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tv   Jewish Refugees on the St. Louis  CSPAN  May 20, 2017 12:50pm-1:47pm EDT

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history tv. 48 hours of programming on american history every weekend on c-span three. follow us on twitter for information on our schedule and to keep up with the latest history news. >> in 1939, some 900 jewish refugees sailed from hamburg, germany for cuba on the ship st. louis in an attempt to escape nazi persecution. cuba refused most of them and the united states turned the ship away, forcing them to return to europe. next, we hear from historians from the u.s. holocaust memorial museum talk about the st. louis's journey and the fate of its passengers. the u.s. commission on civil rights hosted this event in washington, d.c. it's just over 15 minutes. now we will turn to our historical presentation for
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today, the journey of the st. louis, how jewish refugees nazi regime were turned away by the u.s. government. recognizedtionally day to remember holocaust victims is this monday. we are grateful to be joined today by two accomplished historians with the u.s. holocaust memorial museum. the horrors of the holocaust and the terror visited on the jewish other, along with several targeted groups should never be forgotten. a painful reality is hostility to choose because they are -- hostility to jews because they are jewish existed and that is a chapter in that odious tail. today, we honor the memory of those who perished in the
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holocaust by hearing about the journey of the st. louis, and we also honor them by insuring such horrors do not continue today. media reports abound with devastating images and videos, , theks on civilians chemical bombing in syria. the plight of those fleeing the war in syria weighed heavy on many minds and rightfully so. i would like to express my gratitude to have our speakers here to discuss the journey of the st. louis, filled with mostly jewish refugees fleeing the nazi regime. after most passengers were it sailedas in cuba, onward, hoping to find refuge in the united states.
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unfortunately, the u.s. did not heed their calls and the ship went back to europe. hundreds of the passengers were still killed by the end of world war ii. our first speaker has been an archivist at the united states holocaust museum for 14 years working with survivors, liberators and historians to donate to and access to the museum's vast holdings. she has a ba in history in american that is and a ma and phd in american history from george mason university. her focus is government-sponsored rescue attempts related to the holocaust and she is working as a historian for the museum's upcoming transition -- upcoming exhibition. our second speaker, chief of the branch of holocaust survivors and research center at the united states holocaust memorial museum.
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previously a professor of contemporary history at the university of paris, she works for the two french commissions for compensation to jewish victims. she is the author of books and publications and more than 20 articles related to the holocaust. >> thank you so much for having us this morning. i'm going to provide the context for the refugee crisis in the 1930's, how the factors that influence u.s. policy and the way that u.s. policy changed as events in your changed. a refugee crisis never comes out of the blue and american reaction to it does not either. it is always complicated and in the exhibit we are working on that will of the next spring, we are trying to bring visitors back to the period so they are
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not judging with hindsight but understanding the complicated factors that led to american reaction during that period. the u.s. was only involved in world war i for a short time and that brief interaction with europe of that full experience and the failures of the versailles treaty and the failed league of nations, it experience -- it convinced americans we had done better we stayed on our side of the atlantic. the country has become increasingly isolationist in the late teens and early 1920's. to the point of signing a pact to outlaw war. we pared down the military and world war i is considered a mistake the united states should have avoided. the country is still segregated, americans are very concerned about race and genetics.
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many americans accept eugenic science as truth still and believe some races are genetically superior over others. the red scares in the 1920's and 30's exacerbate a feeling that jews are linked with communism. this is a time of racial strife and rate anti-semitism -- and and pacifism. after world war i, a rise in anti-semitism leads to the johnson act in 1934. this ended the idea of immigrants arriving at ellis island. from now on, there are numerical limit to the number of refugees allowed to come into this country. it is limited to 150,000 people per year. in 1927, millions of people came in in a single year and now it is limited to 150,000.
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due to the racial theories i mentioned, countries outside the western hemisphere have quotas. for people born in those countries any given year, they are called national origin quotas. the quota breaks down northern, western and eastern europe. 60% of the quota sought were people born in great britain or ireland and there are far fewer immigration opportunities for people who are in southern and eastern europe, people who are considered racially, religiously, economically undesirable. about 100 people per year and -- some countries have quotas of only 100 people per year, and many are barred by racial grounds. you can be at this point too brown to enter the united states and become an immigrant. the quotas are maximum and not -- maximums not goals.
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,crucially for understanding the american responses to the holocaust, the state department decides in europe or in your country whether you can qualify for an immigration visa to the united states. so you are not coming to ellis , island and presenting your papers. you're doing all that in europe. once you have your visa, then you can come and immigrate. crucially also, the united states has no refugee policy. we only have an immigration policy so people fleeing racial and religious persecution have to go through the same deliberate immigration steps as anyone else. in 1929, the stock market crashes. five years after the new immigration act. and the u.s. and a lot of the sens -- deens -- the scends into an economic
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depression and as a result of that president herbert hoover issues and instruction to the state department to deny immigration visas to anyone who would likely become a public charge. anyone who they perceive would at any point need any sort of assistance from the united states once they immigrated. so if you did not have an indefinite stream of income, you are no longer eligible for a visa. immigration numbers drop significantly. in march 1933, roosevelt takes the oath of office and he promises his countrymen in his inauguration speech that the only thing they have to fear is fear it self. for americans looking around at that time, that will ring hollow. they are seeing 25% unemployment, great racial strife in this country, seeing a europe descending into chaos they want no part of. roosevelt is also more concerned about the economic depression than he is about germany. and so are most americans. in 1937, a new economic
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recession brings unemployment back up to 90%, -- 19%, even after the new deal program. spanish civil war, italian invasion of ethiopia, all of this tells americans we are right to stay on our side of the atlantic and not get involved in issues overseas. before thousands of people seeking refuge, the united states still represented a land but for thousands of people seeking refuge, the united states still represented a land of freedom and opportunity and a land away from the persecution he went home. -- persecutions they knew at home. 90,000 germans, mostly jews, remained on the waiting list to denigrate into the united states in 1934 -- list to immigrate into the united states in 1934. roosevelt slowly liberalize his public charge interpretation, but the quotas are far from being filled. in 1933 and 1934, the first full quota year after the nazis take power in germany, a little more than 4000 visas are issued to germans to come to the united
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states out of a possible 25,950. we can talk about what is required to enter united states and whether or not we would consider that extreme vetting. oftentimes people ask why don't jews and just leave? and it was difficult to leave and difficult to come. that is show birth certificates, military identifications, passports show they were good , citizens, had letters attesting their moral character, had to pass a medical exam and had to prove they did not become a financial burden, which is very difficult because of the nazis established severe taxes on anyone who wanted to immigrate, stripping you of your wealth and you had to prove to the country you wanted to immigrate to that you are wealthy enough to make it in a new land. all of these had expiration date , some a few weeks and some a
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few months. if you're paperwork did not line up, there are serious ramifications for you. the prominent american journalist dorothy thompson wrote, "it's a fantastic commentary on the humanitarian of our times that for thousands of people a piece of paper with a stamp on it is the difference between life and death." it is clear by 1938 life in germany is becoming unbearable for jews. germany annexes austria, bringing an additional 250,000 people under the third reich. roosevelt combines the germany and austrian quotas but only 27,370 people can immigrate each year. he calls an international conference in france international solution to this international problem. 32 nations attend but most say in very polite diplomatic language that they do not have a jewish problem in their country
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and they have no desire to import a jewish problem into their country. on november 9 and 10th, 1938, in response to a minor diplomat in paris, the nazis release a coordinated terror attack in germany that we know as kristallnacht. hundreds of synagogues are burned. 30,000 jewish men and boys are arrested and sent to camps. kristallnacht is the longest sustained news coverage about jewsersecution of the between 1933 and 1935. this is just a day after midterm congressional elections. it is a big deal in the united states as you can see, this is from mid-november, nazis warn jews will be wiped out unless evacuated by democracies. result some of our ambassador back from berlin for consultation. he extends the permission for people who are here on visitors
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visas so they don't have to go back to germany. that brings about 12,000 to 15,000 people here. americans are decidedly conflicted about the new refugee crisis. the situation in europe is clearly getting worse for jews but most americans are not sure , they want to be a solution to the problem. there are two polls right after kristallnacht that get to the crux of american response. 94% of americans disapprove of nazism. only 21% want to bring jews to the country. there is a disconnect between sympathy for the victims and the willingness for americans to do something about it. thousands joined the waiting list to immigrate to the u.s. the state department -- germany has the second-largest quota of
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any nation in the world and in 1939, it is entirely filled. the state department at this point is maxing out the quota for germans and austrians, most of whom are jewish at this time. the war has not even begun yet. people elsewhere are getting nervous. in romania the waiting list to come to the united states was 43 years long. americans are polled another important question. they are asked if you are member of congress, would you open the door to a larger number of european refugees? only 9% of americans say yes. americans are united by very little except for their desire not to increase immigration to america. congress can change immigration
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law but even members of the democratic party per against widening the quotas. robert reynolds, a democrat from north carolina wrote to his fellow citizens in march 1939 that, "all the nations of impoverished europe wish to dump their political and economic minorities upon us. write to your congressman to put legislation on the statute books that will shut off immigration entirely during this period of hardship and distressed for young and old among our people and to expel from this country the alien propaganda, the habitual criminal, the alien i will and the insane." u.s. andmy overview of jewish refugees until when the war begins, when deon speaks on the st. louis, you will understand the context.
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as reynolds speaks, newspapers are reporting europe is on the verge of war. on when war breaks out september 1, 1939, 90% of americans want to stay neutral. one of reynolds refrains, even the idea of bringing german refugee children to the u.s. was that america's children are america's problem, your children -- europe's children are europe's problem. we need to stay on our side of the atlantic. in the first months of world war ii, some call it the phony war. fightingvery little until may, 1941 when germany invades the netherlands, belgium and france. this puts a lot of fear into the americans. many had and france and seen the eiffel tower. images of adolf hitler standing on top of the eiffel tower is a scary thing for americans and
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they start to realize we might get dragged into this war against our will. americans begin to realize we are vulnerable too. not just in germany decides to invade, because we did not have a large standing army. we also might be moldable from the inside -- vulnerable from the inside. there might be saboteurs and spies wanting to bring us down from the inside. 93% of americans believe nazi germany has begun to put sleeper agents in the u.s. or they are not sure. the fbi begins to receive thousands of tips per day from people who suspect their neighbors might be spies. magazines have articles like this, "hitler's slave spies." refugees may have families back home that are hostages. in exchange for the newly arrived jewish refugees
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committing spying and sabotage. when the state department puts an additional security screening, very few people complain about this. the country is very afraid. for refugees, the ship ticket is the most important part of getting out of europe. if you have your paperwork, you still need your ship ticket. the war has increased regulation for the united states and many more difficult as the war progresses and armies invaded, making it more difficult for you to get out. the actual escape becomes the most difficult thing. the museum has done a lot of research about ships carrying jewish refugees during this peri od. shipsnd more than 750 selfing over 71,000
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identified jewish refugees arrived in new york harbor. there is a perception among the public that the st. louis is the only ship sailing. in reality the st. louis is an anomaly. there are people who are making it through this complicated system despite all the barriers. once war begins, passenger ships get removed from service. whereas 10 ships a week are arriving in new york carrying in january 1939, by 1941, it is down to two. sbon.are living from li you have to physically escape nazi territory by a very expensive ship ticket to get across the atlantic through a submarine warfare zone, and still navigate the difficult state department system. by 1940, the state department canceled the waiting list because there are so few ships.
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if you have a ticket and your paperwork, you have to have a visa to the united states. in june 1941 every thing changes. war ii is a nearly two years old and the united states is not involved. staying out seems less and less likely. the country has a peacetime draft. the renewal of the peacetime draft in september 1941 passes with one vote. shows you through it shows you through this period the u.s. is a very isolationist. congress is isolationist. on june 22, 1941, the nazi s invaded the soviet union and begin the mass murder of the jews. the state department construct the consulates that no pieces -- thesis -- visas should be issued to anyone in nazi occupied territory. we order the nazis to close all of their consulates here fearing
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there are spies among them. in october 1941, the nazis make immigration illegal from their territory. calculations are difficult for a number of reasons, including that refugee is not a fixed category at the time. the museum estimates between 180000 and 280,000 refugees come to the united states between 1933 and 1935. -- we have a terrible record in -- unless you compare it to the rest of the world. we bring in more refugees, despite everything i just said, more refugees than any other country in the world during this period. >> thank you very much. like rebecca said, it was very hard to get all the papers to board a ship and all the companies at that time, whether
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they were german or from the u.k. or france, basically to get that took advantage of the increased in the prices of the ticket. when the st. louis passengers got all the documents they needed -- they needed to have cuban document to immigrate to cuba. what they needed was a permit. they had landing permits, these documents were actually told by the consulate -- of the cuban consulate in germany and we are talking about legal immigration of families but those documents were sold by the cuban consulate in germany. .hey bought the legal documents we are talking about legal immigration of families. you will see some photographs later. they were sold by the cuban consulate and behind the cuban
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consulate there were some sort of traffic organized by the secretary of immigration in cuba. there is no need to remember his name because his name is not really important except for the st. louis and i will tell you more about this letter. the st. louis sails, its journey is very short. it is only a month in history that is very emblematic of what happened at that time. the refugees and only jews on those boats, the st. louis carried to 95% jews on board. this is not an exception. most of the companies at that time had a lot of jews on board when they could escape europe. after the kristallnacht, this is the largest immigration, over 50% of jewish immigration outside the reich. it was very complicated to get on any boat at that time and all those countries that attended
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the conference in 1938 basically closed their doors officially to refugees. the only countries that remains possibly legally where cuba and shanghai. , thisou are a german jew is not your ideal country but is the only country you can go. when the st. louis left hamburg in may 1939, we are talking about families on the st. louis, we are talking about legal immigration. you have families on board of the st. louis, the youngest passenger was born in january 1939 and the oldest passenger was born in the 1880's, so we are talking about legal immigration of people who left everything behind. they cannot take much with them. they bought cameras. this is not just an anecdote, but it's the reason we have so many photographs of the st.
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louis passengers on board. imagine you are looking at this picture. this is the passengers on the st. louis. by boarding the st. louis, those people are jumping in a different world. a world of luxury. they have experienced persecution since 1933. they cannot work, they cannot use the phone booth, they cannot go to a swimming pool. by boarding the st. louis they are stepping on board luxury. the st. louis was one of the best beautiful boats at that time. it was like the titanic of the 1930's. what is important for the passengers is some of them were arrested during kristallnacht , some men. they were released on the condition they would never , never return to germany. can you imagine the atmosphere on the st. louis. it is not very easy to relax but thanks to the captain and crew, the passengers are going to be
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able to relax until they arrive to cuba. the captain -- i have to say a few words about him. i would describe him as a romantic german of the 19th century. he fought during world war i, he was a war prisoner, he spoke seven languages and he loves to -- loves germany. he really loves german culture and he hates what the nazi's are doing to the country. on board he is really the captain and he gathers the crew and says we have more than 95% jews on board for this journey and on the boat it is out of question to implement the nazi law against the jews. we're going to treat the passengers like any other passengers on the cruise and if someone has a problem with this, you are free to leave. none of the crew disembarked. the passengers are able to enjoy the journey on the st. louis. some of them were arrested during the kristallnacht and were in concentration camps.
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this one for example was arrested and center do auchau. he's doing his best to enjoy it on the st. louis. this photograph is the photograph of another passenger , whog with his two sons went the st. louis returned to europe he ended up in buchenwald. he survived the war and made it to the u.s. in 1941. you can imagine what the journey is for those people. they are trying to make the best they could on the st. louis. there are about 200 children on the st. louis and i really like this photograph with the swimming pool because the youngest children probably do not know how to swim because the jews could not go to swimming pools in germany. they were not allowed in swimming pools. there on the st. louis and they can enjoy swimming.
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when the st. louis arrives in havana, cuba, this is where everything gets more complicated. again, bear in mind, this is legal immigration. they have all the documents to disembark in cuba but they cannot disembark. the reason they cannot is a political crisis. the cuban president fidel laredo bru, he is not really famous. some people within the government, the secretary of immigration, who made a lot of money on the traffic by selling landing permits to refugees and passengers who want to go to cuba. he made two mistakes. one, he did not share the money
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with the president and he was supported by the man who opposed the president batista. the st. louis passengers cannot disembark. they don't know anything about the situation in cuba. in order to reestablish his power, the cuban president a -- promulgated a decree. this has nothing to do with the same as passengers. it has to do with putting an end to the traffic of the landing permits so let the secretary of immigration. the decree is to put an end to illegal immigration in cuba. the situation in cuba is getting more and more complicated. when the passengers cannot disembark and basically no one tells them anything, the living manana, tomorrow. they will disembark tomorrow or the day after. they do not understand because they could not legally disembarked in cuba. at this point, the american
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distribution -- who knows a lot about the cuban political theme, -- cuban political scene, is mandated to negotiate with the cuban authorities. but he misunderstands the situation and he thinks it is just a money question. he is trying to bargain with the cuban authorities but the cuban president is determined to put an end to the traffic. razovsky is involved in helping the refugees but it is to no avail. on the right-hand side, you see the captain of the st. louis, he is also putting on civilian clothes and trying to negotiate with the cuban authorities as well. basically considering his passengers and trying to do the best you can to help them.
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the passengers are on the boat, they are looking at havana. for german jews, they have never seen palm trees, they have never seen exotic fruits. you see the boats gravitating around the st. louis. these were family members or friends of people on the st. louis who are trying to committee gave the passengers on the different decks. but no one can disembark at this point. the st. louis receives the order to leave the cuban water on june 2, and because more than 734 people on the st. louis have registered on the american quota list rebecca mentioned. cuba is just a waiting place for them. people on the st. louis havethes up, it could be a question of days, weeks, months or years.
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but cuba is not the final destination for 734 passengers. louisptain of the st. decides to sail along the shore of the state. here they are on the shore of miami. this is where it becomes an american story. louis there are many responses many , different responses. rebecca mentioned the response from the u.s. government but , there are also interesting responses from the newspapers and american citizens. the st. louis is a very well-known and well reported by the american newspapers. it is published front-page between may 28 and june 28, it is on the front page of 26 newspapers across 20 states of the united states for 115 times. it is really published
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front-page. all of the newspapers on the east coast and the west coast talk about the st. louis publish , about the st. louis. they mostly reproduce factual information from the associated press. they are not very critical about what is going on but they actually report on the st. louis. the only article that is somehow critical was published by the washington post and it says substantially something like there are a lot of refuge for u.s.,and nature in the but no refuge for 907 refugees. this is the response and the newspapers are covering the whole story. it becomes a symbol in 1939. there is an interesting response from the american citizens as well. at the national archives you can find 233 letters sent by american citizens, mostly non-jewish to roosevelt, to the
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state department and to roosevelt's wife begging the begging the government to let them in. to let the st. louis passengers and. i should say refugees because the moment they are refused in cuba, the status is changed from legal immigrants to refugees without moving an inch. all those letters and telegrams use different reasons, it could be religious reasons, historical reasons, this is a country of immigration. there are also letters from teenagers and one moving letter from a 14-year-old girl who said , " i do not have good grades at school but i am a human being and i would like you to let them in or let them on an island that belongs to the united states." all those telegrams and letters received a very formal letters that we had the immigration law. we cannot make an exception. this is basically what the
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letters are when it's a response to the telegram. the only telegrams that does not receive any response from the government was sent by the committee on board of the st. louis, the passengers committee begging the united states to at least accepted the women and children. about 400 people. this telegram did not receive any response. back tolouis has to go europe. the st. louis was supposed to go back to europe with american passengers on the cruise to europe. but of course in the passengers are going back. you can imagine what the atmosphere is on board at this point. it is not the same atmosphere as the first journey to cuba and all the newspapers are very much afraid of a mutiny on board. this is not exactly what the captain is afraid of. there are suicides on board because a lot of people don't want to go back to germany. the ones that were already in
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concentration camps cannot go back to germany. point the negotiations in cuba have failed so it is completely over. the american jewish joint istribution committee represented. he has very little time to negotiate with some countries in europe. those four countries are france, belgium, the netherlands and the u.k. it is difficult for those countries. i'm not talking about the u.k. of the countries that border germany that are close to germany because they already received the letter refugees across the border both legal and , illegal refugees. they have already accepted a lot of them. at some point he plays some sort tells theame and he representatives of those
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countries that some countries have accepted refugees. at this point it is not true. he does not have much choice. eventually the four countries accepted the refugees. i want to mention france offered to accept them all, but they were saying they would like some other countries to accept them. i'm not saying that because i'm french. what france did to the passengers afterwards, there's no reason to be proud of this. the st. louis goes to antwerp and from antwerp the passengers are actually dispersed in four countries. this is a photograph of maurice troper and his wife. the letter you can see on the side was for the captain, said he would received the
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largest bouquet of roses. there was a letter thanking him for his involvement in his role in the st. louis story. it was a lot of negotiations. and when the st. louis passengers arrive in europe, countriesn those four but we are in june 1939, very close to war. they are in those countries with with no documentation at all. they had documentation to go to cuba but no documentation to work in those countries. they need to be helped by mostly the jewish organizations that take care of them. but when the war breaks out, those passengers who were those passengers who were refugees are in the same position as any other refugees who crossed the borders into those countries.
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i'm not talking about the u.k. i'm talking about france, the netherlands and holland. some st. louis passengers who could have been free in cuba ended one in the south of france, the regime was so harsh, some believe -- some historians consider it a concentration camp and not an internment camp. there is another passenger who ended up in several internment camps in france as well. he was somehow lucky enough to make it to the u.s. in november 1941 but not all the passengers were that lucky. here you have two beautiful photographs --she is on the left-hand side, you can see her
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talking to other passengers on the st. louis and you can see the whole family, they ended up in france and the children were separated and you can see her and it is in one of the children's homes in france and later she was a deported to auschwitz in november next 42 and murdered -- in november 1942 and murdered at ashland. -- at auschwitz. 239 passengers on the st. louis parish during the holocaust -- perished during the holocaust. the u.s. was the final destination of many passengers
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but when they returned to germany -- the st. louis was bombed by the air force and almost completely destroyed. the st. louis was owned by the hamburg company and it was nationalized in 1934. the captain was not too much in trouble after the work and he was awarded in 1957 by west germany for his help in the st. louis story. two years before he passed away and in 1993 he was post immensely avoided the -- posthumously honored. they decided to honor the captain. those are photographs of the westside, if you want to know more about the st. louis, there are many pages on our website.
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it is not only the story of the st. louis, but the fate of some of the passengers. we had a project at the museum, my colleagues and i trekked down the passengers of the st. louis. we received the amazing collection at the museum in 2000 and -- 2007, now we can go further to trace down their fate. >> thank you. any questions for our speakers? >> i have been spellbound by all that i have heard.
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i think the speakers for coming in and providing this presentation an opportunity to learn. i guess as i was listening i kept thinking about how some would say history repeats itself and we are living in times of reminds me of so much of what i heard. what lessons, if any, our speaker would suggest the leaders of this country and its people might learn from this past experience?
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>> that is a very difficult question because it is hard to pull lessons --the more you drill down into the specifics of things, the more you recognize the difference between now and then but this history is really about --integration in the united states has always been challenged by peoples economic concerns, known or unknown racism, you hear that rhetoric today too. if someone is very concerned about what happened in the 1930's, they can think about what our reaction is today when we hear the same rhetoric.
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>> i would like to ask a question. i'm not sure, i think you said the u.s. still has no refugee policy? >> united states has no refugee policy until after world war ii. we have and do have a refugee policy now. that is one of the main differences between now and then is it there is a system supposedly to deal with people who are being persecuted for racial and religious reasons and back then you had to go through the same immigration system. there was no other line to get into.
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>> thank you. >> do you understand the refugee policy to have changes the fundamental balancing of interests? it seems nations are always thinking about what is a limit and sometimes they are thinking about it for reasons some of us may think are legitimate and other times for reasons they go to anna and other -- go to animus and other things that do not reach our angels. does that elevate the idea of humanity and the persecution that they face? >> obviously u.s. refugee policy changes over time and the limits change. historically, u.s. concern for refugees writ large has always been tied to national goals. we are much more likely to take refugees when there is another reason, anti-communism or people who have helped us fight a war.
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there is usually another reason for it rather than strict humanitarian goals and so that has historically been a challenge even within a refugee policy but you are right, it is always about one limit --about limits. >> thank you for your presentation. it was very fascinating. what was the general feeling about jews in the u.s. at that time and how well-organized was the community and what were they
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doing in terms of advocates around these issues? >> franklin roosevelt historically complained there was no jewish pope and he wished there was the one -- would be one. the jewish community is split in a lot of ways. there is a german jewish population that had historically been here for much longer than recent immigrants from eastern europe, who were more socialist, communist, labor organizers as opposed to the old school, wealthier german jewish population. there is a split in tactics and how they are addressing the threat of nazism. >> was there a level of animis? >> anti-semitism is booming in the 1930's and 1920's. it is boosted by a catholic priest with a nationalized radio show who railed about the jews and money and was very popular. at one point during the war, jews are seen as one of the greatest -- not threats to the nation but people we should be
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concerned about watching. roosevelt is frequently criticized for being too pro-jewish. they say he is secretly roosenveld or roosenvelt. trying to make them sound more jewish. the fear that he has the jewish advisers. the secretary of labor goes out on a limb to advocate for increased immigration and she felt like she could advocate for this and she is accused immediately of being secretly jewish. that that is the only reason she might want to help people. so we still have a lot of hotels and golf versus and things that were gentiles only.
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>> thank you. >> one more follow-up, the commission, we have been hearing concerns about anti-semitism and the rise of hate crimes in the community. i am wondering if the museum has been tracking back in -- tracking that concern? >> we have a division that is working on contemporary anti-semitism, we follow this not only in the u.s. but around
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the world so we know about anti-semitic propaganda, we know what type of speech it is, we take that quite seriously and follow it by closely -- quite closely. >> i just wanted to thank you because that was fascinating. i agree with the vice chair that history piece itself and you have to be -- history repeats itself. our best defense about making mistakes is greater knowledge of history and that is why i thank you. >> any more questions?
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to my fellow commissioners, thank you for the outstanding presentation and continuing to make history live for us. thank you for coming and joining us today. i want to thank our staff. our entire team for their efforts in making today's presentation possible. it was very moving and very helpful to us. and if there are no further items, i now adjourn the meeting of the commission at 11:55 a.m. >> thank you.
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>> c-span3. this weekend on american history tv on tonight at 10:00 eastern railamerica, cbs broadcast with senator robert kennedy and ronald reagan, taking questions the a satellite from students in london. collects in england there is a movement, legislation against racial discrimination. would you look to comment on this, perhaps what you may have learned? >> we are dealing with a its groups others of come particularly the negro as we need toers recognize it, now we are starting to deal with it. >> at 8:00 much as in history, professor brian taylor on the military strategy and political
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goals of emancipation during the civil war. the idea that a president in the event of a sectional war over slavery and the rebelling of the southern states, might have the authority to emancipate slaves as a military measure, predicts the civil war. it is not a new idea. it is articulated by john quincy adams on a number of occasions. pm, historyt 6:45 professor paul polgar talks about the first u.s. congress is 1790 debate -- 1790 debate about slavery. >> this -- antislavery activists and especially the pennsylvania abolition society put forth a thatn of a new nation imagined a racially inclusive republic, where the base of rights of enslaved africans were respected to read >> at 8:00 on the presidency, professor and author charles strauser on letters exchange between abraham lincoln and his friend joshua speed. >> for two men to talk about their everlasting love for each
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encouragedormal and to be expressive about intimacy, connection, and love, and that's the way to see this relationship. againstas the boundary sexuality was absolutely and strictly maintained. >> for our complete schedule go to once history were c-span unfolds daily. in 1979, c-span was created as a public service by america's cable television companies, and is brought to you today by your cable or satellite provider. ♪ all weekend, american history tv is joining our partners in cable -- newel news or -- june jersey. we


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