tv The Presidency CSPAN December 5, 2016 12:00am-1:21am EST
resonate today. for the holidays, in paperback, published by public affairs. it's now available at your favorite bookseller and also as an e-book. >> up next, on "the presidency," a conversation about president franklin d. roosevelt and how he used his language to bolster his world war ii policies and strategies. georgia state university professor mary stuckey talks to paul sparrow, director of the fdr presidential library and museum in new york which hosted this event. we will hear fdr deliver six speeches, including "the day of infamy" speech following the pearl harbor attack of december 7, 1941. the 75th anniversary of that attack is it this week. this is just over one hour. paul: tonight, we have a really fantastic guest and friend of the library.
she is taking medications director at georgia state university, has written nine books -- mary: probably more than that. paul: that is how many i counted on amazon, including "finding americans: the good neighbors" which is a book about fdr. she has written books about carver, reagan, presidential rhetoric and language so tonight she is going to offer us some really important insight into how fdr used language, the content of his speech is broken up into several categories. there is, what he is saying and the way he is saying it. you learn a lot about his intentions and skills and ability by the way he says things. before we get to our first clip, i want mary to say a few things about her research area and what
brought her to this and why she is a world expert on presidential rhetoric. mary: fdr, in particular is an important president for me. my father was on the island of corregidor in 1941 on december 7 and was eventually captured, put on how ship and syntel for he spent time. my mother worked on george marshall staff throughout the war so i grew up with world war ii in ways that think are probably a little unusual for someone my age so it is meaningful for me to be here and be allowed to do this tonight. they asked me to curate the place, which means i got to choose the ones that you will hear, so what i try to do was walk you through the process of how we got into the war, prosecuted and then how do you
make friends with people at the end of the war, so that is what i'm hoping to do. paul: we have to start with march 15, 1941. this was one of the most frought periods in american history because the war in europe was raging, the battle of britain had brought england literally to its knees but america was an isolationist country. at this point, the majority of americans do not want to get involved in the art and if you're found himself having to navigate pacific with -- specifically keeping us from giving materials to the british and it had to deal with winston churchill who was desperate, literally pleading to roosevelt saying, if you do not help me, great britain will fall. this radio broadcaster of it at the correspondence dinner in washington dc.
do you want to say anything before we start? mary: it will be interesting to think about who his actual audience is. he is theoretically talking to the press, but it that who he is really talking to? i think that is a question that you asked me earlier, and i think the other thing that would be fun for you to listen to with this speech is to hear what he does with size, who is big, who is little, what is bit, what is little, think about what he is doing with its size and amounts in the clips you were here. paul: let's bring the lights down and let's listen to franklin roosevelt 1941. pres. roosevelt: the big news story is this, we of the united nations realize things have come to a front end to meet the danger, we must go into action. [applause]
president roosevelt: we know it was bad enough in the first war. nazism is far worse in this. nazis are not seeking minor modifications and maps, they see fit instruction of all elected systems of government on every continent, including our own. basic to establish systems of government based on all human beings by an individual ruler
who seeks power by force. these men and their ties followers call for a new order it is not new and it is not order but order among nations presupposes something enduring. some system of justice individuals over a long period of time are going to live. humanity will never accept a system imposed. these modern tyrants find it necessary to eliminate them one by one. the nations appear -- europe did
they were wrong because they believed democracy -- a terrible reality of the world at war. they were wrong because of its respectful rights of man. they believed that democracy because of its will to deliver peace to its makers would not mobilize even in its own defense. they know now that democracy can still remain democracy and speak and we conclude an ounce of adequacy for defense. [applause] pres. roosevelt: from the bureaus of propaganda to the
axis of power, the prophecy: the constancy of our country-- morals and disintegration from within. those who believe that no little of our history. america is not a country which can be confounded by the defeatists and manufacturers of panic. it is a country that puts his problems in the open. paul: sorry about that. it is very interesting to see he is trying to convince the american public of the war in europe is really a war on
democracy, not a war between european powers. talking about size. it is a juxtaposition of size. mary: he talks about humanity. it is not the united states but the united states speaking for everyone. when he was talking about the nazis, is a small group try to run a lot of things. he wants to take the democracies out one by one, so things that he wants you to think of as manageable become very small. it is a small number of people that can be attacked but it is about baked things come humanity, democracy and faith and freedom. what he is starting to do is lay out his wargames that will become much more explicit. paul: at this point, charles lindbergh, who is one of the great heroes of american aviation, was very, very aggressively pro-nazi and anti-intervention. you hear the line at the end about the danger within, internal disruption.
he is talking specifically about charles lindbergh. talk about that. mary: charles lindbergh, there was no hero in the world like charles lindbergh at the time. he himself had gone to germany and had seen the german war machine and came back believing that we could not beat germany. that england was toast and we should stay out of it and try to negotiate a separate peace which roosevelt himself found to be an unconscionable and completely -- used to refer to lindbergh as the "little nazi." he did not like him very much. often with an organization -- he speaks often with an organization called america first and he ends up into one, iowa giving a speech in which he says, there are three groups that want us to go to war the
jews, roosevelt administration and great britain. that speech destroys lindbergh's credibility because of the spread widely as both wrong and anti-semitic and then of course shortly after that, pearl harbor happens, and at lindbergh at that point volunteers to serve in the american military and roosevelt would have nothing to do with them. he ends up volunteering and going to serve in the pacific, but he is never charles bloomberg again after the speech. paul: there is one line in here that i went to to talk about, when he is talking about the unbeatable defenders of written. -- of britain. mary: you know the churchill line. paul: who is he talking about? mary: he is talking about the raf and the battle of britain. people in the united states prior to the battle of britain were very suspicious of britain. they have been felt as if they have been fooled into the first
world war with congressional hearings, and so there is this sense that we had somehow been tricked by the mission makers into going into war in the first place. when the war drums started beating, there is a lot to overcome for people that started thinking perhaps we should fight hitler. the battle of britain is incredibly important to get americans to stop thinking of britain as an empire and to start thinking of them as worthy of defense and the two things most important are both popular culture rather than political. there is a movie that comes out that shows all of the citizens of britain getting into their row boats and say the young british men and after a broadcast on the radio from britain and he always begins
with saying he is in london and keith tells stories like this one terrific story or there is a british shopkeeper who gets bombed and he puts a sign on his door that says "still open." and he gets bombed again and the targets blown off and he put the sign this is "open 24 hours." [laughter] mary: that kind of spirit that gets disseminated widely around the united states starts making americans feel like they should in fact help defend britain and the battle of britain was enormously important. paul: we have a lot to listen to the second clip. this was to separate from the 1941, the day after pearl harbor. i hope some of you have seen the great exhibit that we have. we show the whole speech. we are going to play the whole clip.
it is important to hear in its entirety. you often hear the middle part of the speech that shows his amazing rhetorical skills and he is making changes to the speech literally on his way to the capital because he keeps getting news reports of additional attacks and land that has been confiscated. let's turned on the lights and listen to pearl harbor. pres. roosevelt: vice president, mr. speaker, members of the senate, the house of representatives, yesterday, december 7, 1941, a date which will live in infamy, the united
states of america was suddenly and elaborately attacked by naval and air forces of the empire of japan. the united states was at peace with that nation and at the solicitation of japan was still in conversation with its government and its emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the pacific. indeed, one hour after japanese air squadrons commenced bombing in the american island the japanese ambassador to the united states and his colleague delivered to our secretary of state a formal reply to a recent american message, and while this
reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hint of war or a bomb attack. it will be recorded that the distance of hawaii from japan makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago. during the intervening times, the japanese government has deliberately soft to deceive the united states by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace. the attack yesterday on the hawaiian islands has caused
severe damage to american naval and military forces. i regret to tell you that many american lives have been lost. in addition, american ships have been reported torpedoed on the high seas between san francisco and honolulu. yesterday, the japanese government also launched an attack against malaya. last night, japanese forces attacked hong kong. last night, japanese forces attacked guam. last night, japanese forces attacked the philippine islands.
last night, the japanese attacked wake island and this morning, the japanese attacked midway island. japan has therefore undertaken a surprised offensive, expanding throughout the pacific area. the facts of yesterday and today speak for themselves. the people of the united states have already formed their opinions and well understand the implications to the very life and safety of our nation. as commander-in-chief of the army and navy, i have directed that all measures be taken for our defense. but always, remember the character of the onslaught against us.
[applause] pres. roosevelt: no matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the american people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory. [applause] pres. roosevelt: i believe that i interpret the will of the congress and of the people when i assert that we will not only defend ourselves through the
uttermost, but will make it very swift that this form of treasury shall never again endanger us. [applause] hostilities exist. there is no blinking at the fact that our people, our territory and our interests are in grave danger. with confidence in our armed forces, with the understanding determination of our people, we will gain the inevitable triumph, so help us god. [applause]
pres. roosevelt: i ask that the congress declare that since the unprovoked attack by japan on sunday, december 7, 1941, a state of war has existed between the united states and the japanese empire. paul: that is a powerful speech. what was the point he was trying to make? mary: there are two points, obviously.
the most important one is the characterization of the enemy, right? a lot of work gets done in his adjectives and adverts. it was treacherous, these are not people who are fighting fairly from end, so the enemy are clearly people that deserve to be beaten, right? and then there is the characterization of the united states as overtly christian, but it is our righteous might, we are going to do this so help us god. it is a very clear he is setting this up as a christian fight against the forces of darkness, and he actually gets a little bit lucky in that germany declares war on the united states immediately after this because he does not have a way to declare war on germany
because germany has not attacked us and he has to deal very carefully throughout the war on the pacific versus the european theater and which one will be first and how that will play into his overall strategy, and so you notice your he can only say hostilities exist with the empire of japan, which is an empire, right? it is not a democracy, it is an authoritarian form of government, so he can cast it as democracy against the authoritarian which you also do a great deal more of in the other four speeches. paul: those of you that have seen the exhibit, you will know he was by himself except for his close aides, here he hopkins when the phone call came through at 1:47 sunday afternoon telling of the attack and then he immediately has to start bringing the other leaders and to tell them. about three hours after the attack he goes into the private room with his secretary and dictates the first draft of the
speech, which is pretty amazing, she describes it in her autobiography, you go into the side room, takes a long drive of a cigarette, looks up at the ceiling and it dictates the entire speech in one take. right from top to bottom. like he is reading from a script. she types it up and she brings it back to him, and of course he makes the most famous edit in american history he crosses of the word "history" and writes in "in infamy." the second part of the story, when his secretary of state shows up, he has a 17 page speech that he wants roosevelt to give and it is on the wall. you can see the whole 17 page speech. it is ridiculous. you can tell just from looking
at it that roosevelt never read it because there is not a single edit any whole thing. roosevelt cannot look at a piece of paper without making an edit. why does he want to deliver this very short, condensed speech versus the 17 page litany of excuses on all of the things japan had done wrong? mary: what he does is condense those 17 pages into the things japan has done wrong. what he does is amplification. he could have just sat in the last 24 hours, japan attacked us, but he does not do that. he does not do that, he says japan attacked this island, this island and there is a building out that in which the audience, which has its limited information says, this is really bad. in that incredibly tight moment, he makes the only case he needs. he does not need the 17 pages. those kind explanations can come later. what he needs is for people to understand his urgency and the necessity for the declaration for the rest of the thing -- so
the rest of the things can happen. what his aides doesn't 17 pages, he doesn't almost 17 words. paul: there is an amazing moment of tensio release of europe into a play or seeing a good movie there is a moment of release. after the litany of the attack of malaysia, the philippines, etc., he gives the great line, through our righteous fight will win throughout the victory." that is when you share the audience exploded. that is the first time you hear them cheering and clapping because he is both about to that moment and then he delivers that thought which is basically what the whole speeches about. that is the only thing he really cared about. mary: he makes the threats clear but he is also reassuring the american people that we are in grave danger, but we are going
to win, right? which is a tension he has to balance for the next four years. paul: we are going to jump ahead a couple of months. this is the february 23, 1942. this is one of my favorite. it is extraordinary piece of theater and leadership and inspiration. they have told people all of the country to go out and get maps of the world, to follow along with the president as he gives this speech. things are not going well. the nazis are having victories everywhere. the japanese are continuing to be undefeatable. nothing good has really happened, and the most important part of this speech is trying to convince the american public what a global war is. mary: and as so we are not going
to play the part of the clip where he actually walks you through the geography of the world because we do not have time for that, but the way he does this is through what we call analogy. this is like this other thing, and if so what he does is analogize this war to valley forge in 1776 and then what he does is he makes that the global world feel like it is also very close. listen while he does that. my fellow americans, washington's birthday is the most appropriate occasion for us to talk with each other about things the way they are today in things we know they shall before the future. general washington and his continental army face of abominable odds and defeats.
supplies and equipment were lacking. every winter was a valley forge. for the states that existed, this commonly and selfish men, jealous men proclaimed washington's cause was worthless and he should ask for negotiated peace. washington has provided the model for all americans, a model of moral stamina. as it had been charted in the declaration of independence, the brave men who served with him no no man's life and fortune was secure without freedom and free
institutions. the current struggle has brought us increasingly calamity in the world. this war is a new kind of war, different from all other wars in the past. not only in the methods but in its geography. every island, every sea, every air lane in the world. that is the reason i have asked to spread before you the map of the whole world. follow me in the references for the circling battlelines of this war. many questions i fear remain unanswered tonight, but i know you will realize that i cannot cover everything in one short report for the people. the world nations have become
endless battlefields on which we are constantly being challenged by our enemy. we must all understand we face the hard facts that our job now is to fight distances that expand all the way around the globe. we fight these distances because that is where our enemies are. paul: the parallels he is drawing with george washington have both historical significance and personal significance because he is putting himself in the role of -- mary: washington, right? he is at valley forge and he needs of the people to stick with him and also of course if he wins, he gets to be
washington. that is kind of great if you are a president. paul: it is a pretty remarkable analogy there to try to draw people in to feeling like we can and we will will and it is our destiny to win this war. mary: this is why it is important when he talks about the significance of the moral stamina and a learning from that example. he also notes that washington did this for eight years and at this point they have been doing it for a lot less than that, and so there is a sense that if you only have the moral stamina to hang with him, that it will change inevitably. and if so, one of the remarkable things about roosevelt's wartime communication is he does not sugarcoat the bad news. as he walks people through this speech, there is a lot of bad news and he tells it frankly and fairly honestly and pretty
clearly, things are not going well. and so when he starts talking later about how things do start going well, people will believe him because he is also laying out a sort of basis of personal credibility and trusting the american people to bear with him on this, which is a kind of her markable act of faith in what citizenship is. paul: it is also interesting is a visual strategy, the reason he wanted people to have a map was because most people do not understand or russia was, where china was, where these things work. but if you look at a map, russia is really big and china is really big and the british empire is really big, so it looks like there is a lot more part of the world that are on our side than against us. who is against us? this tiny island of japan, this bootheel of italy and germany. this covers a bigger part of the
globe come begotten nations, in terms of resources and population. he wants people to feeling we can win this war because more of the world is on our side. we have to keep going because we have a lot. so, we're jumping ahead a few months. this is april 8, 1942. what is interesting here is that he is talking specifically about the home front and what the home front means. the context is, we have had the battle of crosby, nothing battle of midway but we have had one tiny moral victory that the raids have managed to take off
in military mission and dropped bombs in tokyo, essentially knows it difficult damage but listen to his reference in it when it comes up. anything else? mary: i will do the statistics later. pres. roosevelt: relatively lost control of a large portion of the philippine islands but this whole nation remains trivial. american officers and men held on so long on the peninsula. fighters still wear the flag flies and fighting effectively against the enemy on other islands. the malan's in singapore are in the hands of the enemy. the netherlands, east indies are almost entirely occupied although a distant flayer continues.
many other islands are in the possession of the japanese, but there is good reason to believe that their advance has been stopped. new zealand and much of the territory will be taken for offensive action and we are determined that the territories that have been lost will be regained. the japanese are pressing northward advance with power. they have been opposed with great bravery with small chinese forces aided by american flyers. the news in burma is not good. the japanese made cuts into the burma road, but i want to say to the people of china that no matter what advances the
japanese may make, ways will be found to deliver airplanes, ammunition to the army's of the general. we remember that the chinese people were the first to stand up and fight against the aggressors in this war and in the future, is still unconquerable china will play its proper role in maintaining territory not only in eastern asia but in the whole world. for every advance the japanese has made since they started, their friends in korea, they have had to pay a very heavy toll with warships and transport and planes and in men. they are feeling the effects of those losses. it is even reported from japan that somebody has dropped the
bombs on tokyo and on other principled centers of japanese war industries. if this be true, it is the first time in history that japan has suffered such indignities. all over treacherous attacks was the immediate cause of our entry into the war. that event found the american people prepared for world war on a worldwide scale. we went into this war fighting and we know we are fighting for. we realize the war has become what hitler's originally proclaimed it to be, a total war. not all of us can have the privilege of fighting our enemies in distant part of the world. not all of us can have the privilege of working in an
ammunitions factory or shipyard or in oil fields or mines, producing weapons out of from material that are needed by our armed forces. but there is one front and one battle where everyone in the united states, every man, woman and child is in action and will be privileged to remain in action throughout this war. that front is right here at home in our daily lives, the daily paths. here at home, everyone will have the privilege of making whatever necessary, not only to supply the fighting men but the economic structure of our country, fortified and secured during the war and after the
war. the price of civilization must be paid in work, sorrow, blood. paul: the thing i love about this speech is his thought that not everyone can be privileged to fight the enemy on foreign lands. not everyone can be privileged to work in an ammunition factory, but you can all be privileged if you sacrifice and home. this is a brilliant piece of rhetoric. mary: it is a wonderful thing. he does a lot of important things and that he makes it clear that it is a total war. he talked about china, which he
is already, this early in the war, envisioning as one of his four policeman which becomes his vision for the united nations. throughout the war he talks about the united nations, although he does it in lowercase and we will see it later where he talks about it in uppercase. i want to read this from one of the biographies about roosevelt and it gets a sense of exactly how much productive capacity was involved in the americans effort in the war. between 1941 and 1945, united states produced 300,000 military aircraft's. in 1940 four, american factories built to 96,318 planes, more than a yearly total of germany, japan, great britain and the soviet union combined. henry ford boss -- henry ford's land produced a plane every 63 minutes. rosie the regular, oh my god. that is not part of the quote. the united states and manufactured 2.4 million trucks, 630,000 jeeps, 88,400 tanks,
5800 ships and 40 billion rounds of any nation. what was happening on the home front with ammunitions and sacrifices going to make sure that is metal, rubber and those things people need it was not a small task, and if so it is speeches like this that helps give people the will to grow the victory garden, to live with the rationing, to do the kinds of things, and some of the stuff is beautifully displayed in the museum. paul: yes, the industrialization, the arsenal of democracy was one of those remarkable displays of leadership because roosevelt started this industrialization in 1938 when he sees what is going to happen. he sees a hard it is going to be
to get america into this war and he knows they can start producing this material, shifting the factories over. it does not happen overnight. this is a long process. to england, china, even a certain points a soviet union cut our enemy the soviet union, shipping the tanks because of the industrialization and because we were not involved, our factories were able to operate at this extraordinary peak capacity. mary: we are on to rome. paul: the next two are very, very interesting because of the ways they connect. this is june 5, 1944. the war has been, the allies have taken north africa. they have come into italy, terrible, bloody, nasty fight. the russians have started pushing the germans back. there is a sense that the third reich is really starting to collapse. the end can be seen and roosevelt goes on air. mary: what is really interesting about this speech is, there are a couple interesting things, but the first thing you hear is the way he makes plays significant. just like he used valley forge is a place, roosevelt was very
fond of using placement as a way to make arguments about symbols, and so he will talk about what rome symbolizes because he does not talk about it in strategic terms at all. the second thing that he does is, he makes it clear that it is not about the italian people, but it is about the italian leadership. and so, he is already thinking ahead to not just a feeding people on the ground, but how do you manage to turn enemies into allies? how do you execute a peace? you can hear him thinking about those things in public. paul: the subtext is much like the way president obama gave a speech while the rate to get osama bin laden was going on. while fdr gives his speech he
knows the allied forces have launched the d-day invasion. he knows that is going on while he is giving the speech. pres. roosevelt: my friends, yesterday, on june 4, 1944, landfill to american and allied troops. the first of the axis capital is now in our hands. one up and two to go. the first of these capitals to fall has the longest history of all of them. the story of rome goes back to the time of the foundations of our civilization. we can still see me have monuments of the time when
wrong, the romans controlled the whole of the then known world. that is significant. the united nations are determined that in the future, no one city and no one race will be able to control the whole of the world. in addition to the monuments of the olden times, we also see rome as a great symbol of christianity, which had reached into almost every part of the world. there are other shrines and other churches in many places, but the churches and shrines of rome are visible symbols of the faith and determination of the early saints and martyrs that christianity should live and become universal. and tonight, it will be a source of deep satisfaction that the freedom of the pope, the vatican city is assured by the army's of the united nations.
it is also significant that rome has been liberated by the armed forces of many generations, many nations. the american and british armies found a fair side our own north american neighbors, the canadians. the fighting new cylinders from the far south pacific, the courageous french and the french moroccans, the south africans, the poles and the east indians come all of them fought with us on the bloody approaches of the city of rome.
the italians, too, forswear in a partnership and axis which they never desired, have sent their troops to join us in our battles against the germans on their soil. paul: two interesting things, the use of united nations but how the italians, who until this moment have been our enemies are now joining to battle against the trespassers. mary: which i think is the only -- it is this kind of lovely active rhetorical demand where he pulls a magic trick. the enemies are secretly your allies. he did much of the same thing with the soviet union, so there is a precedence for it. paul: talk about what makes this united nations different. mary: first off, now you will see in the speech text they are capitalized and what he is clearly thinking ahead to is when he says, the united nations
are committed to the idea that no one nation or one brace, they are seeking or imagining a world in which nobody dominates, but that things are held in balance by the cooperation of all of the human refer to as the civilized nations. for him britain and the soviet union went balance themselves in europe. the united states would manage its own hemisphere. china would help control asia. what is remarkable about this vision is not only does it kind of happened, but there is this really important region of the world that is invisible in this vision. he does not talk about the middle east at all as a factor going forward. it is that particular blind spot that becomes kind of significant in world history later on. paul: at this point, the recent united nations is now
capitalized is it is going to be, like the league of nations, and organization. prior to this kind of been the coalition fighting this war, but now in his mind it is an organization. it is the united nations. i think it is important moment of change. he is delivering this speech and the gliders have already taken off. the boats have already left the dock. he knows what is about to happen. he had been out there staying there with his daughter anna and her husband. john was a journalist who had run newspapers in seattle. they were drafting what is perhaps one of the great speeches or moments in fdr's presidency which is the d-day prayer.
talk about this. mary: i love this. it always makes me cry when i teach this in class. i told my students this is not on the syllabus because it makes me cry so of course a look at up in the we talk about it and i cry. good thing -- the thing that is most extraordinary about this prayer, there are two things. first, it is a remarkable declaration of americans and it is given at a moment where he has no idea how this is going to end. he kind of things he knows. it looks good for us, but he was obviously not completely sure that thousands of americans were about to die. paul: that the fate of the world hangs in the balance. if we lose this battle, the allies are driven back off the
beach, which the very easily could have been and nazi germany well-controlled europe. mary: for the foreseeable future. pres. roosevelt: my fellow americans, last night, when i spoke with you about the fall of rome, i knew at that moment that troops of the united states and our allies were crossing the channel and another in greater operation. it has come to pass with success, thus far. and so, in this poignant hour, i ask you to join with me in prayer. almighty god, our sons, the pride of our nation, this day has set upon a mighty endeavor,
a struggle to preserve our republic, our religion and our civilization and to set free a suffering humanity. leave them straight and cruel, give strength to their arms, strongest to their heart, steadfastness in their faith. they will need thy blessings. their road will be long and hard. for the enemy is strong. success may not come with rushing speed. we shall return again and again and we know thy grace and the righteousness of our cause, our sons will triumph. they will be soft crying by night and by day without rest
until the victory is won. the darkness will be rent by noise and flame. men's souls will be shaking with the violences of war. for these men are drawn by the place of peace. the fight not for the level of conquest but to end conquest. they fight to liberate. they fight to let justice arise and power and goodwill among all thy people. they yearn for the end of battle. some will never return. embrace these, father and received them thy heroic
servants into thy kingdom, and for us at home, fathers, mothers, children, wives, sisters and brothers and brave men overseas whose thoughts and prayers are ever with them, help us, almighty god, to rededicate ourselves in a renewed faith in thee in this hour of great sacrifice. many people have urged that i call the nations into a single day of special prayer, but because the road is long and the desire is great, i ask that our people devote themselves in a continuance of prayer as we rise to each new day and again when
each day is spent, let words of prayer be on our lips invoking thy help to our efforts. give us strength, too. strengthen our daily task to read double the contributions we make in the physical and material support of our armed forces. and it let our hearts be stoked to wait out the long travail to bear sorrows that may come, to impart our coverage until our sons where forever they may be. lord, give us faith. give us faith in thee, our sons, each other, faith in our united crusade.
let not the keenness of our spirit ever be dull. let not the impacts of temporary events come of temporal matters of fleeting moments, let not these tear us in our incomparable purpose. with thy blessing we will prevail over our enemy. help us to encounter the racial arrogances. lead us to the saving of our
country and with our sister nations into a world of unity that will dispel a sure peace in vulnerable of unworthy men and a peace that will let all men live in freedom, reaping the just reward of their honest fight. thy will be done, almighty god. amen. paul: one of the things that is interesting here a lot of fdr speeches is christian references. he never uses the word jesus. talks about a higher god -- first of all this is part of the