tv Pearl Harbor Christmas CSPAN December 24, 2016 4:00pm-4:55pm EST
stanley: the arctic and data history that all of us were memorably if we are ultimate remember them at all. i remember pearl harbor. it was a very important event for may. it was important for my older friends who expected to go up someday in uniform. depending on your age, you might remember other events. for example, the assassination of john kennedy or the assassination of martin luther bring the event even closer to our time in history, 9/11, 2001. all kinds of its i stick in the mind. we keep remembering because they have an impact on our lives.
i am not going to talk about onto thisor aftermath, the book pearl harbor christmas is about what happened after pearl harbor. how different was the world and how different was the united states after pearl harbor. what changes were made. it was the holiday season of 1941. it wasn't any different than it was in 1940 or 1939. or other years just before that in peacetime. about the impact of the war, didn't make a difference in our lives, immediately. collector of bubblegum cards. largely baseball cards, as quick as could be, the bubblegum makers came out with four cards -- war cards.
i collected is when i was a kid. i brought them to show you. one of the heroes of my book was winston churchill. war cards. in the less of a hero in my book but never the less a major they gear was general macarthur. becausee so important we needed a hero. he wasn't much of one that he was there in the philippines. he became card number one among the war cards. they taught us a lot about what was going on and they also taught a lot about what was going on. -- not going on. soon after pearl harbor, the philippines were invaded. since we needed a hero at the ine, a europe came around the person of collin kelley.
pilot of a plane that was shot down in philippine waters off the coast of luzon. he was shot down after he had bonded with some of the japanese battleship. he did not suck anything. his plane was shot down. the parachute got caught in the wreckage as he was going down, he went on with the wreckage. he had a small son. the president roosevelt called the son and the went to the white house and announced that junior would be accepted to west point as soon as he was eligible. for collint a medal kelley. it turns out that when the war ended, the battleship was found in this harbor in japan.
it had never been sunk. this is what happened in wartime propaganda. you learn a lot that we have to unlearn later on. newspapers were full of misinformation because it was important that we not be but was goingut on at the time. things were bad, indeed. we had several battleships at pearl harbor. no one knew that. they knew about a couple of the battleships that have been sunk. the reports were made a lot lighter than they really were. they knew about a couple of the battleships that have been sunk. it was necessary for the japanese so that the government -- they were made to believe that they had not done as much damage they really have. it turns out we are too stupid to realize it. the japanese had cameras aboard
to their that returned aircraft carriers. when my book opens, i open with the japanese leading newspaper in tokyo, publishing a picture showing the wreckage of pearl harbor taken from one of the airplanes. they knew what they had done. they knew they had committed a tremendous amount of damage. but the damage, as serious as it was was not serious enough. downhadn't been able to any aircraft carriers. the aircraft carrier, not the battleship became the leading worship of world war ii. two of our aircraft carriers the lexington and the enterprise. going out to work midway island and lake island. the nifty place offended the island. they were at sea when the japanese attack.
the japanese thought they had an aircraft carrier there. at least they looks down and somewhat like one. the battleship utah, and old battleship that was really an antique and not use anymore. it with timbers so that it can be used as a target trip. we dropped bombs on it. the japanese saw what looked like in a pet carrier. the heck out of it. it is at the bottom of pearl harbor. if you go to pearl harbor now. can go to the buoy and stock which is the scene of the wreckage of the utah. it is not a big memorial one for the arizona a nun -- nevertheless, it is there. sunk andttleships were are still at the bottom of pearl harbor. they will remain there as memorials. over a thousand men were trapped
and died aboard the arizona when it exploded. capsized ship that becomes important in my book. battle of oklahoma capsized. men were trapped below deck. they were trapped in watertight compartments so that they survived for a web. they wereut that still alive, a few of them were still alive by christmas eve. never, december 7, christmas eve, they were still alive and afterwards.t out we found markings that indicated they were scratching the walls. some were alive until christmas eve. it was not a very pleasant christmas for them, they did not survive beyond that. the oklahoma, when rated was
towed toward california to be salvaged and it's something again. in the pacific. it has never been recovered. that is the end of another one of those ships. the war took a very bad turn immediately. he had no way to defend the philippines. there was no way we could send troops for ships out to them because the japanese controlled pcs. there was no way that the british could defend their own colonies in the far east. the layer and -- singapore and malaysia. -- they had japanese there. they went down on bicycles or foot. british wholmed the had far more equipment than they had. the british surrendered eventually and surrendered more men and the japanese had landed on malaya. winston churchill, after pearl
harbor got in touch with the white house and asked if he could come and talk strategy with president roosevelt. president roosevelt really do not want them to come that soon. he was not ready to talk strategy, we were surprised by the war, he knew besides that churchill would want a europe first strategy. defeat germany first. when the public and the united states wanted to defeat to fan -- japan. reciprocated. he told the german people that we now have an ally that has never lost a war in 3000 years. he expected to win this one too. he declared war on the united states. we do not declare war on germany until they declared war on us. that was a few days after pearl harbor. we were at war with germany and japan, not having expected to be at war with either one.
this was december 7. we didn't expect to be at war with germany at all. we had started convoy ships to britain to get supplies to britain. ships, including destroyers were torpedoed and somebody germans. it wasn't enough of a provocation on the part of the germans to convince congress to declare war on germany. congress,isolationist they did not want a second war. after all, the war that ended in november, 1918 had not been success. it only lead to another war. they do not want one. october, october 1941, when extended,had to be the congress did not want to vote for it.
they had to go to the house of representatives and plea to the extension so that we could keep our army intact. he got the extension by exactly one vote. how gives you an idea of unprepared and how pacifist the country still was when we were attacked appellate -- pearl harbor. churchill decided he would come anyway. invitation or not. he let president roosevelt know that he was going to come and he would stay at the embassy. they would have an opportunity to talk. he knewl has said that about pearl harbor afterwards. he knew that we would win. roosevelt realized that he was stuck with churchill whether he liked it or not and paid him the courtesy of inviting him to the
white house. plane, itcame not by would have been very difficult in the winter weather of december to travel by plane. he would if had to spend days on to ground to get back halifax, nova scotia. he came on a battleship which rocked terribly in the north atlantic but finally made it across. when he got to hampton roads, virginia, he telephoned the white house. was sorryem that he they were so late, could this have a plane or a train to meet them so that they wouldn't have to fly the rest of the way? ?p to washington roosevelt sent a plan to get him. and he got into a limousine -- rather carried into a
limousine. he was paralyzed by polio. he was taken to the naval air station. that was where churchill met him. the memos and was an unusual one. it was al capone's armored car that had been seized from al capone when he was put in jail. roosevelt did not have an armored vehicle to travel in. it was only after pearl harbor that one of the big carmakers made an armored car for him. they went back to the white house. it was an interesting way to begin their peace talks. churchill was the man that came to dinner. he stayed and state and state. he loved being there. food, there was plenty of whiskey. he liked to drink. he told roosevelt's but there
that when he arrived at the white house that when they got up and 20, he wanted a time where of sherry right away. 90-year-olded some brandy with his breakfast. the mother had no idea about 90-year-old brandy in the white house. he don't even know that the white house was 90 years old. but he said yes. churchill was brought the brandy for breakfast. he drank his way through the white house. he was a very popular guest to the. he was there with advisers. he was trying to guide the american military and industrial forces into war. we were not nearly prepared. we didn't have enough planes. we do not have enough tanks. we didn't have enough of anything. we weren't even prepared to give up our industry. -- gear up our industry.
he brought a former canadian who was a feisty guy. he was good when talking straight to the americans and told them do you know that the russians lost 3000 tanks in one battle against the germans? the germans lost nearly as many? how long will it take you to build 3000 tanks? this bug of the americans. cars,topped production of refrigerators and air conditioners and began building tanks and planes. manyritish were losing so summaries. churchill pointed out that we had to build or than one chip a day to replace what the germans were sinking. i did not even count the people on board the ships. of 1942, we were
building thousands of ships. almost a ship an hour. extra henry kaiser and some other industrialists who finally figured out how to build a ship in a hurry. the liberty ships and the victory ships began to become from to saving britain starvation in 1942 and 1943. we lost one aircraft carrier. need bigid you don't aircraft carriers. you need escort carriers. small carriers i can go along with the merchant ships to protect them. why don't you just put decks on some of your freighters and some of your tank and turn them into carriers? and so we did. hundreds of escort carriers were built during the war. many of them would not have been around had it not been for churchill's people who came with
advice on how the americans should fight the war. the visit to the white house turned out to be very crucial, not only to plan attacks against germany when we could do it and attacks against japan when we but to raise the morale of americans who had no idea what was going on. churchill appeared at a press conference with president roosevelt on december 23, the first full day he was in america. introduced to the work -- war correspondents that heard he was there. they wanted to be reassured that was really true. churchill was short and pudgy, about 5'6". huge crowd in the white house. he stood up on a chair. they saw him and he spoke to them. they asked him how long it would
take to win the war. he said a lot longer if we do it badly. and he was right, we took long and we do -- did do it badly for some time. his trips especially badly in singapore, they surrendered about 90,000 men, far more than the japanese had. they just gave up. they had no way of getting supplies to singapore. the canadians were very angry because churchill had insisted on sending a canadian division to hong kong. way that hong kong could survive. it was an isolated island surrounded by the japanese. hong kong fell very quickly. all of the canadians who have been sent over were either killed or became prisoners. the canadians there and the
australians in singapore, those who survived help to bring -- build the bridge on the river quite. that is in thailand. those who survive will never british on the river. and their incarceration in japanese prison camp. we had very few victories at this time. the only victory i think of was that of an american bookseller in paris. sylvia beach. the -- she ran the bookshop in paris. she had lived in paris since the early 1920's. copyad her window, a early of james joyce's sitting in way. published. been
a german officer came in and said i want that book. she said you wouldn't understand it. to not sell it to him. he stormed out as a stormtrooper would. she knew he would be back. she was going to let him have that book. she called in her friends, the entity store of all the books. they painted over the signed sheespeare and company, disappeared into hiding and so did the books. when the stormtrooper came back with others to seize the book and her, there was nothing there. nothing. if you want to call that a victory, that was our only in december, 1941. our troops at wake island, mostly marines and some working forces, they were trying to extend the airfield. off theually drove
theyese with artillery, sank a japanese destroyer. terrified thatre the news would get back and they would all have to commit suicide. a japanese committed to commit suicide because of it. they came back and it took like i went and the men were taken prisoner, there is a famous the marines on wake island. what do youked need, what can we help you with? they couldn't help them with anything really. but he said, send us more jacks. japs. it never happens, he did not say that. eventually he was captured and spent the rest of the war and a japanese prison camp.
many of the stories we hear were not true. general macarthur, number one on wrote his ownds communiques. he never told anything happened accurately. the senate they drove off the japanese invasion force which they had not. he said they were holding manila, by the time the newspapers get the story that he was holding manila, manila had been evacuated and surrendered to the japanese. on corregidor island in manila bay until he could get out of there. the heroism became very famous. our troops left in the philippines were being held up. mcarthur was the hero of the town. later on, the carter would name
his private plane which he had in australia after he was evacuated their. he called his own group of cronies did attend gang. he was there once in his whole career. but he was the hero of that place. the is what we face in beginning of world war ii at christmas time. and yet christmas went on as if there wasn't much change. people let their christmas trees. there was no blackout. church health roosevelt liked the wake-up christmas trade. -- white house christmas tree. people were not allowed to bring their christmas bundles onto the
white house lawn. they had to leave them at the gate. strangely enough, when they came back, they were there. i think that would happen anymore. the world has changed. it didn't happen. churchill also spoke to both houses of congress. he was him that although there as a guest, if things had been a little different, if instead, his mother had been american, his mother was the new york society lady. father lord randolph he said he might have been there on his own. in other words, he was arrogant enough to think that he might have been there as the president speaking to congress. personality that could possibly have happened. he went on to speak to parliament.
he went to speak to the canadian , he was pretty tired. he had an exhausting trip in the united states, he had drunk too much. heart attack in the white house that nobody knew about 430 years. he had a heart attack, he had tried to push open the white house window, his cigar smoke was given to much for him. he felt the pain in his arm and his chest and he says there was trouble. he called and his doctor who had traveled with him to america next morning and he said that you have had a heart attack. but let's not tell anybody. we will go on as before. -- churchilled
smoked and drank as he had before. he lived to be 90. i'm not suggesting you to do this but he went on to canada and get a memorable speech. afterwards, he slumped over, tired and put a cigar back in his mouth and as he was leaving parliament house, a canadian photographer stopped him and said i want to take your picture. head and theok his notographer wouldn't take for an answer. he pulled the cigar from churchill's mouth and snapped his picture. it is the most famous picture of churchill ever. it is known as the below picture of churchill. it is very fascinating because it is how we remember churchill now. the picture taken with the soup -- cigar pulled out of his
mouth. things were bad all around, even for the germans it seems. the germans at that time didn't in moscow times or take leningrad. they thought they would have won the war by winter. their troops had no winter clothes. necessary for them to get on berlin radio and played with the german people to send winter clothes. send winter clothes for christmas to the troops. in terms of christmas presents for the trips. he had never used christmas before. the germans were forbidden to send christmas cards. there were for braden to have christmas trees because christmas was forbidden. it was just not part of the religion. christmas appeared because he
had to send close to ready trips. he had a new year's day message for the troops. on new year's day, later on, he said with god's help we will win the war in 1942. he had never used the word god before. he knew things were getting bad for the germans as well. it took a long time before the germans could be defeated. in the united states, president roosevelt had the problem of replacing his leadership at pearl harbor. he could not leave the admiral and the general on duty. they were sacked immediately. admiraln touch with the was with the atlantic beat -- fleet. he called the office personally and he told a lieutenant on the other end of the line that i want to talk to chester. the lieutenant and not accept that sort of thing.
nobody calls and wants to talk to chester. put the president on. finally, the president said this is the president of the united states, i want to talk to chester. finally andput on he told him you are now in command of pearl harbor. get there as fast as you can but i don't want you to fly. he did not want him to fly because the previous prison he had ordered their along with an army general he had ordered their heads tried to fly there and their plane crashed over the sierras and both were killed. to put on civilian clothes and go by train across california. they did that. he arrived atay, pearl harbor. it was still a mess. oil slicks and bodies floated to the surface.
they knew what the reality was for the first time of pearl harbor. remain in ourould consciousness for a long time, it still does. when churchill left, he knew that the antidote to pearl harbor had finally been worked out. were going to gear up our industry, we knew it we were doing, we knew where we were going. to goelt said i want you with me to a new year's day ceremony at church. churchill had gone to church with roosevelt on christmas day in washington. for the first time, he heard a little town of bethlehem song. he never went to church but he would not have heard that anyway because it was an american carol. it was written in philadelphia in 1869. this was understood him. said why are we going
to a methodist church? you are not a methodist. roosevelt said i like to sing with the messages. -- methodists. so they went to that church. they went on new year's day. roosevelt did not get out of the car when churchill said he wanted to go to washington's home in mount vernon. he wanted to visit washington's tomb. it was a wet day and roosevelt was paralyzed. he did not want to make trouble for himself so eleanor roosevelt, a company churchill to lay a wreath at washington's tomb. the newspaper reporters followed. they wanted what was going to be said when he heard them chattering. it must be something very memorable because church always had something memorable to say. they overheard church held -- churchill site it was very wet
-- say it was very wet. the war would go on through 1942, 43, 44, it would end in 1945 only a few weeks after president roosevelt died of a cerebral hemorrhage. that was on april 12, 1945. he did not see the end. churchill saw the end from a distance. the british had held an election and voted him out of office. for were somehow ungrateful the men who had led them to victory because they did not for them he was good in peace. so they voted him out of office. that is for another book. thank you, i will lead things open for discussion if you like
to ask any questions. there is much more to be said but a want to give you a turn. >> wait till he makes you. -- wait until he put the microphone on you. what role did charles bloomberg have -- charles lindbergh have? stanley: very little. he was the guiding spirit of the isolationist committee that tried to keep us out of the way. pearl harbor destroyed the existence of the america first committee. roosevelt was not allowing him to have his commission back. was a gross this mistake to do. who was alsoy ford an isolationist before world war
ii began and had been an isolationist in world war i wanted to put [to work. he quietly put lindbergh to work engineer with his plants. lindbergh actually flew out to the pacific and was a test pilot on some of our new warplanes in the pacific. not as an officer but quietly as a civilian. he got back to me were somehow. roosevelt did not want him in publicly. >> somewhere in my recollection, the american intelligence agencies had an idea that pearl harbor was going to be attacked. there were stories after pearl harbor that we knew pro-was going to happen and we
were unprepared for that we wanted it to happen so we could get into the war. donovan is really true. -- none of it is really true. president roosevelt wanted to get into the war to help britain and go against germany. he sent out destroyers to convoy -- british ships. he was hoping to be attacked by germans to have an excuse to go to war. even though the sailors were killed, that did not seem to be enough of a provocation to go to war with germany. it took the attack on proper to do it. they know about the attack on pearl harbor? no, we did not. we do not think that the japanese could travel that far with such a big strike force.
we had almost annual exercises to defend pearl harbor against those attacks. 1941 not have one in because the admirals and generals held it was racing -- wasting valuable supplies. they said we should not be bothered doing that anymore. we had very primitive radar now. we could find japanese if we wanted to. was turnedve radar off on saturday, december 7. so we couldn't listen in. so in some became to test the radar on saturday, he was surprised to find a blips on the screen. there were blips on the screen. a flyinghere was
fortress coming in from california. about them. and yes they did, they did come in and they were attacked by the japanese as they came in. the japanese were coming from another direction. sources ofother information that we did not take seriously. they told the state department that they had overheard at a party that the peruvian embassy talk on the part of the japanese that they were going to attack pearl harbor and that they were planning for it. this came from a peruvian who had overheard the japanese. the state department did not take it seriously because after radarow would a peruvian -- waiter had any idea what was going on? so they ignored it. we did not have any direct
information but we did note that spike inese had a honolulu who was trying to find out where our ships were in pearl harbor. he was making a chart of where the ships were. harborhorities at pearl felt that this was for seven times. because we had a big japanese population that. in case of war, they wanted to know where the ships would be. the purpose of sabotage. it turned out there was not a single case of sabotage on the part of the japanese in hawaii. loyal except quite for the japanese console who had been imported as a spy. two week break the japanese code to learn about pearl harbor? no, we broke the japanese diplomatic code. we knew they would break relations. we found that out the day before pearl harbor.
but we do know why they would break relations with us. we do not have the military or naval code broken. we do know about those until well after pearl harbor. nothing it seems but stupidity and blindness was in the way of the japanese attack. >> i was wondering how much resistance there was to fdr and churchill going to germany first instead of japan first? there was no resistance on the part of the american public because they did not know. they didn't know what our plans with it. there was resistance from our navy who felt it was nothing we
could do in the atlantic and they wanted to go after the japanese. they were warned that we do not have enough go ahead on the japanese because of the definition -- decimation of our fleet at pearl harbor. we had to rebuild our fleet. meanwhile, we had to show the germans that we were serious and go to war in the atlantic. so it became an atlantic war first to we could rebuild our efforts in the pacific. >> you have a new book in the works and will it have the same theme? stanley: i have two more books in the worst that will deal with president roosevelt. duringere activities the. of pearl harbor, i decided i would write about him more because this is a president possibly let you in your coming up. i will prepare a book that will
come out sometimes during this election year. it will be on the wartime campaign of 1944. the first wartime campaign of the presidency since the civil war when roosevelt ran for a fourth term against a young fondue. new york state. the vocal be about the wartime campaign. roosevelt actually went to proper for the first time after the attack in 1944 to confer with general macarthur about what to do next to try to defeat japan. roosevelt went on from pearl harbor and came back in a 'sstroyer to washington state adversaries spread the story that his little dog had been
abandoned accidentally and they had to send ships at great expense, millions of dollars to go back to the islands and find it. that was all untrue. in -- madelt came into a good campaign story for his speeches. that will be in the next book. it is called the final victory. i hope you see it this year. there will be another one after that i was interviewing veterans of the war, world war ii about whether they voted during the 1944 election. did they vote and how did they go? me theymer sailors told voted for president roosevelt because he was a navy man. i didn't quite figure that out at first, he was a navy man. he was, was the assistant
secretary of the navy at 31. those in world war i. he was very effective. so the second book i'm working on will because young mr. roosevelt. it will be about president roosevelt as assistant secretary of the navy in world war i. that will be about a different war. toope that i will turn something else if i am still up to it. are there other questions? >> what you think explains the difference of the treatment in japan, hawaii. it was a terrible thing. we incarcerated the japanese on the west coast. we sent them to concentration camps called likely relocation camps. not take aould chance on the security of the west coast because there was 70
japanese living there. they had to give up their property. they had to give up their schooling. they were sent to places like intoand montana and idaho very bleak circumstances and concentration camps. there were never any problems with the loyalty of the japanese. eventually, the young japanese in the camps were allowed to leave the camps to enlist in the army. they became one of the blade -- greatest forces we had in the army. they can never go to the pacific. we could take that chance. therefore very bravely in italy. they were among our best forces. but they were not released until 1944, 20 and of the war. it was only decades later that the supreme court heard the case and declared that it was unconstitutional to have sent them to prison.
it was far too late to do any good. they were given a token sum of money but it would not buy back the land that was taken. very bad blood on the american character. >> the japanese and hawaii were not treated that way. >> know they were not. i don't know what the excuse was but there were too many japanese in hawaii. it would have totally undone the economy of hawaii had they been put into prison. they would have been no place to put them. there were too many of them. it turned out that they were very effective and loyal and good citizens, good workers. navywent into the army and but none of them were ever in prison. so the ones on the west coast of the u.s. went to relocation camps and the same low was not used in hawaii.
to me, the greatest irony of it is that one of our most liberal and respected chief of justices , his namereme court is earl, he was chief justice at wastime that segregation abolished, he was the attorney general of california who was in part responsible for sending the japanese to relocation camps. attitude roosevelt's 's do you know roosevelt attitude toward white question mark toward hawaii? he was in a panic about the japanese and they had to do something about it. the general in charge there turned out to be somebody who was a good friend of the general
marshall chief of staff. he got away with it. it was a terrible general. he got away with it. pearl harbor, he announced that the japanese were flying over san francisco and everybody had to turn their lights off. he was good at scaring people. why were the german americans not treated similarly? stanley: i don't know, the germans and italians in america were not treated similarly. there was no problem with those germans. i don't know of anyone who was actually imprisoned for being german. but in world war i, there was a panic about the germans. in many places of the next days, the schools where forbidden to
teach the german language anymore. my mother was in high school then and her high school had to stop teaching german. there was more panic over germans in world war i and there was an world war ii. -- than there was in world war ii. the germans were attacked on december 22, at 241. attacked us on december 7, 1941. the germans expected to win the war in two or three months. they thought the communists would fall apart because there to theh disloyalty
communists. there was such hate among the people. they didn't realize how tough it was to do anything in a police state to upset the equilibrium. thought -- fall for their motherland. died 20 million russians in that war. germans could never capture moscow. they got to the gates of moscow the day before pearl harbor, december 6. they could never get through. leningrad was under siege. for 900 days, literally. 900 days. neareople are not starvation, they were in starvation. they killed the plaster from the walls to eat because they had to
have something to eat. there was cannibalism. the dead were literally eaten and leningrad. it was a terrible time. but they were loyal to the motherland. if nothing, the germans could not get through. this was going on at the time of pearl harbor. actions --to aid the russians and leningrad. there was nothing we could do but sense applies -- send supplies to them by some other means. the foreign minister for britain was in moscow trying to find a way to get supplies to the russians, how would they accept them? any supplies came in through i run -- iran and persian. trucksd send planes and
-- iran. the russians would not let them take it into russia. the cold war was going on already. they would not let us take them in. they sent their own drivers to pick them up and take them to russia. they do not want the americans talking to the russians or seeing what conditions were like in russia. so if anyone told you the cold war began after the war, not so. >> that was a major blow to germany. it was quite early in the war. stanley: the germans did not want us to supply the russians. they thought this was a good thing. to have the japanese in the war, in part because we would have to , britain andy russia. also, our own forces at the same time. you cannot do all of it but we did.
other, yes? >> there is a monument in france, the american flag her. -- an american flag there. i think there are a lot of things that the germans did not do because they didn't feel it was important enough to bother with. the one symbol that the germans wanted to do something about in world war ii was the railway car in which the armistice of 1819 was dying. actually took the car and wrote to germany on display. armisticeigned the with france in 1940, defeating the french. they used the same card to liberally.
film,itish showed on heather doing a little dance in front of the car because he was so happy about it. the dance was funny but what they did was speed up the film. he had just been walking. they sped up the film to make it look as if he was a bit demented and doing this dance and front of the railway car. the car was still moved back to france in 1945. thank you, i think we have finished what we had to do. i appreciate your coming. [applause] >> on history bookshelf, here best-knownuntry's american writers of the last decade. watch any of our programs at anytime. you are watching american history tv.
all weekend, every weekend on c-span3. >> join us on tuesday, january 3 for the opening of new congress. watch the swearing in of the new members of the senate. and the election of the speaker of the house. our live coverage of the days from capitol hill begins on c-span at 7:00 a.m. you can listen to it on the c-span radio app. architectural, historian barry lewis talks about the construction of the brooklyn bridge. that was built in the 1870's. he looks at wynette -- manhattan needed the bridge. historical society hosted this event. >> we are thrilled to welcome barry lewis back to the new