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tv   Morgan State University History  CSPAN  February 22, 2017 8:00pm-8:53pm EST

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donald trump delivers his first address to a joint session of congress. >> this congress is going to be the busiest congress we've had in decades. >> live on c-span and c-span.org and listen live on the free c-span radio app. c-span, where history unfolds daily. in 1979, c-span was created as a public service by america's television cable companies and is brought to you today by your cable or satellite provider. coming up, a special airing of american history tv focusing on historically black colleges and universities, we'll bring you programming that explores their founding and development. we'll start at morgan state university in baltimore where professor dale green talks about the institutional history and alumni of the university. his class is about 50 minutes.
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>> today's lecture is going to be on the history and the heritage of morgan state university. morgan state 81 is celebrating its sesqui kren 10 yell 150 years, in and originally started with nine students at the basement of the sharp street methodist episcopal church celebrating 150 years and has nearly 8,000 students. a history and leg gacy tied to historically black colleges and universities. they will celebrate their 150th anniversary and these university are morgan state university in baltimore, maryland, howard university in d.c. johnson c. smith in north carolina, barbara scotia in north carolina, talledega in
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alabama, st. augustine in north carolina, alabama state university in alabama, fayet fayetteville state university in north carolina and moore house college in georgia. in 1867, these nine historically black colleges and universities formed the largest concentration of any historically black colleges and universities established in any single year. in 1965, the higher education act of 1965 formally recognized 105 historically black colleges and universities, and so these 105hbcus are an important legacy to the education of african-americans in this country. morgan's founding and morgan's journey with a wright samuel green who was freed as a slave and purchased his wife in 1840.
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he was escaping the underground railroad and also assisted by harriet tugman. he was a conductor on the underground railroad and insi insisted others to freedom and caught with a pamphlet of the uncle tom's cabin. when he was arrested and sentenced to prison in the city of baltimore for 10 years before being pardoned by the governor of the state of maryland on the condition he would leave the state where he went to visit his sam, junior, visiting in canada, he came back to maryland in the year maryland signed the emancipation proclamation which was the year, 1864. he met with several african-american preachers and those of the clergy to found what is now morgan state university, what was then the centenary biblical institute of 1837. october 1 of 1864 in particular
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was the one that marks the african-american conference of thee -- episcopal church. they with mr. green, their single purpose was the intellectual and moral innovation of young men of color. they were to train these young men in the ministry and these men would go off and preach not only the gospel but preach liberation. this is happening just after the emancipation proclamation being signed here in the state of maryland. after president abraham lincoln signed the emancipation proclamation part of the united states of america. on december 25th, christmas day, 1866, the founders met and they
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met to organize what would then become the sent tental biblical institute of 1867. nine students met at the sharp street united methodist church in the basement of sharp street and that began the first class of students. on november 27th, in 1867, the articles of incorporation for the centenary biblical institute was founded. the journey of morgan has been a long illustrious journey taken it from the institute to 1890 to morgan state college of 1939 and morgan state college of 1975. a remarkable journey that began with these brave students, nine of which met in the basement of this building here at the corner of sharp and pratt at baltimore's inner harbor today.
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at this site today there is a day's inn hotel, but in 1867-1872, the nine students met in the lower level of this basement. they met for a systematic course of lectures of these young african-american men being trained in the gospel. they purchased the peyton property, in 1869, and in a noted african-american community called gallo hills in downtown baltimore. this would become the first independent building, campus building for the new sen tental biblical institute and founded the baltimore academy founded in 1886, later known as the morgan academy. that academy would run from 1886 to 1927 and train several young
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african-american students as well. in 1879, the re-rend john f. goucher dedicated problem for the establishment of a larger campus building you see here designed by frank e. davis. at this location, the centenary biblical institute became the morgan college in 1890. revv red littleton in dowed the institution and in his honor they renamed the institution morgan college. in 1886, the centenary biblical institute created the princess ann academy on the maryland eastern shore originally known as the delaware conference academy and today the university of maryland's eastern shore birthed out of morgan state university. the original buildings you can
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see off to the side, only hall as well as several other buildings that form today the economic oval on the university of maryland's eastern shore, this branch of morgan was in operation from 1886 until 1935. when it was told to maryland. the last building in 1959, a significant year when the bui building was actually demoli demolished, fire-induced, the del cohn hall, eliza smith hall bui building. it was fire-induced. it was a very significant important building erected on that campus and one that no l g longer stands and all other former buildings that related to the princess ann economy are no longer on that site. in 1891, the university went
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further establishing additional branches. lynchburg, virginia, they established the industrial college a branch of morgan from 1891 to 1970. on that site, it was a 12 acre site that had a single building. you will notice this is same building at edmondson in fulton and they hired the same architect to create a brand for the university. they were going to build the signature campus buildings at these different branches. this is the building on the virginia collegiate industrial institute site. however, in 1917, this building was destroyed by fire. it was the only building that was on that site. the students and faculty who were at that location were rescued by a harriet wolfert, a faculty member at that location and she served all persons from that fire and later died from pneumonia. on the campus today, if you visited the wolfert in firmary,
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it is named in honor of harriet for her heroic efforts on the lynchburg campus. in 1917, the university purchased this current site where the university is presently located. on this site we have been morgan college from 1917 to 1939, when the state purchased the campus. from mortgagan state college, 1 to 1975 and morgan state university 1975 to present. this university was originally the ivy mill and farm, a 65 acre tract of land they purchased in 1917, 100 years ago. they purchased it from a walter thorn, from germany and he was very sensitive to the needs of african-americans in the 1917s.
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this campus was a farm, the ivy mill farm and its chief crop was the stone many of the buildings were erected of. the washington hall building is an early building on this campus, home to walter thorn and this is a picture from 1920 so all the original buildings were farm buildings walter already had and the university immedi e immediately used for the purposes of education. they renamed this building washington hall in honor of the washington conference which gave rice to the centenary institute, where colored members of the methodist episcopal church that founded the institution. the morgan was a state
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acquisition. the original purchase was 65 acres of land and additional 12 acres of land was purchased to increase the size of the campus and bellevue hall became an early dormitory for young men on the campus. the purpose and significance of the development of morgan college and morgan park is quite significant within american history. there are six key milestones that relate to this. one of importance is 1913, when the morgan college company was established to relocate the campus. dr. john spencer, then president of the university, had organized a group of colored men who would establish an organization that would set out to find a larger plot of land for the university as it related to andrew carnegie gift that was given to the
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university. andrew carnegie requebequest 50 dollars to the university on the condition it would build a bu d building in his honor and find larger land to erect this bui building. when the university was at edmonson and fulton, his architect from new york, edward tilden, came down to that site and told carnegie if he gave morgan 50,0$50,000 they would s outgrow that edmonson fulton location and it would not be a good use of those resources. they set out to find a different site. what was unique and very tumultuous about this search, as you can see in the headlines, the university could have been in park heights, however, park heights protested the university coming. there are several headlines that said, the colored will invade the area, that the tnegroe coloy will bring down the property
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values. there were several letters written from several high chief executives that also wrote to dr. goucher and spencer and things like we have homes we own in this community and spent thousands of dollars to improve our properties. please be considerate what it would mean to bring these negroes into our community. they looked at 21 sites across the state of maryland, trying to relocate this university but in 1917 they were able to reconnect to a walter thorn and ivy mill and farm and thus purchase the site where we currently are. what was important to this acquisition is that 25 acres of land would be set aside for a residential community. this is the negroe colony referenced in those 1917 docume documents. this is the campus and it is a
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community called morgan park. this morgan park sfrunt is an historic african-american community, one of the first city suburbs at the time the campus moved here, it was still baltimore county and became baltimore city in 1918. this very definitive community built from 1913 to the 1960s has three very strong periods of significan significances, in which houses were built and movers and sha r shakersed up a the community itself. the first home erected in the community was built by dr. xavier o'connell, one of the first principals of the princess ann academy located on maryland's eastern shore and he bought the first parcel and erected this house that still stands in the community. the proximity of this very
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important community, as it relates to the overall university is as such, just west of the campus, is another very important community called wilson park community developed by hawilson, also african-amerin and other african-american individu individuals. all other areas around the campus would have been whites who protested the african-americans coming to this community. it went as high as the supreme court level. the first building morgan constructed was the carnegie hall building. there were others that predated it but it was the oldest constructed op the cn the campu. it was designed by tilden, who was his architect and he led
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them to three other buildings in addition to carnegie. this is the old power plant bui building, decommissioned but a historic building built from the stones quarried from the site and baldwin hall, the oldest continuously occupied dormitory on the campus and houses young men and finished in the the 1920s. all the buildings that form what we call the morgan academic quad are on the morgan court and historically housed farm buildings. it was the first erected and flanked by annexations recogn e recognizing dr. john spencer and dr. milton calloway, one of the first early black scientists, dr. charles key, the ban any kerr hall, originally the first
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library on the campus. holmes hall named in honor of the first african-american president, dr. oliver wendall homes and tubman and dr. martin jenkins, the second afric african-american president. these three individuals were known as the three horsemen within mortgage dpan's history. james carter was born on this site when it was the ivy mill and farm. his family was the colored family who worked for the ivy mill and farm. wi we believe he actually introduced this property to john spencer when it came on the market and how they were able to purchase it. dean grant and edward wilson, long time registrar and wrote the history from 1867 to 1967. and then a dormitory named in
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honor, the second mckeckeldin center, the governor. and mcmec en. the dixon science center named in honor of our graduate, the first african-american treasurer of the state of maryland. these two important individuals in the history of morgan's state university, dr. martin jen-ins, the second african-american president and dwight oliver wendall homes was the first. you see one of the first physical models of the campus. dr. holmes was passing the baton to dr. jenkins. they had laid out a 20 year physical campus plan for morgan. much of which reflects the
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history of morgan today in terms of physical environment. the erection of the holmes hall, clock tower building, was pl planned and erected to be one of the guiding principles, in terms of the built environment on the campus, as far as direction. it is a significant addition to the campus and helps to orient what morgan has referred to as a long walk. this is the campus by 1967, when it celebrated its centennial anniversary. there are several very important leaders who have led this institution. it is important to note it reflects the american story, while the students were always african-american, the leadership originally was always white. dr. john spencer, who was one of the early presidents of the university, although white, was a long time president of morgan, from 1902 to 1937, and led it through its many establishments
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of branches, the princess ann, morgan academy, lunchburg as well as relocating to this site. dr. dwight oliver wendall homes in 1937 became morgan's first african-american president. from 1867 to 1937, the university was under white leadership. martin d. jenkins in 1948 became the second african-american president and really helped to shape what became then the morgan state college to posit n positioning it to become morgan state university. dr. earl s. richardson, who guided the campus from 1984 to 2010, certainly grew, expanded and developed morgan state university into what many of you and i see on the campus today. and our current president, dr. david wilson, who was inaugurated in 2010 became the 12th president of morgan state
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university and is leading this institution under the banner of growing the future and leading the world. littleton f. morgan was one of the most significant trustees of this institution. in 1890, he gave property personally and personally end endowed the institution, which is why they renamed this institution morgan college in honor of this reference littleton morgan. carl j. murphy, the former president of the baltimore afro, was our early chartered member of the board of trustees. he joined in 1939, becoming the first african-american board of trustee member and then became the first chair of the board of trustees in 1953. >> enolia mcmillian, was known as themy tray arc of the naacp, the national association of the advancement of colored people. she was our first and only
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chair, woman chair, african-american chair of the board of trustees. kweisi mfume became the chair of the board of trustees, former congressman and former head of the naacp. morgan has had a prolific leadership at the trustee level as well as the presidential level. morgan has had a significant group of alumni beginning with its first, ashbie hawkins graduated in 1881, became a very noted african-american attorney and helped to break down racial segregation law, the very laws that would have excluded morgan from coming to this area. his partner was george w.f. mcmechen, became morgan's first graduate and he also is an
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attorney and went to yale university. these early african-american students are the students who came after the generation of those young men who were originally being trained to enter the ministry. our first female graduate, susie carr love graduated from the centenary biblical institute in 1888. the institution was originally purposed for young men in the ministry. then, at our academy, the morgan academy, one of our noted alumni of that academy in 1918 was none other than zora hurston, became a noted african-american author and then one of the principals was bishop edgar amos love the son of our first graduate, susie carr love and principal from 1919 to 1927, when the morgan academy closed. the murray versus pierson case
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from 1935 to 1937 was a significant milestone legislation that assisted in the transfer of morgan college to morgan state college. there are three very important legislative dates, if you will relate to morgan, 1877, to 1939, when the state purchases morgan college and it becomes morgan state college. then, 1975, when morgan state university is awarded its university status. that case i just showed you was a case that was thurgood marshall's first case of separate but equal. >> the morgan college students protest in maryland in 1937, when students from maryland protested in the nation's capitol to increase the support
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for morgan state university was one of the early civil rights movements of students of morgan. morgan students participated in numerous civil rights activities from sit-ins to demonstrations to protests. this went on from 1947 to the 1970s. the reads drugstore sit in most notably was the first sit-in when students in 1955 sat in at the reads drugstore to desegregate the lunch counters that would have excluded persons of color from sitting and eating and order food. other noted faculty meetings include dr. howard cornish, became a professor of mathematics from 1927 to 1957 and simultaneously held the post of being the director of the men
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mortgage dpgan christian center 1944 to 1976. >> james carter, who was born on this site to a family that was employed by the ivy mill was the assistant to the president until his death in 1959. he was a long serving individual here in the campus and was considered one of the three horsemen. the second horseman would have been george c. grant, one of the principals of the morgan academy, chairman of the department of education and dean of the morgan college and ins t insisted students in their efforts with the civil rights activity. edward wilson, who wrote the history of morgan state college from 1867 to 1967, and was the register of wills for this institution and one of our noted university historians.
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morgan has had a prolific and legendary sports history in this institution. they are the early basketball team. if you look off to the right here you'll see a noted significant african-american individual. that is dr. charles drew, who was on morgan's campus during the early '20s. his first job was actually that of the first athletic coach on this campus. even though he became a noted doctor and invented the -- had several noted medical advances, he hails his experiences here at morgan as some of his most remarkable contributions. then the legendary football team here at morgan, who played numerous games on our wacu hughes stadium field is also significant. dr. scruggs was the founder of the first african-american
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fraternity that was founded in the state of maryland. the phi beta cigna gamma chapter, founded november 10th, 1916, at the corner of edmonson and fulton, when we were still morgan college. the history of fraternities that have been founded on this campus and by this institution are also significant to the maryland history and the nation's history. the iota phi beta fraternity incorporated founded in 1963, to the noted commencements and exercises that had been on the hughes stadium where students continued to graduate today and the many honorary doctor it as thas -- dr.ates that have been conferred. >> dr. martin luther king, jr. was a speaker at the
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commencement field and the ""i have a dream" speech" happened in 1958 and they conferred an honorary doctor itat on doctor martin luther king jr. other esteemed guests, malcolm x held debates at the auditorium. you see a picture of him with students in 1962 under the direction of a morgan professor, dr. ayeer. morgan's history has been very pronounced. the first individual off to the side was tomas henry kya, a president at the academy on the eastern shore and the last ly h lynching in 1933, spoke out and was unafraid to speak out against those activities happening on the eastern shore
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and led and guided those institutions accordingly. senator welcome, the bridge was named in honor of was the first a can american senator and morgan's alum and a maryland state senator. dr. dubois lived in the community next to morgan and morgan park community. he had a home designed by dr. sal purdue and lived there nearly 30 years and mortgage dpan conferred an honorary doctor it a. >> an honorary female faculty member, regina goff became the first african-american woman and first woman in the nation to be head of the u.s. department of education and she served under president lyndon b. johnson. these two individuals, edward hurt and talmadge hill, the hill
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fieldhouse is named after were the two legendary football and basketball coaches at morgan. dr. charles drew, who started here in the 20s as the first athletic coach, left morgan and ultimately became one of the legendary medical scientists in this nation. mrs. ida r. cummings was one of the first african-american female kindergarten teachers here in the city of baltimore, also with the cummings family instrumental with filan slop ing efforts to -- philanthropic efforts to the university. frank k. trigg down in lynchburg, virginia, he has an extraordinary history being born a sleeve and his family being enslaved to the governor of virginia. then he goes off to hampton institute, where he's a classmate of booker t. washington and then joins the
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faculty at the lynchburg campus and assumes the principalship there before becoming the college president of the bennett college. morgan continues to produce noted alumni even to the current. earl graves, the earl graves school of business is named in honor of was significant. a noted 1958 graduate in the graduating class of the exercises dr. martin luther king, jr. delivered the excerpts from the "i have a dream speech and mr. graves is the founder and publisher of the black enterprise magazine. judge robert bell graduated in 1966 the first african-american to become a chief judge of morgan court of appeals. morgan has had an impressive rotc program. mr. william ward became a four star army general.
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david e. talbert, morgan state university class of 1989, has become a distinguished playwright in which his movies are aired today. april ryan of morgan state university class of 1989 is a white house press correspondent, among our distinguished alumni as well. morgan's significant world renowned morgan choir has performed locally, nationally and globally and remains an important choir among the hcbus. then there are the campus resources that speak to the rich illustrious heritage of this university. the civil rights activities from 1947 through the 1970s. the lily carol jackson house museum, which the university acqui acquired, redeveloped and rededicated as a civil rights museum in honor of the pione pioneering civil rights activist, lily carol jackson.
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to the spite wall, along the hillen road, a wall being built of brick to practically wall off the campus during the jim crow era, when all the protests about the negroe colony being built part of our heritage and the presidential deaths, dr. holmes and dr. jenkins and numerous others have sat behind, you see dr. jenkins here to the douglas statute i'll show you, the negro college mural you'll see shortly and relief bronze. to the susie carr love chapel, named in honor of our first female graduate and the mcmechen buildi ining named in honor of george mcmechen. when the bridge was being built across the hillen road, it was a bridge being erected in honor of
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the first african-american senator, senator bird, a welcome. the frederick douglass statute erected in 1956, the first statute erected to douglass, born a slave in maryland in 1818, a professor on this campus, james e. louis hand skulted this statute in 1956. the relief bronze, hans schuyler created is a memorial to those that served in the war. the negro college center, you will see a long one done by charles stallings in 1954. a very important mural to this
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campus. and then designed by some of the nation's significant architects including albert irving born not far from this campus and became one of the foremost architects to ill yard robinson, trained by cassel and became one of the nation's most prominent housing architects. to louie cassel that became one of the most prominent hbcu architects to one of our own professors, leon bridges, also designed buildings and to phil frelon, one of the nation's most current african-american
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architects, designed the school of architecture building and last smithsonian museum bui building, on the nation's wall. these buildings and this heritage reflects an important legacy of morgan state university, which was deemed and designated a national treasure by the national trust for historic preservation on may 3rd of 2016. its the only university and college to be a national treasure in the united states of america and so we celebrate this as we celebrate our cess okay centennial 150 years, morgan is now a national treasure, its purpose, its progress, its promise and our inheritance is tied to this rich legacy of a morgan state university formerly
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the sen ttinel biblical result 1867. these important legacy and important resources is something the university takes very seriously. all of this rich illustrious history you have seen and heard today just underscores that morgan has always mattered. so, with that, i thank you for this lecture and i will entertain any questions that you have at this time. >> yes. >> one thing i found very interesting about the presentation, i noticed in the past a lot of buildings were being burned. my question is, was there any significance to that? i understand back in that time there were a lot of like bu burnings just like, you know, just as a sign, you know, to, you know, i want to say like
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push negroes away in terms of culture for us to learn. was there any significance of burning buildings burnt or were they coincidentally burned? >> so there are two things to note about the two burnings in our history. one, the earliest, at the lynchburg campus, a fire broke out in december. you have to put december in context, as well as a 12 acre site that sat somewhat up on a hill, that had a valley that went around the campus. there was a train track that went around. and the rest of the linkburg environment sat on another plateau. what we understand about the fire at that location is that as that campus burned, the fire department was not able to get to the campus. it's december, it's cold, the ground is soft and wet and there's a fire that they have to
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get down the hill to and come up a hill to get to that building. that fire was actually a traumatic fire and not induced and unfortunately could not be put out. the heroic efforts of harriet wolford, who was able to save faculty and students from that fire is a very important aspect of her legacy as well as the legacy of that campus, which is no longer -- but students who relocated to the present day campus on maryland's eastern shore where the princess ann academy and the fire induced building that you saw was a wood framed building that was built, during that time contextually, in the 1930s, the wpa was earmarking federal dollars to institutions largely to build masonry buildings. so what many campuses and institutions were doing at that
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time was demolishing and/or setting fire to various campus structures in order to advance the constructions on the campus by way of capital development, so they're building masonry buildings. that was a fire-induced activity. it wasn't tied to any kind of racial tension, if you will. other questions. >> morgan's reach was rather vast in the past to receive higher education, work, housing and civil rights on many scales. do you believe morgan still retains that ability to influence the black community today? >> yes. morgan state university is a carnegie classified doctorial research university. morgan state university, as of 1975, is the university's public urban university. so, with the bachelor's, masters and doctoral programs that we have and various disciplines,
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students of today, along with faculty engaged in research are addressing some of the intra intractable issues that confront cities across the american landscape as well as cities all across the globe. students like yourself, coupled with those that graduated from this institution from the beginning are still making an impact in this nation and indeed in the world. >> what other questions do we have from the floor? >> i noticed that while you were talking about the precedence, jenkins' term ended in 1970. richardson started in 1984. i was wondering why it took so long to find another president. >> they didn't. i only highlighted a couple of our presidents in the history of the campus. there were two presidents in between jenkins and dr.
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richardson. dr. billingsley and dr. cheeks served during those era. what i did in the presentation is pulled out only a few, if you will, of some of our illustrious individu individuals. we could not show them all, it would take three hours or more but nemps it was a representation of those who made indelible marks on the campuses history and legacy. other questions? yes. >> i notice how you were saying that the university started like sort of like in the ministry, the gospel. do you think they limited themselves only doing ministry because of the racial tension at the time or do you think that -- what i'm trying to ask is how did it move from being just biblical to education and having like majors and actual professi professions. >> very good question. originally, as i shared with
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you, one of our founders and visionaries the wright reverend samuel green, prior to the civil war and emancipation proclamation within the african-american community, religion played a serious and important role. you look at morgan's civil rights legacy and its activities, you may think that begins in 1947. it really can be traced back to 1787, nearly 230 years ago, when the early clergy, young afterma african-american men, who were breaking away protesting from the methodist episcopal church environments where they were relegated to pews and strict forms of worship, these early individuals broke away from that church and started a school by 1795, which is to train younger african-americans on the same
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site where a centenary biblical institute was started. this was an evolution. those after the civil war and emancipation proclamation, both whites and blacks believed heavily of the importance of education of those who were newly freed to be important members of the society. so the clergy were among the earliest of our individuals, however, the school transformed into a college in 1890 when reverend littleton morgan endowed the institution and donated the president. he saw the bigger picture as the university grew from 1867 to 1886, such that he put his own money into this as a member of the trustees, to insure it would move from training young men only and even in the clergy to
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becoming a full college. this was the work of both the white community and the black community, who believed in the importance and value of again what the founders said in 1864, moral and intellectual elevation. other questions? yes. >> morgan's accomplishments have spanned for a long time period and have been profound. why do you believe the accomplishment have gone unnoticed such a long time? >> morgan's history along with the nine other hbus founded in 1867 is an important history that reflects the american story. it's a history much like the national treasury status is affording us to do now, promote this history and document this history and tell this important history. it is an ongoing history. it is not just a history of our past, a history of our present and will indeed be a history of
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our future. we have an obligation, as you do, to be ambassadors of the university's legacy and of the university's mission. wherever you go and wherever you are, this history is with you and it is with those that come into contact with you. be mindful of that. you have a question? >> i was just wondering, i know when morgan state started as an all young african-americans school and now, when did morgan state decide to transition into actually having young african-american women? when did that happen and what was the decision to have that transition into an all african-american school. >> right. the transition started around 1872. so, when i showed you the bui building that was at the peyton property of 1869, they started
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the academy during that time as well and they opened the institution beyond its male clergy sort of capacity, to that of including young women. that's when susie carr love, who graduates in 1878, becomes the first female graduate of the institution. any other questions, since -- we're wrapping up. we're dismissed. all week, american history tv is in primetime to mark presidents day. starting at 8:00 p.m. eastern each night, we'll bring you a series of programs looking at a specific moment in american history. on thursday, it's world war i. find our full lineup at our website at c-span.org/history.
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>> this weekend on american history tv on c-span3, this saturday morning at 9:30 eastern, we're live from live from the library of virginia in richmond for an all-day symposium on civil war monuments. the history of their construction in the north and south. and how public reception of confederate monuments has changed. then at 8:00, on "lectures in history", hampton sydney college professor john coombs on how the rise of tobacco consolidated the power of wealth dhi have planters and merchants. >> instead of accepting the price the random ship captain might have to offer me, i'm going to send the tobacco over to england on my own account and pay a commission to someone to market it there for me. this developing consignment trade dties larger planters of virginia in maryland to these english merchants. most of them in london.
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>> sunday at noon on "oral histories," prominent african-american women from the explorations in black leadership oral history collection. dorothy height served from 1957 to 1998 and received the presidential medal and freedom own congressional gold medal. >> i grew up and even in my religious experience working with people of different religious backgrounds, with a feeling of importance of openness and how much each one of us contributes to the other. there's no superior, no inferior. >> and at 8:00 on "the presidency" historian catherine clinton talks about what happened to president lincoln's family after his assassination. >> the morning of may 19th, convinced his mother might do herself harm, prodded by a team of medical and legal experts, robert lincoln files an aft
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affidavit to have his mother tried on mental incompetence, could be held against her will due to, quote, insanity. >> for our complete "american history tv" schedule, go to c-span.org. next on this special airing of "american history tv", bowie state university history professor tamara brown teaches a class on the american concept of race and how it factored into the supreme court's 1896 decision in plessy versus fergus ferguson. the case served as the legal basis for segregation until it was overturned in the court's is the 54 brown versus board ruling. this is about an hour and 15 minutes. . >> okay. so today we're going to start out with hopefully some understanding of what race is. so this is the standard websters dictionary version. okay? any of the difre

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