tv Johnston and Shermans April 1865 Meeting CSPAN February 18, 2017 6:00pm-6:51pm EST
watch c-span as president donald trump delivers his first address to a joint session of congress. president trump: this congress is going to be the busiest congress we've had in decades. >> live tuesday, february 28 at 9:00 p.m. eastern on c-span and c-span.org. listen live on the free c-span radio app. >> the civil war. naval historian craig simon and a history professor talk about the meeting twenal generals william sherman and joseph johnston to discuss the future of union army at the end of the civil war. the april, 1865 meeting happened just two days after president lincoln's assassination and a week after robert e. lee's surrender at appomattox. his talk was part of the annual lincoln symposium and is just under an hour.
>> what a perfect introduction. thank you. that's great. john and i are delighted to be back here at the lincoln forum. those of you who know us even a little bit will not be surprise today hear last night we had an opportunity to get together and consume some wine. and in the midst of that conversation, fueled by wine we were talking about how we were th terribly jealous of ron chernow whose biography of hamilton inspired a very lucrative musical on broadway. so we thought how appropriate it would be to have joseph e. johnston the musical. [laughter] >> or william t. sherman the musical or the one that really inspired us was henry wager halek the musical. as you see on the screen here and you'll be delighted to hear, this is not going to be a musical presentation today. instead, alas, it is a tragedy
in three acts. act one. on april 17, 1865, which is a full week after lee surrendered to grant at appomattox as we just heard a few moments ago, joseph e. johnston and william t. sherman met in the front yard of a small farm owned by james and nancy bennett near durham station, north carolina. here is what that farm house looks like today. and here is the newspaper engraving of the imagined meeting between these two generals and here is a modern painting by dan nance and how e imagined that. however it looked, let us imagine the moment. it had been four years and five days since the war began.
and since then these two men had spent a lot of that time, each of them thinking about the other. wondering what plans lurked inside the active brain of his opponent. for two and a half months in the spring and summer of 1864, they had dueled one another in north georgia in what was called a red clay minuet, each striving to gain an advantage, each failing to do so, until a frustrated and impatient jefferson davis replaced johnston with john bell hood. they had fought again only two weeks before this meeting near bentonville, north carolina, in another strategically indecisive engagement. now, with lee's army already having surrendered in virginia, they met face to face for the first time ever. with an opportunity to end the
war. and at least as important to establish a foundation for the peace that would follow. their conversation could well have much to do with what reconstruction would look like and how or even if the country recovered from its wounds. what is not evident in this painting is the amount of baggage that each man brought with him to the meeting. not literal baggage but metaphorical baggage. my job here in this first segment of this tag team presentation is to detail some of the personal, professional, and political baggage that hnston brought to this meeting. after jefferson davis dismissed joe johnston from his command in july of 1864 the old general went into what amounted to retirement in columbia, south arolina.
where the diarist mary chestnut was living. she noted johnston and his friends were bitter about their dismissal, bitter at davis, bitter at john bell hood whose subsequent defense of atlanta was a disastrous failure and whose quixotic campaign into tennessee was even more catastrophic resulting in the virtual destruction of the army of tennessee outside nashville. of course, if johnston's supporters blamed that catastrophe on davis and on hood, those two men and many others as well blamed johnston, whose constant withdrawals in georgia had in their view taken the fighting spirit out of the army of tennessee before john bell hood ever got ahold of it. the error, as they saw it, was not that johnston was dismissed but that he had been kept too long in command. the mutual bitterness was palatable.
the observeant mary chestnut wrote in her diary, we thought this was a struggle for independence. now it seems it is only a fight between joe johnston and jeff davis. of course columbia, south carolina was no safe haven. for sherman, advancing north from savannah, had it squarely in his sights. as sherman headed north, the confederate congress in richmond, the members of which were as disgusted with davis as johnston was, virtually rebelled against the administration bypassing a law that appointed robert e. lee by name as commander-in-chief of all confederate armies. never mind the fact that the confederate constitution gave that title to the president. moreover, that same act called upon the president to appoint joseph e. johnston again by name to command what was left of the army of tennessee. it was a deliberate slap in the
face to jefferson davis, and while davis happily appointed lee to the top command he refused to appoint joe johnston to anything. instead writing that johnston was in his words deficient in enterprise, tardy in movement, defective in preparation, and singularly neglectful of the duty of preserving our means of supply and transportation. then he did it anyway. it was lee who convinced him that if nothing else the popular johnston who was very much loved by the soldiers, might convince some of those who had desserted to return to he colors. johnston's first instinct was to refuse the appointment. he suspected this was another of davis's tricks putting him back in command just so he would be the one to bear the historical burden of making the final surrender. but just as lee had talked davis into making the
appointment he also convinced johnston to accept it. others told johnston that lee now hated davis as much as he did, which was not true, and that lee still had confidence in his old friend and west point classmate, which was true. so in that new job, johnston fought only one battle, the one at bentonville. it was indecisive. but in johnston's view, it proved that the men of the army of tennessee could still fight. that disproved all the things that hood had been saying about how the men of the army of tennessee had forgotten how to be soldiers. nevertheless it was obvious to johnston that any further fighting now after appomattox was useless. a week after bentonville and lee's surrender at appomattox he and most of the men in his army believed the war was over.
in the second week of april he traveled to see davis who was now heading southward from richmond having evacuated the confederate capital in a train to tell him so. they met in a railroad car near greensberg, north carolina on april 12. davis sitting at a small desk surrounded by what was left of his cabinet. i don't have an image of that. here is davis sitting at a desk. so this will have to do. johnston told the president our people are tired of the war. they feel themselves whipped, and will not fight. davis was fiddling with a piece of paper he was holding in his hand, turning it over, folding it, unfolding it. did not even look up. to look at johnston in the face. but after a brief pause he said, well, general johnston, what do you propose? hat was the opening johnston
needed. he asked permission to arrange an armistice that would, this is now quoted material, "permit the civil authorities to enter into the needful arrangements to terminate the existing war. davis hesitated. then he said, well, sir, you can adopt that course, though i confess i am not sanguine as to ultimate results. with that grudging assent, johnston then invited sherman to the meeting at the bennett house five days later. now let's hear what may have been on sherman's mind when he greeted johnston at the bennett house. >> i think you've all seen this picture before. it is the worst picture ever taken of sherman, and he hated it. he didn't want to have his picture taken.
t is a picture of that period. sherman as you know took atlanta in september of 1864, but at that time he showed no interest in crushing the army of confederate general john bell hood, who, as craig pointed out, was joe johnson's replacement. "i do not wish to waste lives by an assault." he quickly sent word to henry w. halek who was chief of staff in washington, "atlanta is ours and fairly won." the civil war as we know was bitterly fought, but sherman's decision not to destroy hood and his army in atlanta was a clear indication of something. just what this man's attitude s toward the confederacy and its people. sherman simply did not want to
go into -- go back into fighting a war of maim and blood. but he couldn't remain in atlanta. he had to do something. so he planned and this took place over a period of time to institute a new form of warfare, to institute destructive war against the confederacy. and how was he going to do that? by marching to the sea. lincoln and grant were not in favor of this, but sherman quickly wore them down, began his march from atlanta to the sea, on november 14, 1864. one of the things i want to point out if you remember nothing else about my part of it, i know you'll remember everything craig said. but my part of it, i want you to remember that this is not an example of sherman's work. he did not burn atlanta down. he didn't do it.
we can talk about it afterwards if you'd like. but the lost cause would have us believe that's what happened. this was actually created by john bell hood when he set fire to atlanta. he set fire to ammunition of atlanta and explosions happened and all the rest. anyway, he didn't destroy everything despite what "gone with the wind" has to say. [laughter] there you have "gone with the wind." nor, as legend would have it, sherman did not burn every home between atlanta and the ocean. it simply didn't happen. he did, however, march through georgia, and he arrived at savannah on december 21. from there, he sent a message to lincoln, "i beg to present to you as a christmas gift the city of savannah." all kinds of newspapers talked union santa claus.
as was the case with hood in atlanta, sherman now had to deal with confederate general william hardee. but, again, he refused to cut off his escape. rather, he consciously, specifically, left open an exit so hardee could get away and sherman would not have to fight him in the trenches. and when sherman's army entered savannah, the soldiers, his soldiers, sherman's soldiers were on their best behavior. previously they had taken or destroyed anything they wanted. now they paid for everything they took. well, what happened? as long as they held out, he'd fight them without mercy.
as soon as southerners quit the war he would as he phrased it ecome the south's best friend. thus, he is not going to try to destroy hood or hardee or atlanta or savannah. he is going to institute what comes to be known as a soft piece for the hard war he's been demonstrating in georgia. well, let's face it. the war is hardly over at this particular point when sherman gets to savannah. grant now wants sherman to come to virginia. sends him a letter. there is a letter waiting for sherman. come to virginia and help me finish off robert e. lee. well, sherman fought against that idea because he did not want to participate in such killing again. instead, and they worked this out, he headed north into the carolinas and another example
of destructive, psychological warfare. this time he particularly punished south carolina because he and his soldiers blamed south carolina for starting the war. but, interestingly, he was less harsh on north carolina, which, as you know, was very slow in seceding and had been much less enthusiastic about secession and battle and war. so sherman and his troops are now marching through the carolinas and what joe johnston says is one of the most impressive military feats since julius caesar. in fact, what happens is, a figure from sherman's past reappears. guess who that is? that is craig's hero, joe johnston. [laughter] now, craig pointed out that jefferson davis had fired
johnston just before the fall of atlanta, and he also pointed out that now davis had to swallow his pride and bring johnston back. why would he do that? ell, he had no choice. after george h. thomas destroyed john bell hood and his army of tennessee at nashville in december, 1864, there is no confederate general eft to battle sherman except for joseph e. johnson. so johnston takes over what is left of the confederate army in the carolinas, and he gives sherman, as we heard, a momentary scare at bentonville. then he had to fall back before the surging yankees. well, sherman felt that he had done the right thing. he believed that his
destructive war was a more direct way to get to the desired end of ending this civil war, defeating the confederacy, restoring the union. he certainly did not want to get back into the meat grinder of war. but what's going to happen now? he's in carolina. joe johnston is back again. well, craig's already told us. sherman receives a letter from joe johnston requesting a meating between the two of them . and just before he leaves for that -- getting ready to leave for that meeting, is sherman, a subordinate hands him a telegraph that is just arrived from washington. end of act one. [laughter]
act two. the two men arrived at the designated meeting place. they dismounted. shook hands. and leaving their respective entourages outside, they went together into the bennett's small farm house. now, unlike lee and grant and the maclean house, we saw several images, you have all seen images of that, there were no adrianza, no staff members. ust the two of them, together, in this small, rustic cabin. once they were inside, sherman took out of his pocket the telegram that he had been handed just as he was leaving for the meeting and showed it to joe johnston >> so far he had shown it to no one else. it stated two days before abraham lincoln had been assassinated in washington, d.c. johnston looked up at sherman
with horror and declared it was the greatest possible clampedly -- calamity for the south. he said he hoped that sherman did not think the south had any hand in such an act. sherman replied he was confident that the rebel army had nothing to do with it, but he would not say the same about jefferson davis and his government. to which johnston made no reply. with that cloud hanging over their heads, they got down to business. sherman offered johnston the same terms that grant had offered to lee at appomattox. johnston acknowledged that the terms were, in fact, generous, but he suggested that perhaps they could go further and arrange the terms of a permanent peace. sherman replied to that by asking if johnston had the authority to make such an agreement. it was a good question. davis had told johnston that he
could enter into discussions to, "permit the civil authorities to enter into the needful arrangements to terminate the existing war." in fact, davis had dictated that phrase himself. but what davis had meant, and johnston knew this, was that johnston had permission to convince the union to agree to southern independence. which was why he had expressed so little optimism about the outcome. what johnston now tried to do instead was conclude a peace that would reunite the country. of course, as a general commanding an army in the field, johnston did not and could not represent the civil authorities. sherman pointed that out to him. but johnston noted that john c. breckenridge was scheduled to arrive that very afternoon and breckenridge was both a former vice president of the united states and currently the secretary of war in the confederate government, and he,
johnston said, could represent the civil authorities. i had to put this up because of the mustache. [laughter] that posed a problem for sherman, because he was prescribed from entering into a negotiation with a representative of what lincoln was always careful to describe as the so-called confederate government. he pointed this out to johnston and johnston replied, well, yes, that's true, but breckenridge is also a major general in the confederate army, as we see him here in his confederate uniform. so sherman could treat with him in that capacity. of course, if breckenridge was merely a general in the confederate army, it was not clear how he was supposed to represent the civil authorities. still, anxious for the blood letting to stop, sherman agreed to meet with both men the next day. it's hard to tell who was being
more duplicitous here, johnston for implying that the confederate government was willing to end the war, when he knew that davis wanted to fight on to the bitter end, or sherman for using the figure leaf of breckenridge's commission as a major general to enter into negotiations with a member of the confederate government. but both men wanted peace. and they calculated that stretching the letter of their instructions was worth it. so the three men now met in the bennett house the next day, april 18, and it started out splendidly. sherman had brought with him a bottle of kentucky bourbon. [laughter] felt obligated to include this slide because i know that no one in this audience knows what a bottle of kentucky bourbon looks like. [laughter] you'll note and apparently you have already noted this one
happens to be from trader joe's. i doubt that's the brand that sherman had with him. in any case, sherman offered a glass of it to each of the confederate generals. well, breckenridge, who was a native kentuckian, and who had been exiled from his home state for years, sat up eagerly. got rid of his plug of tobacco, rinsed out his mouth with water from his canteen to prepare himself, and then tossed back his drink with evident satisfaction. after that, they got down to work. sherman had prepared for the meeting by drawing up a memorandum to use as a basis for an agreement. the three men quibbled a bit over some of the language, but there were no major disagreements. at one point, sherman, obviously deep in thought, got up from the table, absent mindedly walked across the room to his saddle bag, got out the whiskey bottle, poured himself a drink, then put the bottle back.
[laughter] breckenridge fell silent. and afterward complained to johnston in outrage that sherman was no gentleman. [laughter] did you see him take that drink by himself? the agreement they produced was pretty straight forward. in addition to the terms grant had laid down at appomattox concerning johnston's soldiers, it called for the dissolution of all southern armies across the nation. so far so good. but there was more. the agreement also called for the restoration and recognition of existing state governments. and that was a problem. because it intruded into the political rem. nevertheless, all three men signed it, even the pouting breckenridge. and johnston left the meeting in the belief that he had ended the war. he was wrong. why was that, john?
[laughter] >> well, this so-called treaty had been signed, as craig said both sherman and johnston were pleased because they really thought the war was now over. traditionally shall the story goes that sherman immediately sent the terms to washington, d.c. for the new andrew johnson dministration to accept. however, received an e-mail from walter starr who you may know is the author of a recent book on william henry stuart and presently is working on a book on edwin stanton. well, he insists that it's much more complicated than that. what he discovered was that sherman also took and sent some of the surrender terms to some
southern newspapers. for example, "the columbia, south carolina phoenix" of april 24, 1865, and that newspaper quoted it as saying that this peace treaty would bring peace to all the united states and the confederate states. sherman believed that he was exactly doing what should have been done. so it's possible that he may have sent information or planted information in a newspaper to put pressure on the administration to accept the terms. the problem is, however, that he never said anything about it, nor did anyone else say anything about such plans until walter starr found this information. so i think you have to say it's just difficult to know for sure but we wanted you to be aware of that. we do know, however, without any fear of contradiction, that
sherman thought he had done the right thing. he told his quarter master for example, "i have today made terms with johnston that will close the war and leave us only to march home." now, he had been presented this -- he then presented this information to his generals. several of his generals thought it was a big, big mistake. "they are too liberal." several believed. but, in fact, as we've already mentioned, sherman had always promised the south a hard war as long as it kept fighting, and that it would be a soft war once it quit. well, johnston and the confederates promised to surrender. promised they would quit. so sherman in his heart of hearts believed he had no choice. but he had to fulfill the promise he had been making over and over again during the war.
so sherman had no doubt that his plans for ending the war were good plans. and, after all, they were simply lincoln's plans. you remember the picture we saw earlier of lincoln and grant and others and sherman sitting here and porter? so what sherman did do, he did send the plans forward to washington. well, sherman's aide that sherman sent delivered the plans to grant. grant looked at them and immediately called for an emergency meeting of andrew johnson and his cabinet. now, keep in mind as craig pointed out, that lincoln has been assassinated. the nation is in shock over this. the nation, including the administration is war weary over all of the death and destruction.
so the cabinet, like the american people, was in no mood for a soft peace. the north had the upper hand after all. so why should the union side reward great knew that sherman's terms were dead on arrival, and the cabinet agreed. and the list to say, this man needless tod -- and say, this man took the lead in agreement sherman. he had a cabinet meeting that night at 8:00 p.m., and the cabinet voted the terms down. sherman had simply gone too far. stanton ordered grant to tell sherman to go down to north carolina to tell sherman in no uncertain terms, that he had no right, as a military man, to
take on responsibilities that were clearly civilian. knowhile, sherman did not what was going on in washington. there is no twitter at this particular time. [laughter] but sherman at the same time is writing joe johnston of his confidence, the andrew johnson m administration, would follow lincoln's lead, except to surrender terms, and that he, sherman, would be praised for establishing this agreement. joe,id, don't worry everything is ok. we are on the right track. instead, washington exploded. to general w. alec, to be the in richmond military governor of that particular area. civilianreads to other
and military leaders, and eventually, it spreads to the press. halleck were particularly upset, and openly attacked sherman for overstepping his authority. stanton accused sherman of helping the confederates. ordered sherman's subordinates to ignore any direct orders from sherman. not knowing anything about the shermans having a wonderful time in north carolina, he thinks he is just on the verge of becoming a national hero. then all of a sudden, ulysses s. grant shows up, his buddy, his friend. grant arrives, very calmly, and says nothing about firing
sherman, and taking his place. his friendly tells that the terms are not acceptable. i think what you need to do was call joe johnston, get with him, and just renegotiate things. well, sherman's response to this is quite positive. he reacted calmly. noteote stanton and expressing his willingness to change the treaty quote -- this is sherman writing to stanton -- i admit my follies and embracing in a military convention, any civil manners. i am ready to work with the johnston administration, and we will all work together to come up with an appropriate end to the war. he said, i still think i am right, but i'm willing to compromise. but he said, we better do it fast because if we don't do it fast, the confederate army is going to break up into guerilla
bands, and then we will really have problems. and then sherman received some northern newspapers coming he could not believe what he was reading. the papers actually charged him -- william comes to sherman, charging him with being a trader. he worried again about the south continuing the gorilla war. if his treaty, which he knew was right, quote he said -- we should not drive a people into anarchy. previously had done in california, louisiana, kentucky, memphis, sherman worried about anarchy. he had fought this war to triumphing,chy from and now he is trying to that otherspwaceace
are going to initiate a new anarchy. he struggled to understand the key point. most northerners did not see southerners as fallen away friends. recalcitrant as friends that needed punishment to prevent any future civil war. when stanton called sherman a tor to the future of the ur foundhis sl northerners ready to believe that this was true of one of the generals who adjust won the civil war for them. end of act two. act three. >> johnson also felt betrayed.
a few days after he thought he had end of the war, he got a note from sherman informing him their agreement had been rejected. that hostilities would resume in 48 hours. by then, most of johnston's army had marched away home. and johnston -- in johnston's view, -- in the same note, sherman also invited johnston to meet with him a third time, this time without any reference to civil issues. johnston checked with breckenridge for orders. perhaps still resenting being thatht that secondary -- second drink of whiskey, breckenridge told johnston that even if he had to surrender but was left of his infantry, he should try to bring off the cavalry in order to prolong the
war. johnston was appalled. he was in no mood to ask any of his men to lay down their lives solely for the purpose of davis inefferson office for another day or two. he met with his own generals, his subordinate generals, who told him there was no fight left in the army. the men were leaving in groups of 10 and 20 or more stealing the draft horses in the cavalry mounts to make their trip home. if you try to bring off the calvary, as breckenridge suggested, the men were unlikely to do it. johnston wired breckenridge, we have to save the people. and spare the blood of the army. and he met with sherman for a third time in the bennett house on april 26. this time, they limited themselves to military issues.
johnston formally surrendered his army, that in no more. life,e rest of his jefferson davis consider johnston's decision to surrender an act of treachery and cowardice. lee had been surrounded and went as far as he could go and had no choice. but johnston, davis believed and wrote, just quit. there was no victory parade or a parade of any kind for the betterment of the army of tennessee. they just went home. most of them did with the surrender terms required. mighty their own business, not bearing arms against the government. johnston remained embittered not sherman for whom he always expressed admiration, but at davis'sn davis and ed
military advisor, and john bell hood. johnston devoted the rest of his life to writing a book and a whole handful of articles in which he tried to prove that davis had conspired against him. it was clearly the least admirable episode of his life as he grew old, picking apart old feuds and resentments. where were sherman and for the surrender? let's find out. >> the tension in the room is just -- [laughter] well, we talked about this final surrender at the bennett house, and we know that after that took place, sherborn marched northward. -- sherman marched northward. elements of the press wanted to
know publicly if he planned to use his army against civilian because he was furious by this time. those absurd accusations just infuriated him. but sherman took no action. he wrote no letters. unusual he got his own kind of revenge. the grand review of armies was held in washington on may 23 and may 24. there you have a picture. well, and this particular case, even before they got to washington, they had to march through richmond. guess what -- guess who was in command in richmond? halleck. sherman's in a letter to halleck saying, you are not going to get any salutes from my army, so you better not show up.
then when he himself was involved in this particular grand review, he led his army , andd the reviewing stand here you have a picture of the reviewing stand. i don't of how well you can see it, but you see some of the people there. sherman is there and stanton is there an grant is there and johnston is there. marchedase, when he past with his army, massed -- march past the reviewing stand and he passed stanton. stanton offered his hand to shake hands. sherman snubbed him. that was sherman's revenge. so you see him there to the right in this photo next to ues apparentlyg whispering something to the guy next to him.
and you know to stanton is standing behind grant and the president is about 10 feet away. by the end of the parade, off, but hecooled remained disillusioned. he wrote a public letter about his refusal to shake hands. he said quote -- i cannot recall the act, but shakespeare records how poor falls staff, the prince of cowards and wits, rising from the figured death, stabbed again , and carried the carcass aloft in triumph to prove his valor. innow, when the rebellion our land is dead, many fall stabs appear. and you know who he is talking about. so, by the end of 1865, both sherman and johnston felt betrayed by their superiors.
he hadinitial agreement made with joe johnston, sherman had demonstrated yet again, but i like to call his passion for orders, passion for piece. during the war, and certainly at its end, he wanted to let the it stopsin peace once fighting. he saw himself as a hero of the north's victory, and believed that northerners shared his peace as they supported him in hard war. that was not the case. the interesting fact is that he and joe johnston remained friends. , one ofhe two of them them was the commanding general of the army, and the other one, being a member of the united states house of representatives,
could be found on the floor of sherman's home with all kinds of maps on the floor, and they are on their hands and knees studying the atlantic campaign. [laughter] sherman dies in 1891. and johnston traveled to new york to act as an honorary pallbearer. this contemporary drawing is supposed to be johnston walking immediately behind the casket. well, many of you know the story. it turns out that before be reached this point, sherman was laid out, whatever the proper term is, in the casket, in his home in new york city. casket is closed and brought out of the home and to the street in manhattan, joe johnston, honorary pallbearer, is standing there to help, he has that his hat off, and has
his hat over his heart. and it is very cold, it is february, after all. another mourner leaned forward to urge the old general to put on his hat because he said, general, you will catch a cold. johnston replied quote -- if i were in his place and he were standing here in mind, he certainly would not put on his hat. so, he did not. and as you may know, the story ends that johnson catches a cold and he dies from that cold soon after. so, in the end, it is fair to say, and craig and i agree on this, these two delman served as a metaphor -- these two men served as a metaphor of what might have been. no matter what sherman believed or try to implement, or no matter what johnston tried to do
for his part, the south has preferred tourist -- the south has preferred to remember sherman as a dylan, and to remember johnston as a field general. considered old at that time, but in any case, our union army veteran named ethan allen hitchcock -- hitchcock may have expressed the situation best by quoting from the 25th sonnet of william shakespeare. and shakespeare was one of sherman's favorite authors. remember, i quoted that earlier, but here is the four lines that maybe expresses it all, quote -- the painful warrior, famous for the fight, after 1000 victories once boiled, is from the book of honor vanished quite, and all
the rest forgotten for which he toiled. thank you. [applause] >> we are told that we have time for two quick questions, and that is all, so rush the microphones. [applause] >> and take it easy, too. >> for mr. marszalek, were there any thought that sherman had as , did he from georgia know what was going on there? >> the question was determined think about andersonville? yes he did. calvarya unit of union to try to free the people at
andersonville, but they failed. and they were imprisoned. so nothing came of it. very good question. i know this isn't the um, that will result in an easy answer, but suppose andrew johnston had gotten along sherman? reconstruction have differed? craig: the question is what would have been different if andrew johnson got along with sherman? that is too difficult for me to answer. that is something i should let craig answer. [laughter] craig: we can say anything, and who would know otherwise. there are two what if possibilities. what would lincoln have accepted
in the kind of arrangement he made if he had not been assassinated? my guess is lincoln would have done a workaround, he would accept it the idea that the army surrendered and there is a temporary restoration of existing state government, but that is subject for further consideration, but the anger that was so possible in the north following the assassination made it impossible, i think, to accept terms other than surrender and he will tell you what will happen to you. there are two -- the tragedy implied in the title of our presentation, the tragedy in three acts is partly the what might have been? we don't know what might have been, but want the assassination took place, it is clear that it was going to be harder to bring about the kind of peace that sherman and johnston envisioned at the minute the venice house --envisioned when they met at the bennett house. thank you very much. [applause] watch c-span as president
donald trump delivers his first address to a joint session of congress. pres. trump:'s progress is going to be the busiest congress -- this congress is going to be the busiest congress we have had in decades. tuesday, three 28th. on tuesday, february 28. next, lynn downey discusses her new biography of levi strauss, who created his blue jeans business in san francisco in 1873. ms. downey served as a company's in-house historian -- ms. downey served as the company's in-house historian. she traces his long career and his contributions to the san francisco community in his later years. a stored photographs and advertising materials, the presentation also explores how blue jeans transformed with fashio