the corner of the wagon and who had to do out. they did it there. from time to time, the wagon
opened to empty that, but to stay four days in that train, the children cried. the old men prayed. some of them cursed, why did this happen to us? it was -- i tried to take one of my most terrible days from the whole part of that life. i thought of that one, the traveling four days and after that they let us out in auschwitz. later i found out that that was not the most terrible day in my life. they let us out at night. we were all dizzy and didn't know what happened to us.
dogs barking. german soldiers. and they took us to a place and the music played. jewish music players, they played their music. they wanted the chaos make it a little bit more supportive. so they took us to a door there and a german officer came with a stick and my sister had my ouldr sister's baby, 3 years old girl in her hand. and came a man to her and he asked, is this your baby? and she said, no. and then she said, give it to her mother because if a baby take away from their mother, they try to cry.
so she gave it back to the other. but if she wouldn't be warned give it back, she would have to go in the left side where the people were killed. didn't make a difference, live or die. so my mother, my older sister with the baby and my younger sister, 14 years old, was taken to one side. and my older sister, 25, gisela 20. i was 18. on another side. and they took us in a room. first of all, we had to take off our clothes and then sit in a
chair and they -- >> shaved you. >> -- took us or cut off our hair. i don't know what i felt because i don't think that i felt anything because i was so tired from that four days traveling in the train. what happened to me, it happened. i could comprehend what happened. so all the sisters were taken in a different room where we were disinfected with some white dust. and after that, we got a gray dress with a number on the sleeve. because they did not have time to tattoo us like other people were because we were the last
people who were occupied and deported. hungary was the -- >> you u told me, anna, because there were so many coming in from hungary, they just didn't have the time to tattoo you and so that's why. >> that's why. the last ones were hungarian. the less -- many places already the war was over already. but they still put the jewish people in trains and deported to auschwitz. that's what hungary did. they were already liberated, someplace, because in 1944, and 45 was over, right? so we were in auschwitz there, yes, they put us in, and we
slept in a stall there and one person came and she said, you were chosen. she was from czechoslovakia. she was there for four years already in the concentration camp. she spoke hungarian, also. and we asked her, what's happening to us? where are our parents? and our -- she said, you see that smoke? there are your parents. it was very close. auschwitz, when we leave, size 12, to that crematory. we think she was crazy. what, we didn't know. how about believe that they killed there in the crematorium. first we didn't believe her. we said she's a bad person, that's all. so they took us in auschwitz.
put us in some beds, where there are no covering or something, just -- and every day, we had to say. they counted us in the morning and at night. and the food was terrible, terrible. some beets and other greens, cooked, and a little piece of mushroom in the morning. very small piece of bread. and we have to stay in the line. always when we stayed in the line, at night, and in the morning, they did, they chose people who are very skinny, who was very fit. they just took them, and we never heard of them again. just remained the people who
were strong looking, but they always did that selection. all the time, when we were there. so one day, they said we choose people for work. and we were so happy for sisters, a few other girls from the town, that we go for work anywhere but not stay here. so they chose us for work, all forfour of us. we had to hide elizabeth, our older sister, because she was skinnier than the three of us and smaller. so they chose us for work. 800 of us who looked fit to work. that's what they said.
they took us to a hall where we stayed one day and by the train, they took us there and we saw the sun and we saw the nature. oh, we heard, what a nice thing that was presented us, to go to work. we are pride. so when we arrived, they did, again, the selection. we were not all good for work, but the four of us still remained there, the sisters. >> anna, just a minute. jump in for just a minute. >> yes. >> in addition, you'd line up five in a row and beside you and your three sisters, there was a fifth woman who stayed with you throughout. >> we had to stay five in a row. so we had one person there who had nobody there, no sisters, nobody. she is still alive.
94 years old, and she has -- >> dementia. >> the dementia, yes. >> so from sthodhof, they took you to a place called proust. >> yes. >> which was a brand new camp. >> yes. they took us to proust which the four of us, a big farm. the place was not ready yet to work. so they had to -- it was terrible hot. it was near danzig, and the sun was burning, and who had the short sleeve dress and short dress, we had to go to a place and fill the strosisik. did i say it right? >> sock. >> that would be in our bed. all day long, we had to do that. and some girls put some paper to
cover it, and in the paper was cement. so when they took it off, it came off with the skin. and what did they do, they sent it back, because they couldn't work anymore, and they brought new people there, instead of them. of course, we never heard of them, because there was another crematory. >> anna, you told me that it was always 800 women as you were saying, so if some were ill, they sent them back and they'd bring back the same number so you had 800. then you were forced to to exceptionally hard labor. tell us about that. >> well, we had to do from that big -- >> you were forced to build an airfield, right? >> yes. so we had to take first the
vegetable from that farm. it was carrots, beets mostly and a few potatoes. and we were told that we cannot take from there to eat because we are going to be punished for that if we do that. but we were very hungry because in the first day when we arrived there, there was no food, no water. the water was rusty. so we couldn't drink or eat. and some people still took a carrot and ate it. or a potato or something. but the numbers here on the sleeve, and the guard saw that then took the number and at night, when we went home from work, the guard gave it to -- there were two women.
i think they were at least 250 or 30 pounds. that was their job to do the punishment and also to arrange the food for us. so in the first night, the guard gave the number because the girls took the food. and the punishment was like that. she had to bend over, and the two devils, i don't know how to call them, and they gave 25 lashes on the back, back of them. and next day, they have to present for work. no matter how they felt. that was the first day. we didn't know what the punishment will be. so the work started.
our work was to fill the sand, the train came, fill the cars, and another train came, and another, all day, we have to fill those cars with the sand. >> so just to be sure we all understand, you were filling train cars full of sand, that was your job, to fill sand. >> it was not full of sand, for example, my sister, carla, could not work as hard, because she was 16, like us. then we have to work harder to be fooled the guard. i don't know how to say that in english. it looks like this somehow, you know. it is not like this. that doesn't matter. >> and the sand was used then to make the base -- >> to make the pavement, yes. >> make the pavement. >> and french prisoners were far away from us and they build the
hangar to go the airplanes in at night. i don't know. they still have it here, too. i never saw it until then. so that's what happened. we had this work, very little food. we all lost weight. and in that, we did it all summer. then, we had a guard with us, there are many guards, but one we had from romania. we spoke to him romanian. he was a nice guy. and he never gave a number to the german woman who was his girlfriend. but he never gave it. but other guards, they gave the number, and almost every day, we had somebody get punished. but we have to stay and see the
punishment like this with hands up and we did not have the dinner until all the people was inside. come out and get the dinner. that, i don't know, that was a sadist thing to do. i don't know why. i repeat again. why did they have to torture us before they kill us? i don't know that. many things, i don't know. so finally, i have to make my story short. it came christmastime. and they wanted us to entertain them. so they provide a piano, violin, and there were many talented people. opera singers and many of them. and they said everybody should go who has a talent. i left out something. that romanian soldier, somehow
he regretted but he had to go in the german army. he liked me to sing for him romanian songs, poplars and ballads and every time he was with us, he wanted me to sing for him. that time i had a very pretty voice inherited from my mother. so the christmas party came and all the people were there and presented what they do. and i was sitting in the top of a bed, a big bed there. i was just watching. and then that romanian soldier came to me and he said, why did you come to sing also? i wanted you to sing romanian, also.
and i said, i don't think that i was such a talent to go there. but he said i want you to come. and he let me -- >> to help you down -- >> -- go down from that bed and i fall and i broke my leg. now, with the sickness, they sent back the people because they needed another people who was able to work who are sick for two days. they sent them back. now i thought this is my end. because with a broken leg, what can they do? so my sister begged this officer, a soldier, i think, to not send me back. and because he somehow felt
guilty because he wanted me to go to sing, and the one who decided to send back people because it was his girlfriend. the big woman who did the punishment. so they -- it is a miracle that they put my leg in cast. never happened. never heard of any miracle like this. so they put my leg in a cast for in the morning. my leg became like this swollen. they had to take it off and put another cast. no injection or put me to sleep or something. but i survived. i don't know. a human being can survive everything. i think his own death, also, can
survive. i think i'm never going to die. i'm going to survive my death, too. so -- >> so, anna, after you broke your leg and this miracle occurred, that they put a cast on you, it wasn't long after that that then they emptied proust and -- >> three weeks after that started, they took the people from all the camps to take to march, the crematorium could not destroy them. because the war was very short to end. so all the people had to march away from the camp, and then the time came that our camp had to
leave, i couldn't walk. so they took off my shoes, because other 26 people were chosen who could not march and a few guards and the people who cooked there, because other camps came and stayed there for a night. and after that, they marched further. so then our camp it was time to march, my three sisters were able to march but i wasn't able with the other 26 people who couldn't walk. >> you were left behind. >> i was left behind. taken off my shoes. because i don't need shoes because the 26 unable -- people
are going to be killed there. i didn't even -- was afraid. i -- yes, they put some in our food and they didn't let us think -- it's a medication or something. so we couldn't even clear, thinking clear. they left me there. i thought, i'm going to stay here by myself and my three receivers left. i couldn't even cry. i was sitting there and the second miracle happened to me. one miracle was they put my leg in cast which never, never, nowhere happened. and then a girl came who worked in the kitchen and she asked me could you do some sewing? i said, yes, my mother wanted
all of us to learn some sewing. then she said, we are making some civilian clothes for the ss. the german people. and if you can sew, you come with us and you'll do that job. and she provided me shoes and i was -- i survive my death because they took me there and i did the sewing. clothes. so what happened, the camps all night they came from other camps but they marched for a long time already. every day died i don't know how many people, and they made a big hole, a big, big hole and just throw them -- throw them dead in that hole. and that -- when the time came that our german people wanted to
go, the guards, then the girl who i helped with the sewing came to me and she said, you stay here because you're going to be liberated. we have to go with them. they want us to go with them. so our camp left, also, and i remained there. and for two days it was quiet. and then we heard that the whole airport has blown up. what they did, because it was bomb from one place to the other and they blew out the whole -- >> the germans blew up their own airfield. >> the whole airport and a block
also blow up with it who were people who couldn't walk. they were dead also. but i could already walk a little bit and a few other people, and we walked and hided in the basement where they used to keep the food. so for another two days it was quiet. and we had -- somebody came out from that basement, and i came out also. and i felt very dizzy and i saw from far away two dots. and those two dots became bigger and bigger. and then became two russian soldiers. so that meant that we were liberated. came more russian soldiers. but i came out from the basement.
i was dizzy, i was sick. so i got the typhus there in the basement. and russian people did not care too much of us because they still were searching for germans there. but, they took me in -- i don't know. i really couldn't think. i woke up in a house. they told me this is a hospital. and i was -- stayed there, i don't know, maybe two weeks or so. i didn't know what happened to me. when i woke up, i saw a russian nurse dead near me. she died of typhus. and no hair again. they cut my hair the second time, which my hair grew in a year there.
and i -- and they gave me some clothes because they took my old clothes which was filled with lice. even in the -- i never knew that in clothes can be lice, also. but in the hair, i didn't think that i have lice because i was working with those people. but they took off my hair and they gave me an outfit. i still like to see a skirt like a sack and a blouse. and just nothing on my head. and they said now you can go. so go. now i was liberated. >> anna, in the little time we have left, one of the things you said to me is even though you were liberated, you didn't feel happy at all. >> yes. i said now what i -- i'm getting there.
[ laughter ] yeah. so i was out from that hospital and i saw -- i never saw mirror the whole year but i saw myself in a window and i looked at myself, you know, lost weight, in that outfit that i had, and no hair. and i think i started to laugh. that was my first laugh that i saw the way i look. and i go somewhere. so i didn't know where to go. i heard somewhere music. the polish people and the french war prisoners started so celebrate the peace. it was march the 21st or 23rd, and i heard music which i didn't hear.
music was still my life. so i went to hear the music. i didn't know how i look or something. and i was sitting like this. and once somebody came at my back and he said, mademoiselle. then i had the second laugh. mademoiselle. me. so a french prisoner came. and i turned -- and he asked me to dance. to go to dance. and then i started to cry. you know. so i spoke hungarian, he spoke french. but we understood each other. he find out who i am, and i found who he is. but i didn't go to dance with him. and then later he came with a pack of cigarettes and a piece of bread.
and he said also in french -- french is a little similar to romanian. and i understand then that if i want him take me to paris, to france. and i told, yes, that's what i want to do now, to go to france. so i didn't know where my sisters are. i knew, unfortunately, that it was true but i did not want to believe that my parents are still there in the smoke. and all of sudden people just went around all the people who was liberated and once a girl come to me and looks at me long and she said, don't you have a sister, gisela? and i said, yes, i do have. and one clara.
i was with them. i never know where i put my keys, but i remember what happened then. everything i remember. i could go with closed eyes and find my bed or anything what happened there. so she said, your sisters are liberated. and she said clara and gisela and how about elizabeth, i asked? she said, she was shot on the way when she was marching on the day of the liberation. then the germans shot her because she couldn't walk. so i find out that two of my whole family are alive. i had to believe, but this was
true, i did not want to believe and i did not want to leave. iton know where my sisters are. even if they are alive. we went from one train station to the other who were liberated, and nobody helped us. not with food, not with going home. i thought that an airplane will come and take us home. you know? but for two months, did not come an airplane. we were just wandering there and nobody cared of us at all. and i am thinking which was my most terrible day in my life, it's hard to find one. captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2008 6 captioning performed by vitac