tv Rockefeller Family Philanthropy CSPAN May 13, 2017 7:42pm-7:58pm EDT
grant's orders. coupled with the fall of atlanta in september, the triumphant over early in the valley secured lincoln's reelection. early's raid was one of the critical moments in grant cost grants unique commandnt system failed him badly in the late summer and fall of 1864. when it was over, he wanted no further part of halleck, who had undercut him badly. grant attempted to get halleck transferred to the pacific coast. [laughter] for the remainder of the war.
unfortunately for grants, halleck's collaborator balked at the change, and grant dropped the matter. can't get farther away than the pacific coast. not if you are an army officer. if you are a politician, you can get stuck in russia like simon cameron, the former secretary of war. early's valley campaign for the grant to draw on more than just military skills and judgment of personnel. in order to direct and effective campaign against early's raiders, he had to ride herd over field commanders in the military and political bureaucrats and officials who had mastered the art of resistance to policies and directives they did not like, even if the ranking general officer and the president supported them. to become ato learn quick study on the political nature of the commanding general's possession. fortunately for grants, he had
lincoln, a consummate politician as his commander-in-chief. thank you very much. [applause] which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] watching: you are "american history tv," 48 hours of american history programming every weekend on c-span3. follow us on twitter for information on our schedule and to keep up with the latest history news. sunday on "q and a," the comparisons between president donald trump and andrew jackson. our guest mark cheetham on his book "andrew jackson, southerner." >> i don't think he represents the positive values jackson represented. he certainly represents some of the negative values jackson represented. but i think i would tell president trump that if he wants to be like andrew jackson, he has to put nation in front of
his own personhood, in front of his own family, and front of his own interests because that is what jackson did for most of his presidency. announcer: sunday night at 8:00 eastern on c-span's "q&a." tv"uncer: "american history was at the organization of american historians annual meeting where he spoke with barbara shubinski about how the rockefellers philanthropic mission started and how it has changed over the years. -- barbara: alongside graduate school, i had a number of jobs in what we call the third sector or nonprofit organizations. i'm familiar with being a grant seeker and being aware there is
a whole philanthropic structure that underwrote or funded or supported what we would call nonprofit or third sector work in the u.s. as i was finishing up my degree, there is this sort of job call for a postdoctoral fellowship at the rockefeller archive center. i did not intend to study american philanthropy, but it turned out all my other experiences in nonprofit administration, environmental education, historic preservation made sense once i saw those records at the rockefeller archive center and the other side of where the funding and that sort of design level of thinking came from. reporter: a happy accident. when did the rockefellers begin their philanthropy? barbara: the rockefeller family begins formal philanthropy in the late 19th century. they have a strong northern baptist belief system and faith, so they were always doing typing, charities, and giving back. but this thing we call
philanthropy is really kind of a late 19th century and 20th-century phenomenon as distinct from charity. i would say that kicks off first with john d rockefeller senior's underwriting at the university of chicago in the late 19th century. that he starts -- the first thing that could be looked at as --oundation, his first thing about 1902. let's call it the turn of the 20th century. reporter: do they contribute domestically as well as internationally? barbara: absolutely. when you get to the bigger philanthropies -- the general education board was a u.s. central command agreement to improve public education -- u.s. centered philanthropy to improve education. we would think of it as a large
multipurpose private in doubt philanthropic foundation. they always intended to be both domestic and international from the get-go. some of that is because standard oil was a global corporation. they were always thinking outside national line. reporter: how do they choose what causes they would support? barbara: all they do at first was that they wanted to benefit the well-being of mankind it is the broadest -- mankind. it is the broadest mission statement of all time. but when the board of trustees get together, there are a few threads that make a lot of sense for them to go forward with, and part because they are also invested, but also because of that moment in american history. the want to avoid what they call scatter ration -- scatteration. things they settle on our public health and medical education.
later they will add more, but that is really the beginning. some of this comes out of a philosophy that says take problems you know are solvable that aren't solved yet, but aren't a huge mystery, either. another related philanthropy that ends up feeding into the rockefeller foundation is the rockefeller -- sanitary commission for the eradication of hookworms. they picked hookworm as a disease because it affects the entire u.s. south, and at the same time it is quite fixable. the medicine is fairly simple. hygienic measures are going to make a difference. they like to take big problems that are also possible to make progress in. reporter: the u.s. centers world war i -- the u.s. enters world war i. does is impact the rockefeller's effort? barbara: it does. they really want to avoid scatteration and work on these root causes.
they want to get at social problems for a channel that is in giving aid or relief, which really is more like what charity would be. to want to kind of get under what is causing the social problems, hence the work on public health. while world war i requires such a huge amount of direct relief work, and they end up feeling compelled to do that, in a way, they are committed to doing it. they are committed to the necessity of it. a kind of sidetracks them a little. in the end they end up giving more world -- more war relief and world war i the entire federal government. they are like, let's get back to our original purpose. reporter: how do their goals change overtime? barbara: rockefeller foundation goals topic changes based on need. if you look in the early 20th century, there are very few mechanisms for public health delivery. they help create model systems
and inspire the government to take them over. they helped institute a public health apparatus. once that is done, there needs start changing. then they look at things like getting the hard sciences installed in universities and pushing research forward in the bench science areas. than they do more humanities funding. and then world war ii and the depression make them question the need for social insurance and they become involved in the social security act from a research perspective. world war ii changes everything and they start to realize that health is not as simple as it might have been in terms of what to do about it earlier in the century, where it would be more focused on disease eradication, and now involves food resources, population, family planning, we would kind of now call the development enterprise. allrter: -- they are responding to what the world context is like to find that next problem they think needs attacking first in order to
benefit humanity broadly. reporter: your book is titled "democracy and philanthropy, the rockefeller foundation and the american experiment." how the rockefellers see their efforts connected to democracy? barbara: that the very interesting question. is especially interesting now because in the foundation world right now, you find a lot of language about democracy and society -- and civil society. you would have heard the rockefeller family and philanthropy using phrases that now would be perceived as christian democratic values. and has a whole new meeting in late 20's and three u.s. come about at the time indicated a commitment to international understanding, to cross-cultural understanding, to a kind of liberal ecumenical progressive viewpoint. to them, the values they would have called christian democratic ,alues are those of a quality
fair chance to have input in the systems that you live under, exchange between cultural groups that lead to greater peace, that type of thing. reporter: what sort of efforts to the rockefellers invest in these days? barbara: rockefeller is a very multifaceted thing. the family is quite a bit larger because we are 5, 6, 7 generations in. the family engages in personal philanthropic activities. there is a family office that often helps coordinate that kind of work. there are smaller funds that various family members have set up. passedockefeller just away recently it had something called the dr fund. there are so many philanthropies i couldn't even name the. to major one that might come people's mind are the rockefeller foundation. is rockefeller foundation quite separate from the family and has been from the beginning. it often will have a family
member of the board, but it is not a family philanthropy. the rockefeller brothers fund is a family philanthropy with the board comprised of family members as well as nonfamily members. a work on democracy, civil society, the environment, climate change. they also have a strong arts and culture program. ony also are doing work peace building and peacemaking, particularly in troubled areas of the world such as the middle east. the rockefeller foundation just got a new president. recently, their tagline has been "resilience." it remains to be seen whether they stick with that are taken new direction under new leadership. ssriser: as far as all how they have a limited their efforts, has that changed over time? workra: they often would through operating programs where they are hiring and paying the field staff to get out there.
that would be true of public health emulator agriculture work, which is credited as something which has been dubbed the green revolution. they paid the salaries of scientists and researchers. they had field offices. and designed the research and dissemination program, the demonstrations, the extension work. all that wrapped up in the 1980's. they've also been grantmakers, but in the 1980's they become predominantly a grantmaking foundation rather than an operating donation -- foundation. and the 21st century there are these new hybrid forms of working with grantees who are like consultants who might be doing the operations for a problem that the foundation has identified. by the foundation itself isn't doing those operating programs. yet it is a little more than a one-time, one-off grant. it is an investment into an initiative over a number of years.
that is a new form we are looking at now. reporter: what sort of sources do you use for this research? barbara: unlucky to be able to use primary sources for this research because the rockefeller archive center houses the collections of the rockefeller family, rockefeller philanthropy, rockefeller host of otherd a third sector and nongovernmental, nonprofit organizations and foundations such as the social science research, the ford foundation , the population council, the agricultural development council. is about 80 different foundation or nonprofit related collections, as well as the papers of individuals associated with those organizations. i sit everyday at my office on a treasure trove of primary source material. reporter: how do you decide what to look at? barbara: is a great question. it depends. sometimes i have research driven
by a request from one of the organizations, the foundations that house their collections with us. we have a deal with them that they are benefited at the archive center by an independent operating foundation. we are not appended to any of these foundations. one thing they get from us is a very high level of service for an in-house research service. sometimes that will drive it. often anniversary projects will drive it. i am a co-author of with other people is part of a series that the rockefeller foundation put out in honor of its centennial in 2013. sometimes it is driven by the donor organizations themselves. sometimes it is driven by an external interest. we maintain a really strong professional association with other scholars. places like the oah. sometimes we all get together and have an idea, like, let's look at foundation funding for