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tv   Statue of Liberty National Monument  CSPAN  July 8, 2017 3:21am-3:50am EDT

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considering. next week they plan to meet on tuesday to hear from the house armed services committee chairman max thornberry and a ranking member, adam smith. and then on wednesday they're going to -- the rules committee that is -- are going to consider amendments and whether they're in order to be considered on the floor. so what we're -- we've been told to expect is floor consideration on thursday and potentially a vote on friday, although that's in the hands of the house leadership. >> joe gould covers congress for defense news. you can read his reporting at , a look noods meeting
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house in philadelphia. >> each week, we visit museums, archives and tis hotorque place. every day of the year except december 25th. the tour of the united states and around the world take a short boat ride from either lower manhattan or energy to visit the statue of liberty and ellis island. up next, we visit ed the landmak to learn the story behind the gift from vance unveiled in 1886 after 21 years of planning, fund raising and construction. >> welcome to statue of liberty.
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i'm from jacksonville, florida. folks, i have a great job. i've been working with the national parks service since 1999. i've been all over the united states. then i went to jacksonville for caroline national memorial and the outer banks in north carolina. ed ott our nation's first national seashore. cape hatteras. i've been working here for about seven years now. we want protect these special places. we want to repair future swren rations, that's our goal. folks, here we are at the statue of liberty, our nation's most
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famous national monument. a gift from the people of france. given to us in 1886, to commemorate our friendship and democracy. this statue has become much more than a gift of friendship. today, she's the most recognized symbol in the world. freedom, hope, liberty, change. the idea of what the statue represents, it grows, it evolves, it changes. and folk, you're a bag part of what she's become today. she's all over the place. you've seen her on tv. in the movies. but when you look up and see her in person, that's what it's all about. she is still inspiring. we're going to head around the corner and talk about the three gentlemen from france who are the most influential in giving us this wonderful gift.
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now, we're heading behind the statue to our sculpture garden. paying tribute to not only people who have donated money for the restoration of the statue and ellis island, but for these three gentlemen. in the summer of 1865, the united states just survived its first major test of its own democracy. believe it or not, they're very excited about this in france. they're yeerning for their own democracy. there's a man by the name of renee. he's fascinated with american politics. writing books on american history and he is a leader of this movement.
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he hosts a dinner during the summer of 165 and proposes an idea. let's give the people of the united states a gift from us, the people of france, to commemorate our friendship, to commemorate their democracy. luckily for them, there's a young sculpturer at this event and he's well-known in france for building large monuments, but he is a dreamer. he wants to do something really, really big. something to be remembered for. he had been to egypt, seen the pyramids. done research on one of the seven wonders of the world, he was hired to construct a similar project at the mouth of the suez canal. never came to fruition, but he had the idea of a woman holding a torch representing enlightment for the entire world.
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he's able to make his first visit to the united states in the 1870s. he enters the mouth of the harbor and sees this abandon island. built for the war of 1812. there wasn't a going on the island that day, but it was a but say day in the harbor and he had a vision of the statue atop a pedestal where it can be viewed for miles and miles around. it was a vision that never left him, but he continued on his trip. he was here to scout for locations. drum up support, here to raise funds. down in washington, d.c. meet wg the president of the united states. grant. he's over in philadelphia. up in boston. takes a real hard look at philadelphia and boston because
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that's where they fought the statue of liberty was going to be placed. he is able to drum up enough support and they form a union. the franco american union. people of france were going to raise the funds to construct the statue. people of the united states were going to raise the funds to construct the pedestal. one night in his hotel, he made his final drawing. the title of this drawing was liberty enlightening the world. that's the one point i want to make about gus. he always had a grasp of the bigger picture. yes, this is a gift from france to the united states, but it's gus who wants to build a monument of dmemocracy for the entire world. so hold on to that thought, we're going to talk a lot more about agus and how he accomplish third-degree when we get closer
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to the front of the statue, but the third individual and most famous is gustav eiffel of eiffel tower fame. several years prior to the construction of the eiffel tower, gustav designed the interior engineering for the statue of liberty. if you look up into the statue, you're going to see what looks like a mini eiffel tower. this serves as the framework and the framework has iron bars which reach out and connect to the skin. the skin is very thin and is made of copper and it is two pennies put together. along the skin are armature bars. they give the statue the flexibility she needs. she can move and sway due to the wind. expand or contract due to the heat or cold. all that energy transfers from the armature bars through the framework down to the top of the
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pedestal. then the statue of liberty is literally tied down into place. there is 16 metal tepnsion rods big, thick rubber bands which literally tie her down and hold her into place. that energy continues through the pedestal down to 65 feet of bedrock. 56 million pounds of concrete down to 65 feet of bedrock, so this would not happen, but theoretically, if the statue tipped over, the whole island would have to tip over. that's how solid she is built here into liberty island and we've got the proof. she has been here 130 years. she has survived numerous storms throughout the years and certainly, most recently, hurricane sandy. the outside of the island was destroyed. new walkways, new railings, two brand-new docks, ellis island was completely flooded.
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statue of liberty herself, she did fine. little water in the lobby, that was about it. so, folk, what's interesting about gus tov eiffel is that today, he's known for the eiffel tower. a i feel he should be known for his engineering work here at the statue of liberty. not a lot of people know that. so he's amazing. he's had his hand in two of the most famous monuments in the entire world. fol folks, we're going to head to the front. we're going to talk about agus and how he accomplished building thisme monument of democracy fo the entire world. he has a grasp of the bigger picture and the major way he accomplished this was his use of symbolism. he's a classically trained artist. there is symbolism all
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throughout the statue of liberty. we begin with the torch. once again, his name for the statue was liberty enlightening the world. the torch represents enlightment for the world. we come down, she is wearing a crown. she is a goddess of liberty. the goddess of libbertas. this represents the seven seas and seventh continents, so once again, the world. we come down and her left arm with is tablet with the date of july 4th, 1796, the signing of our declaration of independence. the start of our democracy. they hold the arches together. so this is agus telling us it's going to be democracy that is going to hold the world together.
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we come down, she's wearing that robe once again, the roman goddess, at the bottom of her feet with shackles. her right foot is striding forward. she's breaking these shackles, leave iing the old ways behind. striding towards the new ways. this represents liberation. she is moving forward. she's not facing new jersey. she's not facing new york city. she's walking forward. bringing these ideal of freedom, hope, liberty, change, walking forward. and welcoming the rest of the world. the idea of liberty does not standstill. it moves forward. changes. it evolves.
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>> folks, here we are in our museum. the general layout in the construction of the statue and for agus and his mind what he thought was going to be a big statue when he first visited the united states, he realizeded that that everything was much bigger and here, you get an idea. this is a replica of the foot. her giant feet. over here is how they constru constructed the statue of liberty. he had a workshop in paris. over 200 crafts men helped him to construct the statue. they would start with a small plaster model. they could correct wooden forms. there is agus at the bottom.
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paid fine attention to detail. they would lay a thin layer. when they would hammer out the form of the statue in a techniqued rep say. here's starting at one side. here, they're building a plaster model bigger. here's the actual size here. they'll begin arting to build the wooden form and here with are the artists, the crafts men. they don't build any like this anymore. so, yes, it took 21 years from idea to reality and they first constructed the crown and the head and then had the crown and head and the torch. were constructed by 1876. they were brought here to the united states.
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to raise funds. the main body of the statue of liberty was constructeded from 1881 to 1884. so you've got the gustav eiffel. the frame work. they add and construct and add pieces to where you've been. get the full statue in 1884 and she stood there in paris for about a year. until they broke her down, boxed her up and they shipped her over here to the united states. made it here, unloaded the crates, looked up and we had barely started work on the pedestal, so joseph pulitzer, he was the owner of the new york world here in new york city.
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said donate any amount of money and i will print your name in the front page of the newspaper. so, money poured in from all over the united states. elementary school children. raise money through their classes. and we raised up enough money and completeded the pedestal in 1886. for agus, his job was to krawiec the statue, but he was very involved in the construction of the pedestal and richard morris hunt designed the modern day pedestal we see today. there were several different designs. he chose richard morris hunt. all the granite came from connecticut. this is exactly how they did it. immigrants were swinging around on rope swings. putting the pieces together.
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they vary in sizes. took 21 years from our idea to reality. in october of 1886. a huge dedication ceremony is planned. houf, one gender was not invited. women were not invited. the franco american union stated that hey, we cannot guarantee their safety. that was a bunch of hogwash. what they were really saying is that they did not want the statue of liberty to be associated with the woman's suffrage movement, so yes, a group of women here in new york city are very angry. they rent a boat, they circle the island, they shout in
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protest, how can you build this woman to represent freedom and liberty and we don't even have the right to vote. if she were to come alive and walk down from that pedestal, she would not even be allowed on the island. so our first protest here on the grounds of the statue of liberty on day one, october 28th, 1886. it was another 34 years until women were granted the right to vote. the 19th amendment in 1920. folk, we've had many protests throughout the years. most of these protests have been very peaceful. some of them not so peaceful. tlsz always been a security issue here at the statue of liberty even before 9/11. folk, i don't know the stories of all the protests, but there's one thing that ties them together. if you were to stage a protest here anywhere throughout the world and you build a replica on
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the statue of liberty, which has been done many times through sty row foam, aluminum foil, rocks and sticks, you don't need to hang banners, shout slogans. people know exactly what you want. you want freedoms, liberty, you want change. there's a wonderful depiction of the ceremony that took place in 1886. 10,000 people were invited and on the island. people from all over the world came to witness the statue of liberty. in the beginning, wow, there's this statue from france, let's go see it. amazing, america's growing. t getting support from all over the world. had to make you more prouder to what you were doing. whether you were recently
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immigrating and coming to america, but you can tell, america was starting to grow. she's the most recognized symbol in the entire world. it was during the early 1900s, during the immigration movement for those overcrowded boats, they sailed for two to three weeks at a time. what's the first thing they saw that told them they made it to the united states of america? it was of course the statue of liberty. am la woet her sonnet, give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free. that is an emblem for the pursuit of the american dream. here's a rep lica of the statue face. the face is based on that of his mother.
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right behind here. two pennies put together. very thin. built to move and sway due to the winds. they expand or contract due to the heat or cold. originally, she was solid copper. just like the rest of the statue. we decided to cut into the torch. in an effort to be ill luminous and night. unfortunately, we just poked a bunch of holes in it and she
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leaked water feor ab about 100 years. the sculptor said hey, it's your statue, but please, don't cut into it, don't use lightbulbs, just guild it somehow, so 100 years later, we finally listen to him. we had a complete restlation from 1984 to 1986. scaffolding covered the tat chew. we replaced those iron bars and today, they are stainless steel. lee iaococa led the movement and raised over $500 million to restore the statue of liberty and the good portion went to the restoration of ellis island and ellis island opened up in 1990. the torch is more like a original design. it was solid copper lined with a little l thin lair of gold. when the statue was first completed and dedicated, the lighthouse bore was in control of the operation in 2886 and
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1902, the war department took over. in 1933, the statue of liberty was added to the national parks service system and the national parks service has been the m managing operation of the statue of liberty since then. trz our goal is to connect people i've worked at replica forts, but here, it's easy. rangers pointing to thicks, all you have to do is point at this wonderful work of art. it's an emotional experience for
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a lot of people. whether they have a family who immigrated through ellis island. people correct to this place very easily. an amazing exexperience. during the early 1900s, during the immigration movement with those overcrowded boats, when they sailed into the harbor and saw the statue of liberty, she was an emblem for the american dream. they had made it to america. so for folks today, they're here, they're either visiting and live here, it's you still get that same feel., a few months in advance for a reservation to the crown. two to three weeks in advance to visit the top of the pedestal,
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but in general, you're going to make it to lower manhattan, go through a screening process and you can board the boats in new york at battery park. off great experience, when you leave from new york b and board the boat here at the statue, your next stop will be ellis island you can spend a good half day if not a whole day visiting these two great national monuments. sfat chew of liberty and ellis. it was his dream to become rich and famous. but if herp alive today, i think he would be very proud. although he is not famous, his work of art certainly is.
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>> you can view this and all other american art facts programs at select the tab and browse recent programs. the american history tv programs schedule is also available on the right side of the page. >> this weekend on cspan 3. saturday at 8:00 p.m. eastern on lectures in history. university of washington professor compares the 1950s pets and beat nicks to the hip pis of the 1960s! the beats were disparaging veterans of the great depression and the atomic age. the hippies were the optimistic children of the baby boom generation. >> 30 years ago, oliver north appeared before the house and
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senate committees investigating the iran contra affair. >> the effort to conduct these covert operations was made in such a way that our adversaries would not have knowledged it. sunday at noon, historians, ron paul, explore the consequences of america's post world war ii security state. >> people who like authoritaria authoritarianism, tell people what to do, they know it's illegal for people to go into your house and take what themt, fortunately, that still exists. you can't personally take from
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people and hurt people. it happens, but most people recognize you can't, but it's not illegal for the government to do it. >> for our schedule, go to >> american history tv continues with more american artie tacts. coming up next, a tour of union station in washington, d.c. and later, a look inside tudor place. the home of martha washington's granddaughter. >> each week, we take you to museums and historic places to learn about american history. locateded in washington, d.c. near the u.s. capital. it opened in 190 p. at the time, it was one of the largest train stations in the world. we toured the building with the corporation to lea a


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